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away the sins of the world. She baptizes him into Christ for the remission of his sins, and for the spiritual sustenance wherewith she feeds him in the Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood. She bids him ever follow Christ's perfect example. She calls him to join in the perpetual Worship, the Eucharistic Sacrifice of Praise and Thanksgiving; and so she fits him for that sublime Worship which St. John saw in beatific vision. This is the doctrine of our own branch of the Church. This is the doctrine of the Primitive Church. All that is truly subjective in the Christian life and character; all that can address a living consciousness, and guide and strengthen the individual conscience, and train and sanctify the intellect and heart, and develop the graces and virtues of the Christian character, is secured; while all that Christ hath ordained which is positive and objective, and suited to our two-fold nature, is received and observed.

The Church of Rome, however, steps in between her child and the Cross. She will not, dare not, let him look, with a personal faith, upon the bleeding, suffering, dying Saviour. She claims herself to offer Christ afresh on the Cross, as a propitiatory Sacrifice for the sins of the quick and the dead. She bids her child have faith in her, ever repeating, supplementing, perpetuating, Christ's "finished" work. She annihilates and ignores the individuality and authority of consciousness and conscience. She meets their remonstrances with curses and threats. And then, she has her scale of prices for all this; and so, with her chaffering of souls, she fills her exchequer, while she holds her child spell-bound to herself, by playing upon his fears and his imagination, with her sceptre and her wand, her power and her sorcery. What there is in all this to elevate Humanity, what there is of the power, and beauty, and symmetry of the Christian life, let her past and present record show, in all the nations where the experiment has been fairly and fully made.

So intense has been the abhorrence of this Romish error, so deep the conviction that it vitiates Christianity itself, at its most vital point, for around the Cross the whole Gospel centres, as the grand luminous fountain of Life and Light,—that multi

tudes of modern Christians, and not a few Churchmen, have hesitated to employ the terms, Priest, Altar and Sacrifice; except in connection with Him, "the Lamb of God Who takest away the sins of the world." Yet many of the noblest and truest of the English Reformers have felt the importance of the principle involved, and have spoken and written accordingly; and not a few of the more moderate of our own Church, like the late Bishop Henshaw, have contended earnestly for the great truth, of a Priesthood, an Altar and a Sacrifice, in the Church of Christ.*

The Church should not, because of the Romish corruption and perversion of a doctrine, give up the doctrine itself, and so, in her revulsion from Rome, rush to an extreme where she can no longer be in harmony with the Church in its purest days, nor be such a Church as the human heart instinctively craves. This would be folly and madness. Let her rather cherish a doctrine which hallows and clothes her Worship with such sublime significance, making it an image of the Worship of the Heavenly Hosts, and which such multitudes of the saintliest on earth have found to be a doctrine of unspeakable comfort and blessing. Let a sound sentiment pervade the Church on this subject, and we shall no longer be compelled to witness such a shameful profanation of sacred things, as now too often exists; where the holy vessels are but a symbol of stinginess and slovenliness; and the Holy Table is made a convenient receptacle for hats and umbrellas, and secular books and newspapers, and is appropriated to other equally unhallowed and disgraceful uses.

*Bishop White's objection to the terms Priest, Altar, and Sacrifice, in the Christian Church, is based upon the assumption that the Greek word voia Thusia, by which the Seventy translated the Hebrew word signifying Sacrifice, always denotes an animal, bloody, propitiatory Sacrifice. His whole argument hinges upon this point. Yet in this, he is certainly mistaken; a mistake which he subsequently frankly admitted. See Dr. Wilson's Memoirs of Bishop White, p. 378. In both the Septuagint, and in the writings of the New Testament, the word is often used to denote Unbloody Sacrifices. Even Bishop White acknowledges that the Sacrament is a Commemoration of an Atonement made once for all; that there is an "Oblation in that Ordinance;" "the Bread and Wine of the Eucharist are an appointed Memorial of the Body and Blood of Christ,"" in which we offer them to the Father as typical of His Blessed Son's Body and Blood." He here yields everything which we claim.

It is not to be forgotten, however, that this fatal error, this distinguishing feature of Romish corruption, this change of a Commemorative Sacrifice and a Sacrament into the Expiatory and Atoning Sacrifice of the Cross, is one of those points of Doctrine where our late perverts to Rome first gave clear token of their apostacy. Newman, and Ives, and that whole class of men, at an early period in their downfall, began to use language concerning the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and especially the REAL PRESENCE, which was un-Scriptural, anti-Primitive, and essentially Romish. The two Systems, of Doctrine, and of Worship based upon that Doctrine, are thoroughly antagonistic, and men cannot long remain in one System, while they yet hold all that is characteristic and distinctive in the other.

In this connection it should be noted, that some of the Ultra-Ritualists of the English Church, at the present day, have most certainly given up the Catholic view of the Eucharist, in exchange for the Romish interpretation. As the writings of this class of men are likely enough to exert some influence in the American Church, this feature of modern ultraism is worth noting. Thus in the Directorium Anglicanum, noticed in our last Number, we find the nature of the Holy Eucharist thus defined :

"Even the Calvinist will concede the Liturgy to be an Act, and not a bare form of Prayer. But the Catholic priest, who knows that this action is done in the Person of Christ, who knows his office to be to perpetuate on the altars of the Church Militant on earth the same Sacrifice which the Great High Priest consummated once on the Cross, and perpetuates, not repeats, before the mercy-seat in Heaven, will reverently handle such tremendous mysteries, will be greatly careful that no dishonor be thoughlessly done unto His Lord, Who vouchsafes to be present on our altars."

*We do not, of course, discuss now the doctrine of the Real Presence. Let it suffice to say, that both the two opposite errors, the Romish, which leads to superstition, and the Zwinglian, which leads to irreverent contempt, sprung from an attempt to define what has never been revealed, the nature of that Presence. Both these definitions destroy the nature of the Sacrament. The Early Church, before the spirit of philosophy crept in, simply believed that to the faithful are given, and by them are received, the Body and Blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper. With this they were content. Our blessed Lord, when He was charged with giving "His flesh to Eat," as He did not in the slightest degree qualify His language, but, rather intensified it, so neither did He explain it. (St. John, vi. 51-8.) Hence, all such expressions as "objective" Presence, are to be avoided, as unauthorized, and tending to evil.

A late writer in the Union Review, speaks of


"The Sacrifice of Calvary, perpetuated sacramentally in the Sacrifice of the altar." * "The leading minds in our midst have been led to discern the true nature of Catholic worship, for the first time for three hundred years; the absolute necessity, if we would have a communicant people, of encouraging all from early childhood to worship the Lamb in His redeeming love, to go with their Lord to Calvary, to see Him lifted up in the sanctuary to receive their adoring homage." First and foremost, the doctrine of the Perpetual Sacrifice must be proclaimed."

* 64

Again :

"The Ritual of Heaven is objective, and the principal worship of the Church is equally so, by reason of its being identical with the Normal and Apocalyptic ritual, and thus containing a great action, even the perpetuation of the Sacrifice made upon the Cross, in an unbloody manner on the altar."

A little work has lately been published in London, by this class of men, entitled, "A Manual of Devotions and Directions for Members of the Church of England, when attending the Service of the Divine Liturgy without Communicating." It is a curious index of doctrinal views. Much of the Ceremonialism which it recognizes and describes, such as processions, frequent bowings, and genuflections, and crossings, is in close harmony with the Romish, but not with the truly Catholic Church. In "the prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church militant," when the Priest comes to the words, "We also bless Thy holy name for all persons departed this life," etc., the Priest makes a pause, during the interval of which, the manual directs the young worshipper to say, "Grant them Thine eternal rest, O Lord, especially those departed this life for whom my prayers are desired." But this is not the point now before us. At the Prayer of Consecration of the Elements, the following words of devotion are put into the mouths of the worshippers :

"And now, O Jesus, Thou art really coming to visit us. Thou art really coming to thy Altar. Thou art really going to be offered up in Sacrifice to the Father. Now, O my soul, see how the heavens are opening, how the angels of God are descending upon our, Altar, and surrounding it. See how they are bending and prostrating themselves before it; for they know that Jesus is about to come upon our Altar, and make it His throne. Eternal Father, we offer unto Thee this Al

mighty, Immaculate, and Adorable Sacrifice. Behold the Almighty Victim lying there."

At the conclusion of the ceremony, the worshipper finally exclaims.

"All is over. The Sacrifice of the Lamb is complete. We are redeemed to God, through His blood. Alleluia," etc.

No one can deny, in studying carefully this little Manual, that according to these men, the Priest does, really and truly, offer up the Sacrifice of the Mass, in the literal Romish sense of that term.

To show the extent to which Ceremonialism is carried, we give an account of the manner in which the Order of St. Benedict celebrated last Good Friday :


"The Chapel was hung with black, and all daylight was carefully excluded, but two large candles glimmered before the altar. After a few seconds, however, it was apparent that a procession was advancing, at a snail's pace, through the gloom, and threading its way carefully, through a rather numerous and closely-packed congregation, principally of the poorer class. Brother Ignatius wore a cloak of gold vestment on his back, while his head was covered with the cowl of the order. The Rev. G. J. Ouseley closed the procession, wearing a vestment of black, with a large white cross on the back. The monks, pure and simple, wore only their ordinary black dresses and cowls. Brother Ignatius had carried in the procession what appeared to be a small coffin, draped with black, and surrounded by a crown of thorns."

"At the words, 'It is finished,' and He bowed His head and gave up the ghost,' an attempt was made to portray the lightning and thunder which the Scripture narratives record to have attended the real event. Brother Ignatius, Mr. Ouseley, all the monks, and most of the congregation, prostrated themselves for a few seconds. Brother Ignatius then completed the reading, or rather the singing of the gospel, after which, various collects or prayers followed, each being preceded by the formula, 'Let us pray,' Let us kneel down,' 'Let us rise up again,' the effect being that Brother Ignatius, Mr. Ouseley, the monks, and the faithful, were continually rising and falling, and falling and rising, although they were standing when the prayers were read." "The crape was then further removed, the crucifix again held aloft, and the words, 'Behold the wood of the cross,' repeated with the same response. Then the crape was entirely removed, and the figure of the Saviour was exposed, Mr. Ouseley saying, Behold the wood of the holy cross, on which hung the salvation of the world' The response having been sung, the crucifix was lowered to the ground, and Brother Ignatius, creeping towards it, reverentially kissed it. Mr. Ouseley,


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