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fast among the intellectual of all those Sects who do not use Liturgical Services.

(27) "Only-begotten Son." This is the word in the Greek original of the Apostles' Creed, Monogenes. The ordinary Latin Version has it 'unicus,' 'only,' instead of 'unigenitus,' the Latin of 'Monogenes.' And this the Prayer Book Version follows. We prefer the original, as being the same word as in the Nicene Creed, and as bringing out on the face of the Apostles' Creed, that which really is therein, the great doctrine of the Eternal Generation of the Son, and thus avoiding all doctrinal ambiguity and indistinctness on this cardinal point.

(28) "Conceived of the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary." There is here, in the original, the same preposition, repeated twice. In our version, in the first case, it is translated 'by,' in the second, 'of.' This is no gain, certainly, in clearness of sense, or distinctness of meaning. We see no need of varying from the original.

(29) "He descended into Hades." We have occasion for almost a volume here. The first remark we shall make, is, that in translating the Scriptures, it is sometimes necessary to transfer the original word. This is done, for instance, in the New Testament, in words, Baptism, Presbyter, Apostle. It is not done in the words, Sin, Saviour, Gospel. The word 'Hades,' in the Greek Testament, occurs in twelve places. It is also the word in the original Greek of the Apostles' Creed. We think that it should have been transferred, not attempted to be translated. Hadès, (pronounced in two syllables,) means the Unseen World, the "State" or 'place' of 'departed' souls.

The first confusion that was made in this Article, was by the Latin translation, 'inferi.' This is no distinct adequate rendering; it means simply those below,' a vague heathen phrase for the infernal regions, or those who dwelt there, as if they were beneath or underground. Because of this translation, the most varying and confused interpretations of the doctrine will be found among the Latins, and those whose theology is derived from them.

The next confusion will English translation 'Hell.'


be found to have its cause in our Now this word 'Hell' has, in Eng

lish, two separate meanings. The first and predominant one is, the place of final punishment for the Devil and his angels, and the wicked, after the day of Judgment. The second is, the common receptacle of disembodied souls until the day of Judgment. Two different things are thus expressed by one word. Hence also comes great confusion of thought, and many misapprehensions.

This seems to be caused, in some measure, by the fact that the word Hell, in English, would seem to have two different roots and ideas, one Scandinavian and the other German. The first seems to come from 'Hela,' the Scandinavian goddess who presided over the realm in which recreants were punished. And 'Hell,' in this sense, seems to mean the realm of punishment. The second root would seem to be the German, Hölle, and to have an analogy with the English word 'Hollow,' a great interior space, meaning the hollow or Under-world, the vacant regions of the dead. To this some allusion is made in Milton :

"He cried so loud, that all the Hollow deep
Of Hell resounded."

Now, any one that chooses may see, in the forty pages of Pearson on this Article, all the confused interpretations which the Latin and the English verbal ambiguities have made, from the favorite middle-age idea, that the human soul of Christ actually descended into the Hell of Satan and the Damned, to fight and conquer the infernal Hosts; and the notion of Calvin, that in the Hell, the soul of our blessed Lord suffered all the tortures of the Damned,* down to the poor evasion of

*We suppose that our readers will hardly believe that any Christian, with the New Testament in his hands, could advocate such a horrible doctrine as this is. Yet, here it is, in Calvin's own words. We translate from the original Latin of the Institutions, Tholuck's edition, Berlin: 1846. The volume is now before us. Book II. Chapter xvi., § 10. "There is nothing strange in its being said, that He descended into Hell; since he must have thoroughly endured (pertulerit) that death which was inflicted upon wicked sinners (sceleratis) by an angry God." We suppose he means the second death: The same is expressed by him, presently, in another phrase. "He paid a more exceeding price, inasmuch as he must have thoroughly endured (pertulerit) in his soul the dreadful tortures (diros cruciatus) of a damned and lost human being." (Damnati ac perditi hominis.)


interpreting the words, after some Jewish rabbins, the Grave.'

But leaving the Latin and the English, and recurring to Holy Writ in the original Greek and Hebrew, there is no ambiguity or uncertainty of meaning in any way. In the Hebrew of the Old Testament, these are two words, with two distinct and separate senses. In the Septuagint Greek, and also in the New Testament, there are these two words also, and two senses; one 'Gehenna,' the place of penal torment, the other, 'Hades,' the place of departed spirits. We have gone over all the passages in the original of the Old Testament and in the New, wherein the Hebrew words, or their corresponding Greek, occur; and there is no possible ambiguity in them in word or idea. Two distinct words there are, and two distinct ideas, the Hell of the damned, and Hades, the place of departed souls. Only in the Latin and the English translation, does the confusion occur, or is it possible. On the face of the originals lies the term Hades in Greek, 'Scheol' in Hebrew, signifying the place of Departed Spirits, the one adequate sense which the penetrating critical genius of Bishop Horsely fixed, and to which our American Church is determined, by the Rubric we have added to the Creed. In fact, over the New Testament, wherever it occurs, the word Hades should be transferred, not translated. The same word also should be employed in every place in our Old Testament Version wherein Scheol occurs in the original; while the English word 'Hell' should be limited in its meaning and use to its ordinary sense of the place of final and eternal punishment after the day of Judgment.

For these reasons, we have transferred the word Hades in the Apostles' Creed. And we believe that the same should be done and will be done in the revision of the English Version, by the Church in this country, which is inevitably coming. We give one example. In the Creed it is, 'He descended into Hades.' In the speech of St. Peter to the Jews concerning Christ, he quotes the Old Testament, "David speaketh concerning Him. Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt Thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. He (David) seeing 'this before, spake of the Resurrection of



Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, neither did His flesh see corruption; this Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we are witnesses." (Acts ii. 25, 27, 31, 32.) This one exemplification will show the value of transferring the word 'Hades' in the Creed and the Scriptures, instead of attempting to translate it.

In fact, it then would require only the explication, once for all, of one Scriptural term, taken from the original Greek of the New Testament, as the word Baptism is. And after that there would be no further difficulty. Instead of this, at the present time, every Clergyman of the Church has repeatedly cast upon him, personally, the solution of a multitude of doubts, misconceptions, ambiguities, and prejudices, all of which have their source and origin, not in the Scriptures at all, or in the Creed, but solely in our English Version, and the ambiguity it creates, by translating two distinct words, having two distinct ideas, by a single one.

After writing the above, we were very happy to find that Archbishop Trench agrees with us in our opinion, that to get rid of the confusion, the word 'Hades' should be transferred, not translated. "It is much to be regretted," he says, "that 'Hades' has never been thoroughly naturalized among us. The language wants the word, and on it the true solution of the difficulty ought to be found."*

(30). "He rose." It will be perceived that here the Creed of the American Prayer Book varies from the English. They have 'He rose again.' We simply, 'He rose.' 'He rose again' would signify He rose 'once more,' or 'the second time.' Our American revisers saw the incongruity of this rendering, and had the sense and courage to correct it in this place of the Apostles' Creed. And yet, strange to say, they let it stand 'rose again' in the Nicene Creed.

In fact, this awkward pleonasm is due to the vagueness and poverty of the Latin language. It has no particle corresponding to the Greek 'ana' in composition. "Istemi' is 'to stand,' 'anistemi''to upstand,' coupled with a subtle sense of reversal of former action, of renewal and restoration. He 'stood up'

* Trench on Bible Revision, p. 86. Am. Ed.

from the dead, as He had laid down among the dead, His life being restored, as it had been taken away, and He becoming as He was before. The Latin has no such subtle and clear significancy of particles. It therefore adds the particle 're' to 'surrexit,' and the English Creed translates it 'rose again.' It will be seen that we make no change here, but simply note and justify the change already made in the American Prayer Book. We will merely add, that in our English Version of the New Testament, the word is more often without the awkward and superfluous pleonasm again,' than it is with it. What the rising from the dead should mean.' (Mark 9 and 10.) 'If so be the dead rise not.' (1 Cor. 15 and 15.) So that the New Testament is quite as much with our correct translation as it is with the inexact and vague translation of the English Creed. (31) He is coming." The Latin Version is venturus,' the English 'He shall come.' We give the sense of the Greek original of the Apostles' Creed, and refer, for a vindication of its superior force, to the Note on the same word in the Creed of Nicea.





(32) "The Resurrection of the Flesh." In the Greek of the Apostles' Creed, and also in the Latin Version of the same, it is the resurrection of the flesh.' In one place also in our own Prayer Book, in the Version of the Creed used in the visitation of the sick; as also in all the Baptismal Services of the English Church, three in number, it is the same, "dost thou believe in the resurrection of the flesh?" We think that we should have the word of the Creed translated into the corresponding English word. More especially as there is in the United States a whole mass of persons who have taken up the Platonic idea of a spiritual body, made of fiery and luminous ether, as the 'vehicle or chariot of the soul;' and also have united with this another pagan notion, that 'the flesh' is the cause of all sinfulness in man, by its union with the soul d ring this life. The flesh, they say, at death, drops from the soul, and then it stands at once perfect, with its ethereal body, 'the moment of death being thus the moment of the resurrection.' And the 'flesh' perishes forever.

Of course, such a theory, on the face of it, is a denial of the

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