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it will appear clearly to whom each event must be ascribed.


Having, then, made it clear to all what is the righteous and just vote to give, it seems incumbent upon me, however little given to invective my nature may be, in consequence of the slanders which Eschines has ventednot indeed like him to bring forward a multitude of falsehoods-but to state what is most necessary to be known respecting him, and to show what he is, and from what sort of race sprung, who is so prone to evil speaking, and who carps at some of my expressions, after himself saying such things as no decent person would have dared to utter. For if Æacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos, were my accuser instead of this wordmonger, this hack of the courts, this pestilent scribe, I don't much think they would have spoken, nor should we have heard them delivering themselves like ranting stageplayers "O Earth! O Sun! O Virtue!" and so forth; and then invoking, "Intellect and Education, whereby Right and Wrong are distinguished," as we just now heard him declaiming. Why, what had ever you or yours-you abomination-to do with Virtue, or what discrimination of Right and Wrong? Whence did you get it? or how attain to anything so respectable? How should you be permitted to name the name of Education, which they who are really well-educated never allude to -nay, blush if another so much as mentions it? But those who, like you, are without it, make pretence to it, from sheer want of sense, till they sicken their hearers while they speak, without at all making their own education appear.

The matter stands thus: I am in possession of many proofs that he was in those times employed in serving the enemy and calumniating me. All the other things which he clandestinely did, the country might possibly have been able to bear. But one thing, men of Athens, he worked out besides, which gave the finishing stroke to all the rest-one on which he bestowed a great part of his speech, dwelling upon the decrees of the Locrian Amphissians, to pervert the whole truth.

But it will not do. How should it? Quite the reverse. Never will you be able to expiate that passage of your life, speak you ever so long!

But here in your presence, Athenians, I invoke all the heavenly powers which have the Attic regions under their protection; and the Pythian Apollo-the hereditary deity of this state, I supplicate them all, if I now am speaking the truth before you-if I constantly spoke out before the people when I perceived this infamous. man attempting the wicked act (for I was aware of it— I was quickly aware of it) then that they would vouchsafe me their favor and protection. But if, through personal enmity, or mere contentiousness of spirit, I falsely press this charge, may they bereave me of every blessing.

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If to you alone of all others, Æschines, the future had been revealed at the time of our public deliberations on these matters, you were bound to disclose it. If you did not foresee it, you were responsible for being as ignorant as the rest of us. How dare you then accuse me on this score than I am to accuse you? So much better a citizen was I then than you, in the circumstances of which I am speaking, that I devoted myself to what all men deemed the best interests of the State, shrinking from no personal danger-nor so much as throwing away a thought upon it-while you gave no better advice-(if you had, mine would not have been followed) nor did you lend your aid in executing mine; but whatever the meanest and most disaffected person could do, that you are found throughout these transactions to have done. You prove this by all the life you lead, and all the things you do, and all the measures you propound, and all the measures you do not propound. Is there anything in agitation for the interests of the country: Eschines is mute. Does anything go wrong forth comes Eschines; as old fractures and sprains annoy us afresh, the moment the body is stricken by disease.


Eschines-impeaching my whole conduct, and bidding you hold me cheap, as the cause of the country's

alarms and perils, would fain strip me of the credit to this moment, and thus deprive you of the glory ever after. For if you condemn Ctesiphon on account of my policy having been wrong, you will be proved to have yourselves done wrong, instead of merely suffering under the dispensations of fortune. But it is not true. It is not true that you have done wrong, men of Athens, in fighting the battle of all Greece for her freedom and salvation. No! By your forefathers, who for that. cause rushed upon destruction at Marathon, and by those who stood in battle array at Platæa, and those who fought the sea-fight at Salamis, and by the warriors. of Artemisium, and by all the others who now repose in the sepulchres of the nation-gallant men, and to all of whom, Æschines, the State decreed a public funeral, deeming that they too had earned such honors-not those only who had combated fortunately, and had come off victorious and with strict justice-for the duty of the brave had been done by all-but what fortune Providence bestows on each, that they had shared. And such-execrable pedagogue-such being the case


is it that you would fain strip me of the respect and love of those very countrymen, and for this purpose dwell upon the trophies and battles, and the great deeds. of old, with what title of which has this trial the least connection? And when I came forward-thou thirdrate actor to counsel the State touching her claim of sovereignty, with what sentiments did it become me to be inspired on mounting this bema? Should I have spoken things unworthy of these proud recollections? Then would I have deserved to die. For yourselves, Athenians, ought not to hear private and public causes in the same temper of mind; but as the daily transactions of life should be judged strictly, and according to the rules and practices of society, so should measures of State be considered with a view to the dignity of our ancestors; and each of you, in coming to decide upon State prosecutions, should, together with the staff and badge of justice, take upon himself the impression of the country's greatness, if you feel that you should act up to those worthy recollections,


Nor yet, will you find that our very defeat befell the country in any wise through my policy. Consider only, Athenians: Never from any embassy upon which you sent me did I come off worsted by Philip's ambassadors: not from Thessaly, not from Ambracia, not from Illyria, not from the Thracian kings, not from the Byzantines, nor from any other quarter whatever; nor, finally, of late, from Thebes. But wheresoever his negotiators were overcome in debate, thither he marched, and carried the day by his arms. Do you, Æschines, require this of me, and are you not ashamed-at the moment you are upbraiding me for weakness, to require that I should defy him single-handed, and by force of words alone? For what other weapons had I? Certainly not the lives of men, nor the fortunes of warriors, nor the military operations of which you are so blundering as to demand an account at my hands.

But whatever a minister can be accountable for, make of that the strictest scrutiny, and I do not object. What, then, falls within this description? To decry events in their first beginnings, to cast his look forward, and to warn others of their approach: all this I have done. Then to confine within the narrowest bounds all delays and backwardness and ignorance and contentiousnessfaults which are inherent and unavoidable in all states; and, on the other hand, to promote unanimity, and friendly dispositions, and zeal in the performance of public duty-and all these things I likewise did; nor can any man point out any of them that, so far as depended on me, was left undone.

If, then, it should be asked by what means Philip for the most part succeeded in his operations, every one would answer, " By his army, by his largesses, by corrupting those at the head of affairs." Well, then, I neither had armies, nor did I command them; and therefore the argument respecting military operations cannot touch me. Nay, in so far as I was inaccessible to his bribes, there I conquered Philip! For, as he who buys up any one overcomes him who has received

the price and sold himself, as he who will not take the money, nor consent to be bribed, has conquered the bidder. Thus, as far as I am concerned, this country stands unconquered. These, and such as these-besides many others-are the grounds which I furnished in justification of Ctesiphon's Decree in my favor.


This repair of the walls and the fosses which you revile, I deem to merit favor and commendation wherefore should I not? Yet, I certainly place this far below my administration of public affairs. For I have not fortified Athens with stone walls and tiled roofs: no, not I! Neither is it on deeds like these that I plume myself. But would you justly estimate my outworks, you will find armaments, and cities, and settlements, and harbors, and fleets, and cavalry, and armies to defend us. These are the defences that I drew around Attica, as far as human prudence could defend her; and with such outworks as these I fortified the country at large not the mere circuit of the arsenal and city.

Nor was it I that succumbed to Philip's policy and his arms very far otherwise! but the captains and forces of your allies yielded to his fortune. What are the proofs of it? They are manifest and plain, and you shall see them. For what was the part of a patriotic citizen? What the part of him who would serve his country with all earnestness, and zeal, and honesty of purpose? Was it not to cover Attica-on the seaboard with Euboea, inland with Boeotia, on the Peloponnesus with the adjoining territories? Was it not to provide for making corn-trade secure, that every coast our ships sailed along, till they reached the Piræus, might be friendly to us? Was it not to save some points of our dominion-such as Preconnesus, the Chersonese, Tenedos-by dispatching succors, and making the necessary statements, and proposing the fit decrees? Was it not to secure from the first the co-operation and alliance of other states? Was it not to wrest from the enemy his principal forces? Was it not to supply what this country most wanted? Then all these things were effected

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