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THE * COMMON * BRANCHES.

6

While various gradings and different methods create demands for numerous text-books, the following selection is presented

as an equipment containing all the essentials for “ The Common Branches :"
READING—Swinton's Series of Readers. Five books.
SPELLING—Swinton's Word Book of Spelling. One book, with one of Mason's Blanks for Written Spelling.
ARITHMETIC-Fish's Series. Two books.
GEOGRAPHY—Swinton's Series. Two books.
GRAMMAR—Well's Shorter Course. One book.
HISTORY-Swinton's Condensed United States. One book.

PENMANSHIP-Spencerian Copy Books. Series.
Write to us for a Circular showing how this Fresh, Bright, Thorough, and Popular Series may be introduced into your School at

Merely Nominal Prices.

THE BEST BOOKS, THE FEWEST IN THE SERIES, AT THE LEAST EXPENSED

SELECTED BOOKS FROM AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SERIES Calkin's Reading Cards, Primary.

Spencer's New Copy Books.
Calkin's From Black-board to Books.

White's Industrial Drawing:
Sheldon's Readers.

Standard Drawing Books
Standard Supplementary Readers.

Robinson's Arithmetics.
The Geographical Reader.

Kerl's Grammars.
Cathcart's Literary Reader.

Guyot's Physical Geography.
Manson's Blanks for Written Speiling.

Guyot's Wall Maps.
Fisher's Outlines of Universal History.

Swinton's Primary Itistory U.S.
Swinton's Condensed History U. S.

Swinton's Outlines of World's History. Bryant and Stratton's Book-keeping.

Loomis's Progressive Music Series.
Smith's Primer of Physiology and Hygiene.

Smith's Elementary Physiology azd Hygiene.
OUR DESCRIPTIVE LIST SENT ON REQUEST.

IVISON, BLAKEMAN & CO., Publishers,

. 149 Wabash Avenue, Chicago.

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. General Agent for the Southwestern States, TIMOTHY MORONEY, 136 Gravier Street, New Orleans, La.

.

Valuable New Helps for Teachers. BLACKBOARDS

to manly grows sleek.

Our “ MOUNTED GOSSAMER" BLACKMERRY SONGS.

BOARD is the newest and best thing in that By S. C. Hanson, a puoblic school teacher for years, and, therefore, familiar with the wants line. and needs of the school-rom, and author of many successful musical publications, including Following are a few of our claims for it: Merry Melodies, price 15 ents, of which over 10,000 copies were sold last year. Merry Songs contains all the elements of popularity of Merry Melodies. It contains nearly 104 pages of as

1. It has a smooth, hard surface, and never sweet melodies as were ever written, and will stir the heart of many a “ bad boy actions. You cannot afford to be without this new song book. It is suitable for all grades. It

2. It erases cleaner and easier than any other contains words and music written in both staffs, and money invested in it by you or your pupils

board, and is practically DUSTLESS. is well spent. Price, 350, or $3 per doz., prepaid. Money refunded if book is not satisfactory.

3. It is warranted (with ordinary care) for BLACKBOARD STENCILS.--I was the first publisher to offer these now indispensable

two year's constant use, without recoating. articles for every school-room. I have a fine list of large, correctly drawn, well-perforated, and

4. Teachers can own their own boards and easily transferred subjects; none better. Price, 48c per dozen, assorted designs. See large cat

remove them. It is firmly attachable to the

wall. It does not HANG. alogue for names and numbers. HULL'S DRAWING BOOK.-Note the following points: Complete Geometric Defi

5. It is made to order in any length to fill nitions; all the plain figures, how to draw them and cut from paper; hundreds of designs or

given spaces--all ready to put up.

A miniature board sent free as a sample, pictures in free-hand, every one described; all the solid forms, and how to cut, fold, and paste

upon

which you may prove these claims. paper to make them. Price, 300 THE FLAG DRILL.-For exhibitions, social entertainments, and all patriotic occa

From $3 to $5 will outfit any ordinary school sions. Easy to learn. Full directions given. Price, 25c. SKELETON COMPOSITIONS-Or, Outlines for Compositions. Over 100 outlines

Write for sample and terms. for composition work. These outlines or schemes have been arranged to help pupils in getting

Agents wanted. at the salient points of any given article or subject. They embrace topics on almost every sub- Address, the Texas School of Elocution and ject available for composition writing. Their use will induce all to write more fully on any Oratory, Fort Worth, Texas. topic. Price, 200.

PRIMARY NUMBER CARDS.—250 cards, printed on both sides, with numerals and signs, each 34 inch square; in four colors, red, yellow, blue, and green; 500 characters in all, Excellent for busy work. Price, 15c.

CATALOGUES.- My 60-page catalogue is a necessity to every wide-awake-ever-on-thelookout-for-all-the-help-that-he-can-get teacher, because I carry the largest stock of Teachers' Helps, Method Books, Speakers, Reward and Report Cards, Blackboard Stencils, School-room

Write for illustrated Catalogue to Pictures and Engravings, School Singing Books, Method Books, Devices, and other purely ped. agogical prerequisites of any house in this country. They are fully described in my large cata

Wah (Dorren, logue, which is sent free on request. All goods pertaining to school-room work kept in stock,

no Nal Block When in need of any thing to assist you in your work, do not forget to address

Nashvile. Tu.

room.

ulpits, Pews, Church :

School Furnitare

A. FLANAGAN, 115 Wabash Ave., Chicago. The Journal is $1 Per Year.

VOLUME VIII.

NASHVILLE, TENN., MARCH, 1890.

No. 1.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY FELIX ELLARKA.

a

by law.

AN ENGLISHMAN'S VIEW OF THE GERMAN Germany till the fourteenth year of age, and only in excepSCHOOLS.

tional cases are pupils permitted to leave school at thirteen.

“But that is not all. The Germans develop their system

of evening or continuation schools (post-graduate course) rap“One fact is apparent to every attentive observer, it is that idly, and thus virtually add two or three years to the obligaa good school education is quite general in this country," tory course. In Saxony the boys must, after leaving the pubsays Professor Samuel Smith in a letter to the London Times, lic elementary schools, attend the evening schools for a certain written in Germany, which he visited for the purpose of in

number of hours each week, unless enter a high school. specting the schools on the continent. “There is no so-called This post-graduate course lasts three years (until the boys are ignorant or illiterate class of society; there are no children seventeen). Arrangements have been made to give them as neglected in point of school education. Every class of soci- many as twelve hours instruction per week if they desire it. ety studies upon a higher level of culture than the similar Inducements are offered in various ways, to draw the boys inclass in England. Nothing struck me more forcibly than the to these evening schools. So complete is this system of supuniversally satisfactory education of the lower and working plementary education that there are even after-noon classes classes. Waiters, porters, domestics, guides, etc., have a for young hotel-waiters, in which they get instruction in modern knowledge of history, geography and other branches of sci- languages. ence far surpassing that which we are apt to meet in similar “In my estimation Saxony is one of the countries that has classes in England. The cause of this conspicuous fact is not progressed fastest, but the school law and institutions in Wuertto be sought very far. The entire population ha gone through temberg and Baden are very similar to that of Saxony, and it a thorough and rational system of public education. Instruc- is seriously contemplated to adopt them everywhere in Gertion as given here is much more extended than that given in many. Austria will not remain behind long. I state a posiour English elementary schools, and above all, it is obligatory tive fact when I say, in Germany, in Switzerlaud and possibly

I visited several of these schools and observed the in other states on the Continent the conviction is spreading method of teaching. It is simple and admirable.

that the school education course for the poorest classes should • The children are not crammed with uncomprehended in some form or other continue until the sixteenth or sevenknowledge, but are led to think and understand from the teenth year of age. It is found from experience that when primer grade upward. The first aim of the teacher is to awa- this is carried out and realized, the people have an immense ken a comprehension of what is to be learned, and thus a de- advantage in the fierce competition of life, and that thus sire for and love of learning is fostered and kept up. I saw youth is accustomed and trained to physical and intellectual no sign of weariness and mental exhaustion, neither among labor. I even believe that to this thorough school education pupils or teachers. All instruction is given orally; the teacher is attributable the almost entire disappeatance of the pauper mostly stands at the black-board, chalk in hand, and explains element. the matter under consideration. Wherever it is found possible “Wherever I came I inquired after the school arrangements the object to be described is shown in natura or in pictures. made for the pauper children, but in every city I visited, -in Thus eye, ear and hand are employed simultaneously in the Zurich, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Chemnitz, Dresden, Berlin-I acquirement of knowledge. Questions and answers follow was told that there is, properly speaking, no such class; hence each other so quickly and promptly that the whole class is no pauper scholars.

I do not wish to convey the idea as kept intensely attentive. As a rule the teachers are much though there was no poverty in Germany. On the contrary better prepared than in England, and are enthusiastic in their the wages are much smaller than in England, hence many profession.

people have trouble to make both ends meet. But it seems "The public schools in Germany occupy a much higher po- to me that the mass of dissolute and depraved people who sition in the public household than with us. What I say here abandon their children on the streets, or hand them over to has reference to Switzerland as well as to Germany. Zurich, Christian charity, can not be found in this country. When for instance, so far as progress in education is concerned, is seeing what a poor country like Germany has done to raise fully up to the standard of any city in Germany.

* the moral and intellectual state of its inhabitants, despite a The chief advantages, however, that Germany possesses over conscription to a three years' military service, despite frequent England in regard to public schools, is the regularity of atten- wars that exhausted the resources of the country, wars which dance and the length of the course. The difficulty to get

have-God be thanked-been spared us, I say when seeing

Ι chiidren into school, with which we have to contend, does not this, strong doubts arise in one's mind as to whether our party exist in Germany. The laws governing attendance are very government is the best one. It sometimes looks to me as strict and permit no shallow pretext for absence. More im- though it is at fault. portant even than that appears to me the fact that the people “One thing is certain: If we do not foster the true interlive up to these laws, and are inclined to render them more ests of the people by better school educatian we shall sink in severe rather than have them executed in a lax manner. the scale of nations more and more. No unprejudiced obHence the attendance for boys as well as girls is obligatory in server can deny that the Germans have surpassed us in many

*

*

respects, and that in their development they are progressing Give some one a large bill to pay for the goods and have the at a much faster rate than we. Their polytechnical and in- cashier give the proper change. Have the book-keeper keep dustrial schools leave similar institutions in our country far a strict account of all business transacted and each clerk an behind; the leaders of industry are much better prepared, the itemized account of his sales. After the class has retired the artisans better taught, much more temperate in habits and as- teacher can replace the articles and use them for the next siduous in their work than the English, Whenever Germen class. aud Englishmen enter into competition the latter are beaten. This work, under the supervision of a competent teacher, That is not owing to greater natural powers, for I believe, could be varied so as to give the pupils exercises in all kinds those of the Englishman are after all greater. No, it is simply of fraction work, and also extended to percentage.

, Give and solely the sequence of the better school system in Germany problems in profit and loss, leakage, etc. and its practical application to all branches of public and pri- Let some business be conducted on the credit system, and vate life.”

take notes from the debtors. Besides the mental discipline

involved in such a course of study, we can teach some very A SCHOOL-ROOM STORE.

important business principles. We not only teach the com

putations necessary to be made, but system and accuracy. CHAS. J. PARKER, RALEIGH, N. C.

We train the hand and eye to be more accurate in judging of We insist that to teach arithmetic we must use things—some

weight and measure. Teach them to use their hands to a thing tangible--deal with the senses. We use buttons, acorns,

better advantage by a learning to tie a bundle neatly, which hickorynuts, shoe pegs, splints, nails, etc. to aid us in in

is indeed a very rare thing outside of a store. leading the pupil to understand numbers. We have the pupil

Pupils delight in doing something which involves the use of to do a great deal of drawing, representing things by pictures.

the hands and eyes, and calls for the exercise of their judgWe teach fractions by breaking the splints, cutting apples, etc.

ment. Of course this is all very good, but do we carry this idea of

If this method of studying arithmetic would be adopted, dealing with things far enongh? Surely we can not confine

undoubtedly many dullards could be aroused to action, bean advanced pupil in arithmetic to this style of work; it be

cause they could see and know what is being done. comes monotonous to both pupil and teacher, the boy begins

Besides the mental and manual training to be derived from to look upon it as foolishness, and feels that his arithmetic

such a method, we also prepare our boys for the work in work is a mere sham. We give a list of articles, that can be

which very many of them engage at some time of their life.

Many of them are compelled to leave school while young and bought in a grocery or drug store with prices, and have the

work for their own living pupil make out bills. In this case we have the pupils make

They often enter stores as clerks

or waiting boys. After having pursued such a course of study drawings to represent pounds and yards, marking the price

in school, they would certainly be better prepared for their on each. Here the things are only imaginary, and it is prob

work and would demand better wages Please note the folable that the enthusiasm is not what it should be, and certainly not what it could be made by some other method.

lowing quotation, taken from a letter written by a business

firm of established reputation : Can we not improve on this method ? Especially in city schools, where the pupils are thoroughly classified, do we During the last few years there has been a growing discontent among have an opportunity of doing effective arithmetic work. Let

business men, members of school committees, school superintendents,

and teachers over the results of teaching arithmetic in the schools. A us set apart a certain room in the school to be devoted to our

great deal of time is spent on a large number of subjects without a work. Suppose we have a real store, and deal with things in

corresponding increase in mental power or practical knowledge. The the true sense of the word. With what must it be supplied

inability of a young man to compute readily a 15 per cent. discount in and at what cost?

the counting room is hardly compensated for by his recollection of havSuitable apparatus and the necessary stock of goods can be ing once been able in the school-room, with his book of rules close at obtained at a very small cost. We will need but a small

hand, and a helping teacher at his elbow, to perform a problem in cube A good set of scales, the different

Our own experience has been that a young man generally learns, quantity of each article.

under the stress of business necessity, more arithmetic in the countingmeasures from the half-bushel to the gill, and the yard-stick

room in a month than in the school room in a year. must be had. All of these will not cost much. The stock

It is just this that business men complain of. Having paid a tax for should consist of some comparatively imperishable articles in the support of school he dislikes to do the teaching himself, notwiththe grocery line, such as sugar, coffee, rice, candy, crackers, standing the very flattering results of his work in this direction. He salt, soda, wheat, corn, oats, meal, four, and some liquids. does not demand of the young man whom he employs a knowledge of Of course the stock could be added to or disposed of as seemed

technicalities to apply a little common sense to simple arithmetical

operations. best. Many of the articles could actually be sold to some one at a small discount. In the dry-goods department we

We all feel the importance of this and recognize the truth

of the statements, might have a few yards of cheap cloth, ribbon, buttons, and

Now, can we not better prepare our pua few other items as desired. Then we could have card-board pils for business? By using a more business like method can and paper money made (much of this is now in use in schools). we not, to a great extent, obviate his becoming embarrassed Appoint your clerks from the class for the day or week, also and foundering in a little business transaction? Let us think a book-keeper and a cashier.

serionsly. Give the pupils a list of articles to be bought. Have the clerks to actually weigh and measure the articles and make GENIUS, in the sɔhool-room as elsewhere, if it does not conout the bill, at the same time have each pupil make out his sist in, at least includes, “a capacity for taking infinite pains.” own bill to be sure that the clerk does not make a mistake. -Ohio Educational Monthly.

root.

OUR SYSTEM(?) OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. There are three measures of weight:- (1) Troy weight,

(2) Apothecaries' weight, (3) Avoirdupois weight. The BY W, L. DORAN, M'KENZIE, TENN.

pound of the first two is the same. Diamond weight, of There are few teachers, perhaps, who have not experienced especially objectionable because the carat is used also to indi.

which the carat is the unit, might be called the fourth, and is some trouble in getting some pupils to understand thoroughly especially objectionable because the carat is used also to indi.

cate the fineness of a jewel. some things connected with compound numbers. And not a

Grouping again we find that we have three kinds of few young teachers, doubtless, have had trouble in grasping pound, four kinds of ounce, two kinds of dram (spelled difthe entire subject themselves.

ferently, but pronounced the same) three kinds of quart and A few queries and illustrations will aid the reader to a bet

pint, two kinds of gallon, hundred weight and ton and three ter understanding of these propositions. I go to a grocery

kinds of mile. The nautical and geographical are equal, but and call for a half a peck of beans. The grocer, not having differ from the statute. a half-peck measure, takes a quart measure, used for liquids,

I have mentioned only a part of the evils and inconvenwhich he fills four times. Do I get half a peck? If not, is

iences connected with our weights and measures, but enough it more or less ?

has been said to show that there is an utter absence of any Druggists sometimes keep in stock some things kept also by

system. And there is no occasion for wonder, if, as it often the grocer. If I buy half a pound of soda from a drug store

happens, the pupil gets bewildered, discouraged and disdo I get six ounces or eight? Erugs are generally sold in

gusted. large quantities by Avoirdupois weight. Is this always true? ?

But what avails a diagnosis of our ills, if there be no remHow large must the quantity be before sixteen ounces are al

edy? This we have, but do not apply it so universally as we lowed to the pound? If a druggist buys by Avoirdupois and

should I believe the metric system obviates every difficulty sells by Apothecaries' weight he could make a good profit by

I have mentior.ed. It has been made legal in the United selling for even less per pound than he paid.

States by an act of Congress, and is coming into use more Often great confusion arises from the use of the word ounce

and more every day, especially in all scientific investigations. in liquid and in dry measure. I went to a druggist with an

Many of our modern text books in physical and natural scieight ounce bottle and asked him to fill it with sulphuric acid.

ence adopt it altogether. Some give the English equivalents He said that he sold it by weight. I then told him to give me

in brackets and some do not, and the latter is the better plan, eight ounces. Query-If the specific gravity of sulphuric if the system is given in full in an appendix, or elsewhere

. acid is 1.82, how much by measure did I get?

In this way students learn to think in denominations of the Much inconvenience often arises even in our linear measure.

Metric System instead of performing the reductions all the While recent books and the public have discarded the ell,

time. A class which is prepared for it can be taught the eswhich may mean three, four or five quarters, some other diffi

sentials of the system in one hour so that they can estimate culties have not been eliminated. The rod being sixteen and a half feet or five and a half yards is inconvenient, especially ounces or minims; and to estimate distances in meters, centi

capacities in liters or cubic centimeters as readily as in quarts, for short distances, as the process of reducing gives much trouble to some people who have not had a thorough training and fractional parts of an inch. And so with measures of

meters and millimeters as accurately as in yards, feet, inches in fractions. The rod is more convenient in expressing ali

weight. quot parts of a mile. The usual division of the inch are bun

The Metric System is almost infinitely simpler than our sysglesome. Twenty-three thirty-seconds of an inch does not

tem—if we have any. There is one unit for length, one for differ much from three-fourths of an inch, but it is not easy to

capacity and one for weight. The ratio of increase or decompare them. The matter could be much simplified by

crease is always ten. In square measure it is one hundred dividing the inch into tenths and hundredths.

and in cubic measure one thousand. The prefixes being the Another great objection to nearly all our tables of weights

same for all measures, whether length, capacity or weight, and measures is the total absence of any uniformity in the

When one measure is learned all are practically known. ratio of one quantity to the next higher or lower. The ratio

Contrast with our measures. Our ratio may be anything varies all the way from 3 to 2,000. U. S. Money and Duo

from 2 to 320 in Linear Measure. In Square measure we may decimals alone have any uniformity, and this is a uniformity have 9, 10, 30/4, 144, 160, or in Cubic Measure the ratio between the denominations derived from the same unit of

may be 16, 27, 128, 1728, etc. measure, and not between those from different units.

From these considerations I am led to believe that the By grouping we find that we have four different measures

sooner our system is superseded by the Metric System, as it of length:-(1) The regular Linear measure, of which the

certainly will be some day, the better it will be for us. And yard is the unit, (2) Square measure, of which the chain is the

teachers should take all precautions to have their pupils beunit; (3) Mariner's Measure, of which the nautical mile (knot)

come familiar with it, though pupils will sometimes say, “Of or farthing is the unit; (4) Geographical measure, of which

what use will it be to us?" the league, geographical mile or degree may be taken as the unit. Besides this the shoe-maker has his “barley-corn" and

ABBREVIATE. the horse trader his “hand”

We have also four measures of capacity:-(1) Liquid meas- 1 In the year of our Lord. 6 Superintendent. ure, of which the gallon, containing 231 cubic inches, is the 2 Member of Congress. 7 Doctor of Divinity, unit; (2) Apothecaries' Auid measure; (3) Dry measure ; (4) 3 Before Christ.

8 District of Columbia. Ale or Beer measure, the gallon of which contains 282 cubic 4 Justice of the Peace.

8 Unknown inches. This is but little used now.

5 For the time being. 10 Dozen.

ARITHMETIC.

thinking teacher that objects should still be used, but too

many do not seem to know that the office of objects is to raise JOHN MCLOYD, PENNSYLVANIA,

new inquiries LESSON II.

Each new inquiry demands a new number-thought to satIt is difficult to analyze the process by which the number- isfy it.

isfy it. Each new number thought demands a new numberthought first enters the child-mind. Very early in the morning

word to complete and fix it in the mind-a pure number. of life the mother-teacher leads the chiid to recognize objects Every new number-thought demands an appropriate word by external to itself. As soon as the faculty of language begins

which it may be designated. This word may be given by the

But to develop in the mind, the mind begins to designate these

teacher, by a classmate, by a playmate, or by the book. external objects. This designation must of necessity precede

it must be given. It cannot be evolved from the child's own speech. As the child-mind recognizes and designates objects

mind. After being given, it may pass into the child's unconso it will also, in due time, recognize and designate qualities sciousness and the teacher may be able to have the child recall and properties of objects.

it, but even these processes must be wisely used. Illustrations Number is a property of objects, and in this truth is the

to strengthen the number-concepts already at command is perscience of numbers founded. Doubtless the number-thonght haps wiser teaching than protracted efforts to call up one not does not enter the mind as long as only one object is recog

at command. nized, or perhaps we should say, the number thought is

In following Grube's system the teacher should see that in created by the sensation, or in the sensation, caused by the

the development of the number "two,” the child is made succession of two or more objects passing before a sense, -as,

better acquainted with the number “one.” “Three” should for instance, the mother and the nurse passing before the

strengthen “two," four should strengthen the abstraction of sight of the child; or the song of the canary and the bark of

"three,” and so on developing and strengthening as we the dog succeeding one another in the hearing of the child.

advance. The child sees its mother and then the nurse. It recognizes

We shall not insult the intelligence of the JOURNAL’s readers the one and then the other. That recognition, at this early

by repeating any of Grube's work. Every teacher should stage of the child's life, produces a sensation in the mind of

have a copy of Seely's “Grube's Arithmetic,” and also Jarvis the child, and that sensation is beyond question the primitive

“Froebel's Education of Man.” number-thought. All subseqnent number-thoughts must refer Now, a suggestion, suppose we have developed numbers back to this primitive thought. Succession succeeds succes

up to ten. What does that mean? It means that all numsion, Sensation after sensation is produced. The sensation

bers used to designate groups of less than ten objects have develop. They appeal to the intellect of the child for a desig

been handled in every possible combinations of the principles nation for these new experiences. By the aid of the words

of increase and decrease. Less than that is not development. of the mother the child's intellect refers these feelings of unrest

But what an immense amount of work that means! to be able and of inquiry to the faculty of language, and by and by, the

to read in the book of numbers all that these simple numbers multitudes of words uttered by the mother-teacher shape the

tell us is a great achievement. It is worth weeks of work. power of language in the child, and develop that power by

It is the constant, careful, thoughtful turning over of numbers blending sensation with thought from day to day; and just as

in the mind—we mean these small numbers, from one to ten it blends the thought of its mother with her appropriate desig- —that makes the mathematician. Te sum up the whole nation in the word “mama,” so in the course of time it blends

matter, see that the child knows each number. the number-thought and the number-word into one idea, and Repeat until he does know it. this compound of thought and designation exists in the faculty of language as an abstraction ready for use by speech as soon

DEVICES IN ENGLISH COMPOSITION. as that power comes to the child, if it be not already able to talk

Of course this abstraction does not as a rule precede speech, but it has been observed that it may do so. The The latter part of the article by Miss Lawrence in a recent child learns to count its toys and other objects that surround number of the JOURNAL, while not given as an illustration of it, and thus the objects that surround the child, prompt the composition work, shows how the skillful teacher may lay all number-thought which thought demands the number-word in subjects under tribute to the noble art of expression. The order that it may be expressed.

game “Who Am I?” may be used to advantage in the history The mother-teacher, unconciously it may be, developes the class. Let one pupil prepare a sketch of some important number-thought, and also communicates the number-word by character and allow the others to guess who it is. such expressions as, “Give me one little hand; now the ography class the composition may be “Where I Have Been.” other.” “Here is one little foot; here is the other." and so Let the pupil describe the scenery, climate, customs and on indefinitely untii the child-mind formulates the definite as many other things as may be necessary to aid the others in inquiry, “How many ?" The answer to this inquiry is gener- guessing. ally recognized as the hasis of the science of number. But The writer recently had some very interesting letters. The the primitive sensation and its development are important pupils were asked to imagine themselves in some European to be overlooked. However, starting from this point, with city, and then write a letter to the teacher telling him of their the response to the inquiry, “how many?” it is the duty of experiences and observations there.

Such exercises encourthe teacher to see that the development begun by the ages t

the pupils to make themselves familiar with the subjects mother be continued in a natural manner.

they write about. And reading the compositions in class does To promote this developement, it must be plain to every not become monotonous, but secures very close attention and

W. B. ROMINE, PULASKI TENN.

a

In the ge

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