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APR 17 1922

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The scope oí this book is defined by the title. The aim has been to presmt for ready reference the contractual and conventional material of international relations down to the outbreak of the World War. The bibliographic form has been used for the sake of convenience and precision.

It may reasonably be claimed that in a broader sense the book covers the field of history. "A collection of treaties," says Noradounghian Effendi in the preface to his Recueil d'actes internationaux deV Empire Ottoman, "is of itself a complete philosophy of history. For every on г of them either summarizes the political conclusions of a period, or defines the relations of peoples among themselves, or marks the point of departure of a new phase of these relations. They are like so many landmarks on the road traversed either by one nation alone or by a group of states. Being the skeleton of history, they serve as the basis both of diplomacy and of international law. Therefore, their study is, under its apparent dryness, of the greatest interest and of a multifarious and incontestable usefulness."

The conduct of international relations involves every human interest that is not by its very nature confined within national limits. If, for instance, in fiscal policy, taxation has no international aspect, tariff schedules have. A military budget may be a nation's affair; but it is justified internally by the status of external relations, and it again reacts outside of national borders upon that status. Even social problems of individual welfare find their way into a field of international relations which of late has been rapidly increasing in importance. Nearly half of the present work is devoted to international relations of a nonpolitical character.

In view of the complexity and wide dispersion of the published documents relating to treaties and international conventions, it is not surprising that the historian has only casually gone to these


Le titre de ce livre en indique l'objet. Notre but a été de présenter sous une forme facile à consulter les matériaux relatifs aux relations internationales, de caractère contractuel et conventionnel, jusqu'au début de la guerre mondiale. Nous avons employé la forme bibliographique, pour des raisons de commodité et de précision.

On pourrait prétendre que, dans un sens plus large, ce livre est du domaine de l'histoire. "Un Recueil de traités," dit Noradounghian Effendi dans la préface de son Recueil d'actes internationaux de l'Empire Ottoman, "est, à lui seul, toute une philosophie de l'histoire. Car chacun d'eux ou résume les conclusions politiques d'une époque, ou caractérise les relations de peuples entre eux, ou marque le point de départ d'une phase nouvelle dans ces relations. Ils sont comme autant de jalons sur la route parcourue soit par une nation prise isolément, soit par un groupe d'États. En même temps qu'ils sont comme le squelette de l'histoire, ils servent de base à la diplomatie, ainsi qu'au droit international. Aussi leur étude est-elle, sous sa sécheresse apparente, du plus haut intérêt, et d'une utilité multiple et incontestable."

La conduite des relations internationales est mêlée à tous les intérêts humains, qui ne sont point, par leur nature même, confinés en deçà des limites nationales. Si, par exemple, en politique fiscale, les impôts n'ont point d'aspect international, les tarifs de douane en ont un. Un budget militaire peut être une affaire nationale, mais il est justifié à l'intérieur, par l'état des relations extérieures, et il réagit, à son tour, sur cet état, au delà des frontières de la nation. Même les problèmes sociaux relatifs au bienêtre des individus trouvent une place dans un domaine des relations internationales qui, dernièrement, ont augmenté rapidement d'importance. Presque la moitié de cet ouvrage est consacré aux relations internationales de caractère non-politique.

En raison de la complexité et de la grande dispersion des documents publiés relatifs aux traités et aux conventions internationales, il n'est pas étonnant que l'historien ne soit allé qu'inprimary sources in his presentation of international affairs. Even the task of finding texts has been formidable. If this book facilitates that task, and thus contributes to accuracy in presenting the activities of the past as a guide to the present and the future, it will have served its purpose.

The pages which follow have been built up in the last ten years. When I joined the staff of the World Peace Foundation in 1910, occasions for consulting the texts of treaties constantly arose. It was an economy of time to copy and weave together for desk reference the lists of standard collections already printed by Martens, Garden, Martitz, and Clunet. This combined list was increased from time to time by additional titles. In 1915 it was decided that the compilation should be extended and made generally available.

Since it is hoped that the work will be internationally serviceable, the Preface, the Contents, certain other parts, and the Index are in both English and French. As a very great majority of the books are in the Harvard Libraries, a dagger precedes the numeral of an item not in Cambridge.

It has been the rule to examine every book listed, so far as possible. This was desirable not only for the sake of accuracy, but also that it might be determined whether the book fitted into the plan of the work. Fully half of the books examined were excluded. Many books not yet at Harvard bave been seen elsewhere.

Aside from the great international settlements which have given rise to series of treaties and a literature of their own, and also aside from the conventions establishing forms of international administration or cooperation, single treaties have not been included in the scope of the work. There has been no intention to make a general index of treaties. The superior numerals attached to the names of sovereignties in Division II, Collections by States, refer to the indexes of certain standard works in which treaties relating to those territories may be found. This scheme, however, is scarcely a reference to individual treaties, unless a sovereignty happens to have made but one.

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