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are to be found to organise themselves against it, and throw the whole of their strength into denouncing and preventing it.
"If we could get people to learn what science is and what it has done, they would never attack those who are at work on it. And it is to keep them from learning, that there is this frightful misrepresentation. I remember, and I think the Chairman of the Commission probably remembers, how in the 'seventies the walls of London were placarded with a poster representing a rabbit in the process of being roasted alive. The poster was absolutely false. Yet that placard was all over London. It is not surprising that a great number of people join this organisation, because they get their ideas from these very serious misrepresentations. They believe themselves to be humane, but when one realises the evil that ignorance does, and that the only way in which ignorance can be removed is by the experimental method, and the enormous advantages in the way of saving pain that these results have produced, one must feel that the truly humane men are the people who are defending scientific research."
INSPECTORS' REPORTS FOR 1910
THE following Reports were published in July, 1911. During 1910 there was a marked increase in the number of mice inoculated for Cancer Research: and there was a decrease in the number of dogs or cats used for experiment under Certificate B. These Reports, with the Tables to which they refer, can be obtained, price 64d., from Wyman & Sons, Fetter Lane, London, E.C., or through any bookseller.
ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND
May 6th, 1911.
I have the honour to submit the following Report on Experiments performed in England and Scotland during the Year 1910, under the Act 39 & 40 Vict. c. 77, including
(a) The Names of all Persons who have held Licences or Special Certificates during any part of the Year; together with a Statement of the Registered Places at which the Licences were valid, and of the Official Positions of the Persons who signed the Applications for Licences and granted Certificates under the Act.
(b) The Total Number of Experiments returned during 1910, classified and arranged according to their general Nature.
The names of all "registered places" are given in Table I. Nine new places were registered for the performance of experiments, and three places were removed from the register during the year. All licensees were restricted to the registered place or places specified on their licences, with the exception of those who were permitted to perform inoculation experiments in places other than a "registered place," with the object of studying outbreaks of disease occurring in remote districts or under circumstances which render it impracticable to perform the experiment in a "registered place."
The names of all those persons who held licences during 1910 are contained in Tables II. and III. The total number of licensees was 542. Reports have been furnished by (or, in a few exceptional cases, on behalf of) these licensees in the form required by the Secretary of State. The reports show that 147 licensees performed no experiments. The numbers given above include 26 licensees whose licences expired on February 28, 1910, and of whom 24 returned no experiments in 1910.
Tables I., II., and III. afford evidence,
1. That licences and certificates have been granted and allowed only upon the recommendation of persons of high scientific standing;
2. That the licensees are persons who, by their training and education, are fitted to undertake experimental work and to profit by it;
3. That all experimental work has been conducted in suitable places.
Table IV. shows the number and the nature of the experiments returned by each licensee mentioned in Table II., specifying whether these experiments were done under the licence alone or under any special certificate.
Table IV. is divided into two parts, A. and B., for the purpose of separating experiments which were performed without anesthetics from experiments in which anæsthetics were used.
The total number of experiments included in Table IV. (A.) is 4,939.
Of these there were performed,—
Under Licence alone'
Table IV. (B.) is devoted entirely to inoculations, hypodermic injections, and some few other proceedings,
In experiments performed under licence alone, the animal must during the whole of the experiment be under the influence of some anesthetic of sufficient power to prevent the animal feeling pain; and the animal must, if the pain is likely to continue after the effect of the anaesthetic has ceased, or if any serious injury has been inflicted on the animal, be killed before it recovers from the influence of the anesthetic which has been administered.
Certificate C. allows experiments to be performed, under the foregoing provisions as to the use of anesthetics, in illustration of lectures.
Certificate B. exempts the person performing the experiment from the obligation to cause the animal on which the experiment is performed to be killed before it recovers from the influence of the anaesthetic; and when the animal is a dog or a cat, Certificate EE. is also necessary.
Certificate A. allows experiments to be performed without anæsthetics; and when the animal on which the experiment is performed is a dog or a cat, Certificate E. is also necessary.
Certificate F. is required in all cases of experiments on a horse, ass, or mule.
performed without anaesthetics. It includes 90,792 experiments, whereof there were performed,—
The total number of experiments is 95,731, being 9,454 more than in 1909; the number of experiments included in Table IV. (A.) shows an increase of 1,051, and that in Table IV. (B.) an increase of 8,403.
All experiments involving a serious operation are placed in Table IV. (A.). The larger part of the experiments included in this Table, viz., all performed under licence alone and under Certificate C., 2,942 in number, come under the provision of the Act that the animal must be kept under an anesthetic during the whole of the experiment, and must, if the pain is likely to continue after the effect of the anaesthetic has ceased, or if any serious injury has been inflicted on the animal, be killed before it recovers from the influence of the anaesthetic.
In the experiments performed under Certificate B., or B. linked with EE., 1,997 in number, the initial operations are performed under anæsthetics, from the influence of which the animals are allowed to recover. The operations are required to be performed antiseptically, so that the healing of the wounds shall, as far as possible, take place without pain. If the antiseptic precautions fail, and suppuration occurs, the animal is required to be killed. It is generally essential for the success of these experiments that the wounds should heal cleanly, and the surrounding parts remain in a healthy condition. After the healing of the wounds the animals are not necessarily, or even generally, in pain, since experiments involving the removal of important organs, including portions of the brain, may