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and if not wholly unprofitable, yet unsatisfactory and unwelcome. Curious, interesting, valuable as these fragments and gleanings in antiquarian and historical by-paths may be, it is not of such stuff that the staple of a people's literature should be formed. This is the mint and cummin, but where are the weightier matters? Where is that which is to feed, form, and educate the public mind? You go to your bookseller and ask him if he has any thing new? Si, Signore! ecco!-a translation of Louis Blanc's Ten Years;' ecco!-a translation of Thiers' Consulate-a translation of 'Juvenal,' just published here. But what Italian books? what original works have appeared? Um! ha!'-a long shrug-c'è poco! ecco'-a pamphlet on mad dogs! another on the law of mortgages! and, perhaps, the libretto of a new opera! And these and such like are nearly all that the iron-hand of the censorship will permit Italian thought to produce. The most powerful and valuable intellects either risk ruin, imprisonment, and exile, and most fortunate, though miserable, in the latter, speak their bitter thoughts in the safety of a foreign country, or writhe in compulsory silence, or finally fall back on the past, and finding themselves forbidden to think of the present, take refuge in the comparatively useless dilettanteism of historical research. Mere dilettanteism! For history in its strength and its truth must above all else be muzzled and kept silent. The genuine history of Italy's past is too palpably and too pungently the satire of her present day, to be allowed to speak. And it is, therefore, that men, who ought to be speaking trumpet-tongued to the present generation of their countrymen, the stirring lessons which their historical researches must have taught them, are compelled to content themselves with doling out such dry insipidities as the darkness-loving evil-doers who rule may judge to be harmless.
Yet the sun can not be stayed. Progression-the God-appointed order of the world-will have way, though it may be retarded. And as the creepers of the ivy will pass through a stone wall, even so do ideas and lessons of progress force themselves through the wall of the censorship. And the ivy ever ends by destroying the wall.
But it is high time to close this long letter. I had intended to have chatted a little on matters artistical; but they must stand over till my next. They would not keep so long in London; but here we go andagino andagino in that as in all else. Adio! I am going to enjoy a moonlight stroll to the top of Fesole.' Do not envy me more than you can help.
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THE Baron Achille de Maynard, author of two volumes of poems, and a contributor to the 'Gazette de France' and the Nation,' committed suicide on the 31st of August last, by precipitating himself from the top of one of the towers of Nôtre Dame in Paris. He was about twenty-five years of age, possessed a handsome fortune, and but a fortnight before his death, had married the daughter of the Compte d'Espagnac. The motives that led to this dreadful act have not been ascertained.
Extract of a letter from Rome, July 16:-"In the early part of last month, some workmen employed in making a road, three miles from Ostia, dug up three statues and some bas-reliefs, which were afterwards taken charge of by Cardinal Tardini, dean of the sacred college, One of the statues, formed of Greek marble, is regarded as a chef d'œuvre of sculpture: it represents a female figure, the outlines of which are scarcely disguised by the fine drapery that covers it; the two others, though extremely valuable, are of less merit. Further search made on the spot by the cardinal's order, led to the discovery of sepulchral urns of white marble, two of which exhibit bas-reliefs wrought with admirable delicacy. The figures, though very small, are so highly finished that the veins, muscles, tendons, &c., are distinctly visible. Several ancient fragments of green and yellow marble were also discovered, one of them bearing this insciption: Menutius CC. triginta in agro et vigintiquinque in fronte posuit; which some suppose to mean that the spot was formerly the site of a villa, in the interior of which Menutius set up thirty statues, and twenty-five in the façade. But this explanation is disputed.
The Journal des Débats' reports that the receipts of the Belgian railways for the second quarter of this year exceed those of the corresponding quarter of 1844, by 230,461 francs, or more than eight per cent. This increase affects particularly the carriage of goods, of which there were conveyed 40,000,000 of kilogrammes more than in the second quarter of 1844. The gross receipts of the first six months of this year amount to 5,482,960 francs, whereas the first six months of 1844 produced only 4,938,483 francs. The increase is, therefore, 544,477 francs, or eleven per cent. It is thought that the receipts of the Belgian railways will by the end of this year have risen to the sum of 12,000,000 of francs (480,000l.).
German Railroads.-There are no fewer than six railroads open in the Duchy of Baden, namely:-1. The road from Mannheim to Heidelberg, four and a quarter leagues in length, opened on the 12th of September, 1840. 2. That between Heidelberg and Carlsruhe, twelve and a quarter leagues long, opened on the 10th of April, 1843. 3. That from Carlsruhe to Oos, seven and a half leagues, opened on the 1st of May, 1844. 4. That from Oos to Offenburg, nine leagues, and from Appenweier to Kehl, two and three quarter leagues, on the 1st of June, 1844. 5. The road from Oos to Baden, one league; and, finally, that from Offenburg to Friburg, fourteen and a quarter leagues, on the 31st of July last. The travellers on the German railroads in June last amounted to 1,103,000, or 87,000 more than in the
corresponding month of 1844. The largest circulation was on the Baden line, which conveyed 172,000 passengers. Next came the Bavaria and Northern lines, which carried, the first 88,000 passengers, the second 84,000. MM. Gebhart and Gerber, members of the mathematical section of the Royal Academy of Science of Hanover, have completed the examination and arrangement of the MSS. of Leibnitz, belonging to the Royal Library of Hanover, and have sent in their report to the ministry. A selection of these MSS. is to be published at the expense of the government.
A new Springe to catch Woodcocks.-Dittmarsch, the bookseller of Stuttgardt, announces that he will publish a rebus every month in his journal, and grant a reward of 100 florins (about 10%.) for its solution.
M. Royer Collard died on the 4th of September, at his estate of Chateauvieux, in his 82nd year. The Duke de Broglie is talked of as his probable successor at the French Academy.
Jules Janin recounts with great pleasure that Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, after the fête at Bonn, set off arm-in-arm through the streets, in despite of the bad weather, to visit his old tutor, his college, and his friends. This was truly entering into the spirit of the country, and recalling to us an anecdote of the late lamented Duke of Orleans. He called one morning to see Ary Scheffer, the artist. On asking the porter if Scheffer was at home, the janitor replied, "You'll find him on the third story, and since you are going up, will you be kind enough to take up, at the same time with yourself, this coat that I have been brushing for him?" The prince walked up to Ary Scheffer with the latter's coat upon his arm. If our great people could have the courage to keep when at home a small fraction of the ease and bonhommie which they learn when abroad, what an improvement it would be to our everyday-ay, and to our holiday-life !—Examiner.
The Orkney correspondent of the Edinburgh Advertiser,' writing in September, says, "We have been much astonished here at a very extraordinary phenomenon which took place two nights ago-a great fall of dust, which continued many hours. The men at the herring fishing describe it as being like a thick shower of snow-drift from the north-west. It began to fall before daylight, and continued very thick for a few hours, and afterwards more slightly till about mid-day. Those who had clothes out bleaching had them completely blackened, and it seems very difficult to wash off. The only way of accounting for it is, by supposing that Mount Hecla has had an eruption, as the wind was exactly from that quarter, and it is quite evident that the dust is volcanic. Dr. Barry, in his History of Orkney says, that in 1783, the last dreadful eruption of Mount Hecla, the dust fell here in the same manner; though it does seem surprising that it could be carried so far-upwards of 400 miles. It will be some time before we hear if an eruption has really taken place."
The Journal des Débats' indignantly denounces a new shape which Belgian literary piracy has lately assumed. The works of the celebrated caricaturist, now in course of publication at Paris, under the title of Euvres Choisies de Gavarni,' have been reproduced in Belgium, plates and all, in a wretchedly inferior manner, and on the cover of the pirated edition, the Belgian thief has printed: Paris, Aug. Ozanne, Editeur, Rue Richelieu.' The results aimed at by this trick are greater than may at first sight be suspected. It is intended to pass off the spurious edition as the original and genuine one; thereby to drive all other Belgian editions out of the market, greatly to facilitate its contraband sale in France; and, above all, to enable it to command a high price, instead of being sold at the usual reduction of sixty per cent. Of course there was no such publisher as 'Aug. Ozanne' in Paris; it may
then be asked, why the Belgian stopped short in his theft, and did not usurp M. Hetzel's name as well as the rest? Simply because if he had done so the foreign orders would have gone direct to M. Hetzel-who would scarcely have handed them over to the pirate. So the latter did all he dared-stopping short just where he should (one of the most difficult tests of genius): not venturing on the name of the French publisher, he assumed, at any rate, that of the street in which the latter carried on his business as a bookseller. In the name of common honesty, how long are such practices to be carried on under the approving eyes of the governments of Europe?
Letters from Christiania of the 5th of September mention that upon the motion of the Norwegian minister of justice, the Storthing has voted a sum of about 640l. to defray the expenses of two lawyers, MM. Rosenstand-Goiske and Socrensen, who are to visit France, Belgium, and England, and inquire minutely into the working and effects of the system of trial by jury. They are to report the results of their investigation to the next session of the Storthing,
The graves of the two greatest German composers of the last century, Gluck and Mozart, have long been lost sight of, and their very site has been unknown. Mozart's still continues in that condition, but Gluck's has just been discovered by accident. In repairing a wall in the village of Mutzleindorf, near Vienna, there was found, leaning against the foot of the wall, below the surface of the ground, a small tablet of gray marble, with the following inscription in the German language, and in Roman characters :-" Here rests a worthy German, a pious Christian, and an affectionate husband, Christopher von Gluck, Knight, a great master in the sublime art of music. He died November
On the authority of the Madrid Globo,' we give the following instance of atrocious cruelty, as an appendix to our article in the present number, on The Spanish People.' A short time back, as a dealer in leeches was travelling on a by-road in Estremadura, he was stopped by a band of thieves, who demanded his money. He assured them that he had none about him, having expended all that he had brought with him. Having ascertained that he had told the truth, they, in revenge for their disappointment, thrust his head into the sack in which he carried his leeches, and bound it tightly round his neck. Some country people passing by not long afterwards, found him dead, he having been bled to death by his own stock.
The Indian papers report that experiments have lately been made in Fort William on the effects of firing guns in casemated batteries, in order to ascertain how the smoke could be removed, so as to allow of the gunners remaining at their posts for any protracted time, without being suffocated. These experiments were made with a view to the construction of batteries for the defence of Aden, which it is proposed to form by hollowing out the rock as at Gibraltar, Dover, and Corfu.
LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL NEW PUBLICATIONS
ON THE CONTINENT.
FROM JULY TO OCTOBER, 1845, INCLUSIVE.
FURNISHED BY MESSRS. WILLIAMS AND NORGATE, 14, HENRIETTA-STREET, COVENT-GARDEN.
Dorner, T. A., die Lehre von der Person Christi. Vol. I. 8vo. Stuttg. 8s. Ebrard, J. H. A., das Evangelium Johannis und die neueste Hypothese über seine Entstehung. 8vo. Zürich. 4s. 6d.
Ewald, H., Geschichte des Volkes Israel bis Christus. Vol. II. 8vo. Göttingen 9s. 6d.
Hengstenberg, G. M., Commentar über die Psalmen. Vol. IV. Part I. 8vo. Berlin. 5s.
Krummacher, Fr. W., Elisa. Vol. III. 8vo. Elberfeld. 5s.
Ozanam, A. F., die Begründung des Christenthums in Deutschland und die sittliche und geistige Erziehung der Germanen. 8vo. München. 5s. Rohrbacher, Abbé, Histoire universelle de l'Eglise catholique, T. XVIII. 8vo. 5s. 6d.
Swedenborgii Diarii spiritualis partis I. Vol. II. Ed. Jo. Fr. Im. Tafel. 8vo. Tübingen. 19s.
Sydow, A., Beiträge zur Charakteristik der kirchlichen Dinge in Grossbritannien, 2 tes H. enth. der "schottischen Kirchenfrage" Schluss und Documente. 8vo. Potsdam. 4s.
Tholuck, A., Predigten. Vol. V. Ueber die Leidensgeschichte, über christliche, Tugenden, am Todtenfeste. 8vo. Halle. 6s.
Winterfeld, T. v., der evangelische Kirchengesang. Vol. II. 4to. Leipzig. 31. 4s.
CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY, ORIENTALIA.
Anecdota Palica, herausg. übers. underklärt, von F. Spiegel. Part I. Royal 8vo.
Aviani fabulae, Carol. Lachmannus recens. et emend. 8vo. Berol. 1s.
Becker, W. A., zur römischen Topographie. Antwort an Hrn. Urlichs. 8vo.
Bernhardy, G., Grundriss der griechischen Literatur. Vol. II. 8vo. Halle. 19s. Bopp, Fr., kritische Grammatik der Sanskrita-Sprache in kürzerer Fassung. Second Edition. 8vo. Berlin. 10s.