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Alte hoch- und niederdeutsche Volkslieder, mit Abhandlung und Anmerkungen, herausgegeben von LUDWIG UHLAND. (Old High and Low-German Ballads, with an Essay and Notes, by LUDWIG UHLAND). Vol. I. Stuttgart and Tübingen. 1844-5.

THE first volume of this publication contains only poems, the essay and notes being reserved for the succeeding volume, which has not yet appeared. The principal interest of the work is antiquarian and philological rather than poetical. As the plan includes German in its widest extent, not omitting even Flemish or the Low Dutch of the Netherlands, it furnishes many opportunities of comparing the different forms of the language. The editor even seems to have hesitated whether he should have included Swedish, Danish, English, and Lowland Scotch in his scheme. We are not surprised at his having determined on confining himself to Germany, and yet we in some degree regret that we have not the opportunity of tracing the connexion of the remoter as well as of the more central Teutonic dialects; and even more the still more curious similarity of thoughts and traditions, which is often shown by the recurrence of the same story in regions the most widely separated from one another. Uhland has in many cases given three or four versions of the same ballad, differing from one another sometimes only in the form of the words, sometimes in the details of the story. The following extract will remind the reader of many similar parallelisms between English and Scotch ballads. The first version is like modern written German, the second approaches Low Dutch.

66

Gespile, liebste gespile mein,
Warumb traurest du so sere?
Ei traurest du umb deins vaters gut
Oder traurest du umb dein ere?

"Ich traur nit umb meins vaters gut,
Ich traur nit umb mein ere,
Wir zwei haben einen knaben lieb
Darauss können wir uns nit teilen."

"Ghespeele, wel lieve ghespeelken
goet,

Waer om weent ghi so Seere?
Mer weent ghi om uns vaders goet
Oft weent ghi om u eere?

"Ic en ween niet om mijn's vaders
goet,

Ic en ween niet om mijn eere,

Wi twee wi hebben eenen lantsknecht lief,

Rijc god, wie sal hem werden ?"

Romancero Castellano, ò Colleccion de Antiguos Romances Populares de los Espanoles. Publicada por G. B. Depping. Nueva Edicion, con las Notas de DoN ANTONIO ALCALA-GALIANO.

DEPPING'S 'Collection of Spanish Ballads' is, we believe, the most complete which has been published. The present edition is convenient, neat, and well printed. The editor complains of the inaccuracy of Lockhart's translations with some justice; for the spirit of the English version belongs exclusively to the translator. The old Spanish historical ballads are for the most part prosaic and straightforward narratives, with no poetical

Bunsen's Constitution of the Church, &c.

509

attribute but that of very lax metre. A more severe charge is directed against Mr. Lockhart's alleged ignorance of Spanish; and certainly it is strange, that in the well-known ballad, 'My Ear-rings, my Ear-rings,' he should have translated morena, Moorish, instead of black or dark. The following extract is from a contemporary ballad on the capture of Rome by the army of Charles V. The poet seems singularly balanced between loyalty to his king, and piety to his pope.

"Mournful stood the Holy Father,
All with grief and sorrow drooping,
In St. Angelo his castle

O'er the lofty bulwarks stooping.
"And his head with no tiara,
Full of dust and perspiration-
Seeing Rome, the world's great Em-
press,

Harried by a stranger nation.

"And the yoke of conquest pressing

On the Romans once so stately-
All the cardinals in fetters-
All the bishops bound so straitly.
"And the saintly bones and relics
Scattered through the wide arena,
Yea, the holy coat of Jesus,
And the foot of Magdalena."

And so on, with a quiet and perhaps unintended humour. same rhyme ena is used exclusively in the whole poem.

The

Die Verfassung der Kirche der Zukunft. (The Constitution of the Church of the Future.) By C. C. J. BUNSEN.

In

THE reputation of the writer, and the influence which he is supposed to possess with the King of Prussia in ecclesiastical matters, may probably induce us on a future occasion to give a fuller account of this work. It originates in a correspondence with Mr. Gladstone on certain questions arising from the foundation of the Anglican bishopric at Jerusalem, and suggested by Abeken's semi-official account of the negotiations on the subject between the Prussian Court and the English Church. this correspondence, which is printed both in the original English and in German, Mr. Gladstone, as might be expected, protests against the recognition of a communion between English churchmen and the German Protestants; and incidentally he expresses his conviction that episcopal succession is an essential and indispensable part of the Christian Church. The Chevalier Bunsen, on the other hand, while he professes to admit the fitness of an episcopal form of Church government to certain countries, maintains that the adoption or rejection of the system is a matter of mere discretion and convenience; and passing in his book, into wider considerations, he endeavours to show that all reformed churches are bound to maintain the universal priestly character of Christians, and the consequent equality in all spiritual rights of clergy and laity. When Mr. Gladstone argues, that the essential forms of the English Church are universally binding, few foreigners would, perhaps, agree with him. When Mr. Bunsen, however, declares, that they are simply national, he forgets, that his opinion, even if true, can never be adopted by his opponents; for no church can be national without claiming to be universal in all its vital principles.

Compendium of Modern Civil Law, by FERDINAND MACKELDEY. Edited by Philip Ignatus Kaufmann. London: Wyley and Putnam,

1845.

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MACKELDEY, who was professor of law at the University of Marburg, published this manual under the title of Lehrbuch der Institutionen des heutigen Römischen Rechts,' in 1814. As it has since gone through eleven or twelve editions, and has been translated into French, Spanish, Russian, and Greek, it seems that there can be no doubt of its fitness for the objects for which it is intended, either as a book of reference for practitioners, or a syllabus for the use of students attending lectures on the civil law. It is, like Adam's Roman Antiquities,' or like almost all modern treatises on English law, not a book to read, but an enlarged and systematised index. Mackeldey, was, it appears, considered to belong to the dogmatical, as opposed to the historical school of jurists—that is, he laid more stress on the existing fabric of the law, than on the process by which it attained its present form. The compendium, however, contains a useful introduction on the sources of the Roman law, and on the process by which the code of Justinian became the basis of modern continental jurisprudence. The remainder of the work is arranged according to the usual divisions, according to persons, things, and the method of enforcing rights.

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The editor and translator, Dr. Kaufmann, appears to be a resident of New York. Perhaps he will find his labours more appreciated in America than in England. Jurisprudence is the only branch of the severer studies which seems to flourish in the United States; and its range there is wider than that to which English lawyers are in general confined. Many of the functions which are regulated according to our ecclesiastical courts, belong in America to the same judges who administer the common law. The conflict of the laws of different states of the Union with each other, and of any of them with the law of the United States, gives rise to a class of questions only to be solved by principles common to all jurisprudence, and, therefore, intimately connected with the rules of Roman law. One province, Louisiana, is still subject to a law founded on the civil law, which must frequently come into collision or comparison with the common law of the Anglo-American States, and of the Union. Above all, there is some systematic instruction in jurisprudence, an advantage which in England is almost unknown. The compendium, however, may be useful to many persons who have no time or inclination for a general study of the civil law. Dr. Kaufmann seems to be one of those commentators who, in illustration of a severe and difficult subject, delight to disport themselves in disquisitions on things in general, a habit rather wearisome to the student. For instance,The barbarian's delight in war, has given place to the Christian's desire for peace. The lurid glories of martial heroism, are waning before the purer light of science and philanthropy, &c., &c., &c.' And this is written in the same continent which contains Texas and Oregon.

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The Citizen of Prague-Anglo-Indian Passages.

511

The Citizen of Prague.-Translated by MARY HOWITT. 3 vols. Colburn. London. 1846.

TRANSLATED' by Mary Howitt, says the title page; 'edited' by her, say the advertisements. It matters little which reading we adopt. In either case, Mrs. Howitt has shown a lamentable disregard for her literary reputation, in giving the sanction of her name to so clumsy a piece of journey-work. Whether or not the original novel be worth translating, is a question we will not now discuss. It is enough for us at present to declare that the version before us is naught. No printer's devil, suddenly advanced to authorship, could easily produce specimens of more uncouth English than may be found in page after page of these volumes. Such crambo diction might be barely tolerable in an essay on German Transcendentalism, or on Queen Dido's Shoebuckles, but it must be fatal to a work which pretends to amuse the reader.

The Anglo-Indian Passages Homeward and Outward; or, a Card for the Overland Traveller from Southampton to Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta, &c. &c. By DAVID LEICESTER RICHARDSON. don: Madden and Malcolm. 1845.

Lon

This is

THIS is an interesting and instructive volume, while it has the advantage of being extremely small. It describes the whole passage from England to India, very briefly, of course, but nevertheless with sufficient fulness to excite the curiosity of the reader. Mr. Richardson does not aim at satisfying us. He tells those who perform the overland journey, what they ought to see, and almost everywhere indicates the sources whence they may obtain complete information. more particularly the case in the part which relates to Egypt, where at every step the traveller may behold something worthy of examination. Alexandria, with its environs, is rather minutely described; but Mr. Richardson apparently found that to proceed all through the country on the same scale, would have betrayed him into too great length. He afterwards, therefore, becomes more rapid, and by the hurry of the narrative, suggests the same sort of feeling that must be experienced by the overland tourist. On arriving at Cairo, instead of attempting a new delineation of all the great objects of curiosity by which it is surrounded, Mr. Richardson has with equal modesty and judgment adopted the elaborate descriptions of former travellers, who had enjoyed ample leisure to observe and record their impressions on the spot. The pieces of poetry introduced into the volume from Mr. Richardson's own pen, are original, polished, and elegant. The ocean sketches must vividly recall to every one, who has journeyed over the great deep, the grand natural phenomena which presented themselves to his view. The directions and miscellaneous information given in the appendix will be found particularly useful to those proceeding to India for the first time.

A Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zena, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Sclavonic Languages. By Professor BOPP. Translated from the German, principally by Lieutenant EASTWICK. Conducted through the press by Professor WILSON: London, Madden and Malcolm, 1845.

It is scarcely requisite that we should do more than announce this work, congratulate our philological readers on its appearance in a most careful and trustworthy English version, and, on their behalf and our own, return thanks to the editors and publishers, who have performed their several parts in so creditable a manner, and to Lord Francis Egerton, who, we are told, suggested the publication, and has taken a liberal interest in its promotion. The character of Bopp's great work is too well established to call for comment here. The translation will, of course, be speedily in the hands of every philological inquirer in the British empire. With this conviction on our minds, we shall look with some curiosity to its sale, for we shall regard this as a test and measure of the value practically ascribed to the physiology of language by British scholars.

Hebrew Reading Lessons: consisting of the First Four Chapters of the Book of Genesis, and the Eighth Chapter of the Book of Proverbs, with a Grammatical Praxis and an Interlineary Translation. 70 pp. London: Bagster.

WE doubt that there exists, for any language, a first reading-book so complete in all respects as this admirable little volume. By a very ingenious, and, as we believe, novel typographical contrivance, it really affords the student an intuitive perception of the structure and mechanism of the Hebrew words and phrases. The notes are just what they ought to be, and no more; copious in information and succinct in form. We do not exaggerate in alleging our belief, that with the help of this manual, the young Hebrew scholar may compress the labour of days into hours-we might almost say minutes.

Adventures in the Pacific; with Observations on the Natural Productions, Manners, and Customs of the Natives of the various Islands, &c. &c. By JOHN COULTER, M.D. Dublin: Curry. 1845. A RAPID, lively narrative, full of amusing incidents, and seasoned with a fine salt-water savour: A capital book for a winter's evening.

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