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and 51st questions and answers. The 50th answer inculcates the necessity of the frequent use of the sign of the cross, and quotes St. Cyril, the bishop of Jerusalem, in the beginning of the 5th century, for his recommendation to the faithful, to make" the venerable sign of the cross, when they eat, drink, sit, walk, speak, or are silent; to begin nothing without previously making it, to make it at home, on the road, by day, by night, and in every place." (Catec. XIII.) catechism then describes, in the following words, the method of making the sign of the cross: "First, with the three first fingers, touch the forehead, and say, • In the name of the Father:' then, bring down the hand, in the same form, to the breast, and say, move the hand to the


And of the Son:' then, right shoulder, and say,

And of the Holy Ghost,' moving the hand, while you say these words, from the right to the left shoulder, and conclude with the word "Amen.'" This form of making the sign of the cross differs from the form, in use in the western church. The words are the same, and the figure of the cross is observed; but, in the western church, the hand is moved from the breast to the left shoulder, and thence to the right. Some have supposed that this difference between the Greek and western churches is owing to the difference of opinion between them, on the procession of the Holy Ghost:-But cardinal Bona, (Op. 824),

mentions the form used in the Greek church, as a form used in ancient times, in some parts of the Latin churches. In making the sign of the cross, the Greek priests generally bow to the ground, and almost touch it with their foreheads; their ease and rapidity in doing it can scarcely be conceived by those, by whom it has not been seen.

The FIFTH ARTICLE, 66 Who, on the third day rose again according to the scriptures," employs the 52, 53, and 54th questions and answers.

The SIXTH ARTICLE is expressed in the following words: "Who ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father ;"-and employs one question and answer. In the latter, this article is said to contain four articles of faith:-1st, "That Christ ascended into heaven, and, with glory and praise, took his seat at the right hand of the Father, in the same body as that in which he had suffered on the cross, and rose from the dead.-2dly, That he ascended into heaven, so far only as he was man ; for that, as God, he always was in heaven, and all other places.-3dly, That Christ, having once assumed human nature from the blessed Virgin, never laid it down, and that, clothed with the same body, he will come to judgment.-4thly, That Christ, now, is in heaven only; and is not on earth, in that mode of his body, which he formerly used, while he resided on earth; but that, in the sacramental mode, in which he is present in the sacred table, he is, by transubstantiation, present on

earth, the same Son of God, both God and man. For the substance of bread is changed into the substance of the sacred body, and the substance of wine into the substance of his precious blood:wherefore, it behoves us to venerate and adore the sacred eucharist, as our Saviour Jesus Christ himself."

The SEVENTH ARTICLE is expressed in these terms: "And shall come again in glory, to judge the living and the dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end ;" and employs the 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, and 68th questions and answers. These articles explain the doctrines of the Greek church on the condition of the dead. It seems to consist of the eight following points:-1. That Christ is to return to earth, and judge all mankind : -2. That he is to judge them according to their thoughts, words, and deeds :-3. That a sentence of eternal happiness or eternal misery will then be pronounced on each individual, but that the judgment on each will be generally manifested, not separately pronounced:-4. Yet that, though each person at his death is separately judged, the sentence is not executed till the day of judgment, their knowledge of it forming between their deaths and the universal judgment, their happiness or misery:5. That the happiness of the good, and the misery of the wicked, in the next life, differs in degree, but endures for eternity:-6. That there is no middle place, in which the soul is purged of his crimes

by temporary suffering:-7. But that many are snatched and liberated from the gates of hell, in consequence of the pious works and prayers of the survivors; and particularly in consequence of the unbloody sacrifice, which the church offers for the living and the dead :-8. But that the dead do not participate of the prayers and sacrifices offered for them; these being in the nature of suffrages or intercessions with God.

The EIGHTH ARTICLE ;-is expressed in the catechism, in the following terms :-" And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father; and, together with the Father and Son, is adored and glorified, and who spoke by the prophets." This article employs the 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, and 81st questions and answers.

It is generally known that the great point of difference between the Latin and Greek churches, is, that the former maintains, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, and the latter maintains that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only. The opinion of each church is anathematised by the other.

A second charge is brought by the Greeks against the Latins, that they interpolated the genuine text of the Nicene Creed, by foisting into the text, the words, "and the Son-Filioque." On this point, three things are clear,-1st, That the words were inserted in the French and Spanish copies of the creed,

before they were inserted in the Roman; 2d, That Pope Leo the third, though from the beginning, he explicitly avowed and propounded the double procession of the Holy Spirit, yet disapproved, in the first instance, of the insertion of the words in question in the symbol, as an alteration of the original text; 3d, But that, soon after they had been inserted by the French and Spanish churches, they were inserted and chaunted in the Roman liturgies. (See Petav. Dogmata Theologica, 1. 7. p. 362). Through the whole of the dispute, the conduct of Leo was marked with great good sense and moderation. When the Missi of Charlemagne pressed him to declare, that all who rejected the Filioque, or at least, all who rejected the doctrine must be damned, he checked their precipitancy; "all," he said, "are not capable of understanding the higher mysteries: he, who is capable of understanding them, and will not, cannot be saved."(Collect. Conc. tom. ix. p. 277, 286).


The NINTH ARTICLE of the Creed," I believe in the one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church," -begins with the 97th question and answer. Catholic church is said to contain all particular catholic churches. A primacy of rank is said to have been assigned to the church of Jerusalem, for its being the only church, that was favoured with the presence of Christ; the first church, that was honoured by the preaching of the gospel, the first, that received the forgiveness of sins, and the blessing

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