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of salvation, and the church, from which the tidings of the gospel were propagated throughout the world. -Afterwards, (continues the catechism), the emperors conferred a superiority of rank on ancient and new Rome, as the seats of empire, and it was confirmed to them by the 3d canon of the second œcumenical council of Constantinople.

The catechism reckons nine precepts of the church. 1. To assist on Sundays or holidays at the divine offices of the church: 2. To observe the four solemn fasts 3. To reverence the ministers of God, as spiritual fathers: 4. To make a confession of sins, four times a year, to a priest regularly ordained: 5. To avoid reading the books of heretics: 6. To pray to God for every state and order of men: 7. To observe the fasts and devotions commanded by the metropolitan or diocesan bishop: 8. To respect the property of the church, and provide her ministers with a suitable maintenance: 9. Not to solemnize marriages in times forbidden by the church.

The questions and answers on the TENTH ARTICLE of the Nicene Creed ;-"I confess one baptism for the remission of sins," extend from the 97th to the 120th. "Baptism," says the catechism, "being the first mystery of the church, this seems a proper place to discuss her seven mysteries; baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, priesthood, honouable marriage, and extreme unction. These answer to

the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, because, by them the Holy Ghost infuses his gifts and graces on those, who use the sacraments properly: on which subject, the patriarch Hieremias treats at length, in his book for converting the lutherans."

"A mystery is a certain holy ceremony, which, under a visible sign, is the cause of invisible grace, and infuses it into the soul; it is instituted by our Lord, and by it each of the faithful receives grace."

The catechism then explains these mysteries successively. Respecting the eucharist, (question and answer 106), it says," under the visible species of bread and wine, Jesus Christ is present truly and properly, that is, in reality." It then, (question and answer 107), describes the ceremony, and thus proceeds." At the instant of the consecration, the priest is to say, O God! send down thy spirit from heaven upon us, and upon these proffered gifts. Make the bread, the precious body of thy Christ; and that, which is in the cup, make the precious blood of thy Christ; transforming them by the Holy Spirit. While he pronounces these words, the transubstantiation (METUGIW), is instantaneously effected; the bread is changed into the true body of Christ, the wine into his true blood, the species of each remaining visible by the divine disposition. Both priests and laity should participate of this mystery under both kinds, viz. both of the bread and the wine. Moreover the

honour shewn to these tremendous mysteries, should be equal and similar to that which is shewn to Christ himself."

The ELEVENTH ARTICLE, "I expect the resurrection of the dead," employs the 120, 121, 122, 123, and 124th questions and answers.

The TWELFTH ARTICLE, "and the life of the world to come," employs the three remaining questions and answers.


The second and third parts of the Catechism. THE 2d and 3d parts of the Catechism, treat principally of the duties of man :-as the present work is confined to the creeds of Christians, a slight mention only, of these parts of the catechism suits this place.

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The SECOND PART contains a brief exposition of the Lord's Prayer. The words, "For thine are the kingdom and power and glory for ever,' are mentioned as an epilogue to the prayer. The answer to the 28th question, observes, that speaking generally, these words, when a clergyman is present, should be pronounced by the clergyman only, on account of the loftiness of the sentiment which they express: but recommends that they never should be omitted.

Nine Beatitudes are reckoned :-The verse (v. Mat. 11.), "Blessed are ye, when they shall revile you, and persecute you, and speak all that is

naught against you, for my sake: rejoice and exult, for great is your reward in heaven," form the ninth. In treating of the beatitude of the merciful, the catechism reckons seven works of spiritual, and seven of corporal mercy. This part of the catechism contains 63 questions, and as many


The THIRD PART contains 72; and treats of good works, the four cardinal virtues, prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance; original and voluntary sin, the seven capital sins, pride, avarice, fornication, envy, gluttony, desire of revenge, and sloth. Of despair and presumption; of the three sins against the Holy Ghost; of murder, oppression of the poor, and undutifulness to parents, -sins which, even in this life, are said to bring down Divine vengeance on the offenders :-of venial sins; of the manner by which we become guilty of the sins of others; of the two commandments of Christ; and the ten precepts which are derived from them. The worship of God alone, is said not to forbid the invocation of the saints, as friends, through whose intercession God sometimes pleases to bestow his favours.

The fifth answer states, that "there is a great difference between images and idols. For idols are mere works or inventions of men, as the apostle testifies, when he says, (1 Cor. viii. 4.), we know that an idol is nothing in the world.' But an image is the representation of a thing that really


exists in the world. Such is the image of our Lord and Saviour Christ; and the images of the holy Virgin Mary and all the saints. Moreover, the

pagans adored the idols as gods; believing, as did Nebuchodinoser of old, that the gold and silver of them was God. But, when we venerate and adore images, we do not worship the colours tinctured on the wood, or the wood itself; but we worship the saints represented by the images, with that kind of veneration which is termed Dulia: thus bringing their presence into our minds, as if we beheld them with our eyes. For example, when we adore the images of Jesus crucified, then, in the eye of the mind, we place Christ himself, hanging on the cross for our salvation: and we bend our heads and knees to him, with a religious act of thankfulness. In the same manner, when we venerate the image of the Virgin Mary, then we ascend in mind to the most holy mother of God, and bend our head, and bend our knee to her. It is clear, therefore, that this adoration of holy images, received in the orthodox church, does not derogate from the precept. For it is not the same adoration as that which we pay to God; nor is it paid by the orthodox to the image or painting, but to the persons of those saints, which the images represent."

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