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St. Simon Stock, removed from Palestine; and houses of the order were established in many parts of Europe. A reform was introduced into the order by the exertions of St. Theresa. Those, who embraced the reform, were, from their not wearing shoes, called the discalceated, or unshodden Carmelites, in opposition to those who continued calceated, or shodden.
The history of the Carmelites is written in the Speculum Carmelitarum, published at Antwerp, in four volumes, in folio, in 1680.
V. 4. The Hermits of St. Austin, derive their institute from a bull of pope Alexander the fourth, which collected into one order, under that name, several orders of hermits, and prescribed a rule for their government.
V. 5. The four orders, which we have mentioned, are the only orders which the church has acknowledged to be Mendicant. An order is considered to be mendicant, in the proper import of that word, when it has no fixed income, and derives its whole subsistence from casual and uncertain bounty, obtained by personal mendicity. To that, St. Francis did not wish his brethren to have recourse, till they had endeavoured to earn a competent subsistence by labour; and found their earnings insufficient. "With my own hands," he says in his testament, "I laboured and wished to labour; and I earnestly wish all my brethren to labour incessantly, for a decent livelihood. Let those who have not learned
any laborious employment learn one; not from an improper desire of the profit of labour, but, as a good example, and to keep off idleness: and, when we do not receive the wages of our labour, let us then approach the table of the Lord, and beg from door to door." But, soon after the decease of St. Francis, the exertions, equally incessant and laborious, of his disciples, for the spiritual welfare of the faithful, appeared, in the universal opinion of the church, to be both incompatible with manual labour, and much more than a compensation to the public, for all they could possibly obtain from it, by mendicity. This opinion was unequivocally expressed by St. Thomas of Aquin, and sanctioned by a bull of pope, Nicholas the third. From that time, the friars did not use manual labour as a means of subsistence, but resorted, in the first instance, to mendicity. In this sense, it was an article of the rule of St. Francis.
It made no part of the original rule of St. Dominic, or of the original rules of the Carmelites, or the hermits of St. Augustin. Insensibly, however, all of them ingrafted it, by particular constitutions, on their respective rules; and thus, the four orders which we have mentioned became the four mendicant orders; but St. Francis was the only founder of a religious order, of whose original rule mendicity was an article.
Experience soon discovered, that many spiritual and many temporal evils attended mendicity. In
consequence of them, some of the Franciscan establishments, and almost all the establishments of the three other orders, began to acquire permanent property. This, the church first permitted, and afterwards countenanced; and the council of Trent confined mendicity to the Observantines and Capucins.
IN 1534, St. Ignatius of Loyola laid the foundation of the SOCIETY OF JESUS, by the vow, which, with his ten companions, he took in the chapel of Montmartre near Paris. In 1540, and 1543, his institute was approved by pope Paul the third. In the history of the life of St. Ignatius, written by father Bouhours, one of the most elegant works in the French language, the reader will find a succinet account of the constitutions of this celebrated society. Some account of them is also given by the present writer, in his Historical and Biographical Memoirs of the Church of France, during the reigns of Lewis the fourteenth and Lewis the fifteenth.
A complete series of the historians of the Society of Jesus may be seen in De Bure, in his Bibliographie Instructive, Histoire Ecclésiastique, section IV. 4. 55. Those, who read the Provincial Letters of Pascal, should also read father Daniel's Reponse aux Lettres Provinciales, and his Letters au Père Alexandre. "No author," says Doctor Maclaine, in a note (u) to his translation of Mosheim's
Ecclesiastical History, cent. xvi. part 1, c. 35, "has given a more accurate, precise, and clear enumeration of the objections, that have been made to the moral doctrine of the Jesuits, and the reproaches that have been cast on their rules of life; and none, at the same time, has defended their cause with more art and dexterity, than the eloquent and ingenious Gabriel Daniel, (a famous member of their order), in a piece intitled, Entretiens de Cléandre et d'Eudoxe." His Lettres au Père Alexandre, are written with still greater point and elegance. Those, who read more recent publications against them, should also read L'Apologie de l'Institut des Jesuites, and Mr. Dallas's New Conspiracy against the Jesuits detected, and briefly exposed, an elegant and able work.
The reign of Louis the fourteenth was illustrated by several religious communities, which, during that period, were either founded or first established in France. Without being bound by religious vows, the members lived in community, in the observance of certain settled rules, and thus far, had a resemblance to religious orders. Such were the Oratorians, the Lazarists, and the Sulpiciens.
The Oratorians were particularly given to the study of theology and sacred literature, and, possessing Mallebranche, Lami, Simon, Le Brun, and
other able writers, attracted, in a high degree, the notice of the public. The Lazarists and Sulpiciens courted obscurity. The character given by M. de Bausset of the Sulpiciens, in his life of Fenelon, may be applied equally to them and the Lazarists. In perusing it, the reader will probably be put in mind of the beautiful lines, in which the poet, in his Temple of Fame, (verse 356-366), describes the smallest tribe he yet had seen. "Avoiding public notice," says M. de Bausset, "engaging in no contest, resigning to others those good works which confer celebrity, it was their object to be actively employed in the service of the church, in the most obscure and most humble functions: and, within that modest, but useful line of duty, their exertions were uniformly confined. They had numerous establishments in France, and existed 150 years, without the slightest abatement of their first fervor, when at the beginning of the French revolution, they perished in the general wreck of what was most respectable and holy in France."
VIII. 1. It remains to give some account of the MILITARY ORDERS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. Some time before the first crusade, an hospital was established at Jerusalem, for the relief of the poor pilgrims who resorted there. In 1100, Gerard, the director of it, and his companions, professed themselves members of the order of St. Benedict, and