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no doubt, that men will erect statues to you, for your exertions to deprive them of their religion. Permit me to tell you, that the part you act, makes you odious and despicable in the eyes of all honest men.' He finished the conversation by requesting Mr. Collins to bring him no more such visitors.

From the close of the 17th century, till the present time, arminianism has been continually on the increase. It is a just observation of Mr. Gibbon, that "the disciples of Arminius must not be computed by their separate congregations."







or long after the commencement of the reformation, several persons began to deny the trinity of persons in the Deity, and the divine authority of the Old and New Testament. From these, the modern unitarians descend directly; the socinians are more properly a sect which has branched from the early anti-trinitarians, than their descendants. We shall first mention the socinians, and then show the difference between the socinian and

X. 1.

AGAINST the unitarian impugners of the Trinity and the divine authority of the scriptures, the roman-catholics and protestants made a common cause. To avoid their hostilities, the maintainers of such opinions settled themselves in Poland; and insensibly formed distinct congregations. Great contests taking place between them and the protestant communities of Poland, they were ordered, by a resolution of the diet of Petrickow, in 1565, to separate themselves into a distinct congregation. This was done; and, from the town, in which the chief of them resided, they received the name of Pinczovians. In this state they published, in 1574, their first catechism; Catechismus et Confessio Fidei cœtus per Poloniam Congregati, in nomine Jesu Christi Domini nostri crucifixi et resuscitati, MDLXXIV. Typis Alexandri Turobini, 12mo.

This catechism is reckoned among the greatest typographical curiosities. It expresses, unequivocally, that Jesus Christ is subject to the Father, and seems to exclude mystery from its creed. It is ascribed to Gregory Paul, an eminent lutheran divine of the principal reformed church of Cracow, who, about the year 1556, became a convert to socinian principles. It is probably the work noticed by Sandius, Biblioth. Anti-Trinitariorum, p. 44; and by Mosheim (Cent. XVI. § 3, Pars. II. note.)

He gives an interesting account

of its contents, and ascribes it to the celebrated George Schoman.

The advocates of its doctrines established congregations at Cracow, Lubin, Pinczow, Luck and Smila. But their most flourishing settlement was at Racow, a city in the district of Sendomir. Before their settlement at Racow, they composed two versions of the sacred writings, one in 1565, while they lived in communion with the Helvetic churches; the other in 1572, after their separation.

In the mean time, similar opinions had been propagated in Italy, by Lælius Socinus. Being obliged, on this account, to leave it, he travelled into most countries of Europe, and finally settled at Zurich. Ostensibly, he adopted the Helvetic Confession, but retained his particular opinions; and, at his death, bequeathed several writings in support of them to Faustus Socinus, his nephew; inferior to him in learning, but superior to him in genius and energy. The religious opinions of Faustus Socinus becoming generally known, he was obliged to quit Zurich. After much wandering, he settled at Racow. There, he was received by the new communion with open arms; and he completed their system of theology. From him, they derived their appellation of Socinians. The Polish churches committed to him and Peter Statorius, the task of revising the existing catechism, and printing it, in an improved form. Both died before they had completed the undertaking. It

was then delegated to Valentine Smalcius and Jerom Moscorovius. By them, it was finished, and published in 1605, in the Polish language. It is the work now known by the title of the Racovian Catechism, and is considered to be the Confession of Faith of the Socinians. In the In the year 1609, Moscorovius published a new edition of it; he prefixed to it a dedication to James the first of England. An edition in the German language, dedicated to the academy of Wittemberg, followed in 1612. Soon afterwards, John Cornelius, or Knoll, published a Dutch edition; but, on account of some deviations from the original, and particularly the omission of the articles relating to baptism and the Lord's supper, it was generally disowned. An English translation of the edition of 1605, was published at Amsterdam in 1652. Dr. Toulmin, in his Life of Socinus, ascribes it, seemingly by conjecture, to Mr. John Biddle.


Some years afterwards, this catechism received considerable additions, as well as alterations, from the pens of Crellius and Schlichtingius. enlarged edition was published in 12mo. in 1665, with a prefatory discourse, on the right of private judgment in religion. A Dutch translation of it was published in 1666. In 1680, Andrew Wissowat republished the work in 4to., with some notes of his own, and some alterations, chiefly verbal and generally unimportant, of the


Another edition appeared in 12mo. in 1684. This contained all the notes given in 1680, with the addition of others by Benedict Wissowat, and an anonymous writer, who signs himself F. C., perhaps Florianus Crusius, a socinian physician of some eminence. The body of this edition is, unquestionably, a part of the impression of the edition of 1665, the pages corresponding, and the errata being identically the same. The new part consists of the title page, the notes of the two Wissowats, and F. C., which are printed at the end. Dr. Rees is now engaged on a translation of this edition.

In 1739, the edition of 1609 was reprinted at Frankfort, with copious notes, designed as an answer to its doctrines, by G. L. Oeder, a lutheran divine: they are said by Mosheim to be successfully executed. He mentions a work,

Commentatio de Catechesi Racoviensi, published in 1757, by S. A. Schmidius, and like the rest of that learned author's writings, now become extremely scarce.

The first cathechism of Racow ranks among the greatest typographical rarities: the second is nearly as rare; all the other editions, which we have mentioned, are scarce. A curious history of Socinianism was published at Paris, with the title, "Histoire du Socinianisme, divisée en deux parties, ou l'on voit son origine et les progrès que les Sociniens ont fait dans differens Royaumes de la Chretienté,

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