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colouration. Using these characters, I divide the Malayan Papilios into four sections, and seventeen groups, as follows :—
a. Priamus-group. 1
c. Brookeanus-group. J Black and green.
b. Pompeus-group. Black and yellow. Genus Papilio.
A. Larvae short, thick, with numerous fleshy tubercles;
of a purplish colour.
a. Nox-group. Abdominal fold in male very large;
anal valves small, but swollen; antennae moderate; wings entire, or tailed; includes the Indian Philoxenus-group.
b. Ooon-group. Abdominal fold in male small; anal
valves small, but swollen; antennae moderate; wings tailed.
c. Polydorus-group. Abdominal fold in male small,
or none; anal valves small or obsolete, hairy; wings tailed or entire.
B. Larvae with third segment swollen, transversely or
obliquely banded; pupa much bent. Imago with abdominal margin in male plaited, but not reflexed; body weak; antennae long; wings much dilated, often tailed.
iProtenor - group (Indian) is somewhat intermediate between these, and is nearest to the Nox-group, g. Helenus-group. h. Erectheus-group. i. Pammon-group, k. Demolion-group. 0. Larvae subcylindrical, variously coloured. Imago with abdominal margin in male plaited, but not reflexed; body weak; antennae short, with a thick curved club; wings entire.
1. Erithonius-group. Sexes alike, larva and pupa something like those of P. Demotion.
m. Paradoxa-group. Sexes different.
n. Dissimilis - group. Sexes alike; larva bright coloured; pupa straight, cylindric.
D. Larvae elongate, attenuate behind, and often bifid, with lateral and oblique pale stripes, green. Imago with the abdominal margin in male reflexed, woolly or hairy within; anal valves small, hairy; antennae short, stout; body stout.
o. Macareus-group. Hind wings entire.
p. Antiphates-group. Hind wings much tailed (swallow-tails).
q. Eurypylus-group. Hind wings elongate or tailed.
Making, in all, twenty distinct groups of Malayan Papilionidse.
The first section of the genus Papilio (A) comprises insects which, though differing considerably in structure, having much general resemblance. They all have a weak, low flight, frequent the most luxuriant forestdistricts, seem to love the shade, and are the objects of mimicry by other Papilios.
Section B consists of weak-bodied, large-winged insects, with an irregular wavering flight, and which, when resting on foliage, often expand the wings, which the species of the other sections rarely or never do. They are the most conspicuous and striking of eastern Butterflies.
Section C consists of much weaker and slower-flying insects, often resembling in their flight, as well as in their colours, species of Danaidae.
Section D contains the strongest-bodied and most swift-flying of the genus. They love sunlight, and frequent the borders of streams and the edges of puddles, where they gather together in swarms consisting of several species, greedily sucking up the moisture, and, when disturbed, circling round in the air, or flying high and with great strength and rapidity.
Geographical Distribution,—One hundred and thirty species of Malayan Papilionidse are now known within the district extending from the Malay peninsula, on the north-west, to Woodlark Island, near New Guinea, on the south-east.
The exceeding richness of the Malayan region in these fine insects is seen by comparing the number of species found in the different tropical regions of the earth. From all Africa only 33 species of Papilio are known; but as several are still undescribed in collections, we may raise their number to about 40. In all tropical Asia there are at present described only 65 species, and I have seen in collections but two or three which have not yet been named. In South America, south of Panama, there are 150 species, or about oneseventh more than are yet known from the Malayan region; but the area of the two countries is very different; for while South America (even excluding Patagonia) contains 5,000,000 square miles, a line encircling the whole of the Malayan islands would only include an area of 2,700,000 square miles, of which the land-area would be about 1,000,000 square miles. This superior richness Is partly real and partly apparent. The breaking up of a district into small isolated portions, as in an archipelago, seems highly favourable to the segregation and perpetuation of local peculiarities in certain groups; so that a species which on a continent might have a wide range, and whose local forms, if any,^ would be so connected together that it would be impossible to separate them, may become by isolation reduced to a number of such clearly defined and constant forms that we are obliged to count them as species. From this point of view, therefore, the greater proportionate number of Malayan species may be considered as apparent only. Its true superiority is shown, on the other hand, by the possession of three genera and twenty groups of Papilionidae against a single genus and eight groups in South America, and also by the much greater average size of the Malayan species. In most other families, however, the reverse is the case, the South American Nymphalidas, Satyridse, and Erycinidse far surpassing those of the East in number, variety, and beauty.
The following list, exhibiting the range and distribution of each group, will enable us to study more easily their internal and external relations.
Range of the Groups of Malayan Papilionidce. Ornithoptera.
1. Priamus - group. Moluccas to Woodlark
Island... 5 species.
2. Poinpeus - group. Himalayas to New
Guinea, (Celebes, maximum) 11 „
3. Brookeana-group. Sumatra and Borneo... 1 „
4. Nox-group. North India, Java, and Philip
pines ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 species.
5. Coon-group. North. India to Java 2 „
6. Polydorus- group. India to New Guinea
and Pacific 7 „
7. Ulysses-group. Celebes to New Caledonia 4 „
8. Peranthus - group. India to Timor and
Moluccas (India, maximum) 9 „
9. Memnon-group. India to Timor and Mo
luccas (Java, maximum) 10 „
10. Helenus-group. Africa and India to New
Guinea 11 „
11. Pammon-group. India to Pacific and Aus
tralia 9 „
12. Erectheus-group. Celebes to Australia ... 8 „
13. Demolion-group. India to Celebes ... 2 „
14. Erithonius-group. Africa, India, Australia 1 „
15. Paradoxa-group. India to Java (Borneo,
maximum) 5 .,
16. Dissimilis-group. India to Timor (India,
maximum) ... 2 „
17. Macareus-group. India to New Guinea ... 10 „
18. Antiphates-group. Widely distributed ... 8 „
19. Eurypylus-group. India to Australia ... 15 „
20 Leptocircus-group. India to Celebes ... 4 „
This Table shows the great affinity of the Malayan with the Indian Papilionidse, only three out of the twenty groups ranging beyond, into Africa, Europe, or America. The limitation of groups to the IndoMalayan or Austro-Malayan divisions of the archipelago, which is so well marked in the higher animals, is much less conspicuous in insects, but is shown in some degree by the Papilionidae. The following groups