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First published in the “Anthropological Review,” May, 1864. Now reprinted with a few important alterations and additions. I had intended to have considerably extended this essay, but on attempting it I found that I should probably weaken the effect without adding much to the argument. I have therefore preferred to leave it as it was first written, with the exception of a few ill-considered passages which never fully expressed my meaning. As it now stands, I believe it contains the enunciation of an important truth.


This is the further development of a few sentences at the end of an article on “Geological Time and the Origin of Species,” which appeared in the “Quarterly Review,” for April, 1869. I have here ventured to touch on a class of problems which are usually considered to be beyond the boundaries of science, but

which, I believe, will one day be brought within her domain.

For the convenience of those who are acquainted with any of my essays in their original form, I subjoin references to the more important additions and alterations now made to them.


Essays I. and II. are unaltered, but short notes are added at pp. 19, 24, 29, and 40.

III.-Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances

among Animals. PAGE

53 Additional illustration of protective colouring in the case of the wood-dove and the robin. 63. On moths resembling bird’s dung and mortar. 86 Correction of some names of African Papilios and a reference to Mr. Trimen’s observations. 89 Mr. Jenner Weir's observation on birds which refused to eat Spilosoma menthrasti. 102 An additional case of snake mimicry in Oayrhopus trigeminus. 107 Mr. Salvin’s case of mimicry among hawks. 113 Name, Diadema anomala, added. 117 to 122. Use of gay colours in caterpillars, with an

account of Mr. Jenner Weir's and Mr. Butler's observations.

IV.-The Malayan Papilionidae or Swallow-tailed

Butterflies, as illustrative of the Theory of Natural

135 to 140. Additions to the discussion on the rank of the Papilionidae, and on the principles which determine the comparative rank of groups in the animal kingdom.

PAGE 164 Illustration of variability from Mr. Baker's revision of the British Roses. 173 Additional facts, on local variations of colour. 196 Additional genus of birds (Ceycopsis) peculiar to Celebes. . 199, 200. Concluding remarks.

VI.-The Philosophy of Birds’ Wests.

218 On nesting of Terns and Gulls, rewritten. 220 to 222. Daines Barrington, and others, on the song of birds. 223. On young birds learning to build, by memory and imitation. 224 Levaillant, on mode of nest-building. 229 On imperfect adaptation in birds’ nests.

VII.—A Theory of Birds' Nests.

231, 232. Introductory passages modified, with some omissions. 233 How modifications of organization would affect the form of the nest. 235 Illustration from the habits of children and savages. 235, 236. Objection to term “hereditary habit ’’ answered. . 237 Passage rewritten, on more or less variable characters in relation to nidification. 248 On males choosing or rejecting females, and on the various modes in which colour may be

acquired by female birds.

249 On probable ancestral colours of female birds.
255 Protective colouring of the Waxwing.

VIII.-Creation by Law.

293 Amount of variation in dogs.

296,297. The “Times” on Natural Selection.

298 to 300. On intermediate or generalized forms of extinct animals as an indication of transmutation or development.

302 Tabular demonstration of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection.

IX. —The development of Human Races, under the law of Natural Selection.

316 On colour as perhaps correlated with immunity from disease in man. -

326, 327. On the probable future development of man.

330 Concluding paragraph rewritten,

London, March, 1870.

THE flattering reception of my Essays by the public and the press having led to a second edition being called for within a year of its first publication, I have taken the opportunity to make a few necessary corrections. I have also added a few passages to the 6th and 7th Essays, and have given two notes, explanatory of some portions of the last chapter which

appear to have been not always understood. These additions are as follows:—

To avoid altering the paging the additional pages now given have been lettered.

1st Ed. | 2nd Ed. 221 221 Additional facts as to birds acquiring the song of other species. 223 223A) | Mr. Spruce's remarks on young birds :..) pairing with old. . 228 :) Pouchet's observations on a change 228B in the nests of swallows. 229 tog Passage omitted about nest of Golden Crested Warbler, which had been inserted on Rennie's authority, but has not been confirmed by any later observers. 261 261 Daines Barrington, on importance of - protection to the female bird. 372 Note A.

372B | Note B.

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