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sense of them by long and ignominious patience, Instead of palliating remedies, let us use the incisionknife and the caustic, search the wound to the bottom, and work an immediate and radical cure.
The recalling of former misfortunes serves to fortify the mind against latter. He must blush to sink under the anguish of one wound, who surveys a body feamed over with the fcars of many, and who has come victorious out of all the conflicts wherein he received them. Let fighs and tears, and fainting under the lightest strokes of adverse fortune, be the portion of those unhappy people whose tender minds a long course of felicity has enervated : while such, as have paffed through years of calaanity, bear up, with a noble and immoveable constancy, against the heaviest. Uninterrupted misery has this good effect, as it continually torments, it finally hardens.
Such is the language of philosophy: and happy is the man who acquires the right of holding it. But this right is not to be acquired by pathetic discourse. Our conduct can alone give it us: and therefore, instead of presuming on our strength, the furest method is to confess our weakness, and, without lots of time, to apply ourselves to the study of wisdom. This was the advice which the oracle Save to Zeno *, and there is no other way of securing our tranquillity amidst all the accidents to which human life is exposed. Philosophy has, I know, her brosos, as well as war : and among her sons many there have been, who, while they aimed at being more than men, became something less. The means of preventing this danger are easy and sure. It is a good rule to examine well before we addict ourselves to any fect : but I think it is a better rule, to addict ourselves to none. Let us hear them all, with a perfect indifferency on which fide the truth lies : and, when we come to determine, let nothing appear fo venerable to us as our own understandings. Let us gratefully accept the help of every one who has endeavored to correct the vices, and strengthen the minds of men ; but let us chufe for ourselves, and yield universal afsent to none. Thus, that I may instance the feet already mentioned, when we have laid aside the wonderful and surprising fentences, and all the paradoxes of the Portique, we shall find in that school such doctrines as our unprejudiced reasons submits to with pleasure, as nature dictates, and as experience confirms. Without this precaution, we run the risque of becoming imaginary kings, and real llaves. With it we may learn to assert our native freedom, and live inde. pendent on fortune.
* Diog. Laert.
In order to which great end, it is necessary that we stand watchful, as centinels, to discover the lecret wiles and open attacks of this capricious goddess, before they reach us * Where she falls upon us unexpected, it is hard to resist; but those who wait for her, will repel her with ease. The sudden invasion of an enemy overthrows such as are not on their guard ; but they who foresee the war, and prepare themselves for it before it breaks out, stand, without difficulty, the first and the fiercest onset. I learned this important lesson long ago, and never trusted to fortune even while she seemed to be at peace with me.
The riches, the honors, the reputation, and all the advantages which her treacherous indulgence poured upon me, I placed so, that She might snatch them away without giving me any disturbance. I kept a greạt interval between me and them. She took them, but she could not tear them from me. No man suffers by bad fortune, but he who has been deceived by good. If we grow fond of her gifts, fancy that they belong to us,
* Sen. De con. ad Hel.
and are perpetually to remain with us, if we lean upon them, and expect to be considered for them; we fhall fink into all the bitterness of grief, as soon as these false and transitory benefits pass away, as foon as our vain and childish minds, unfraught with folid pleasures, become destitute even of those which are imaginary. But, if we do not suffer ourselves to be transported by prosperity, neither fall we be reduced by adversity: Our souls will be of proof against the dangers of both these states : and, hav. ing explored our strength, we shall be sure of it; for in the midst of felicity, we shall have tried how we can bear misfortune.
It is much harder to examine and judge, than to take up opinions on trust; and therefore the far greatest part of the world borrow, from others, those which they entertain concerning all the affairs of life and death *. Hence it proceeds that men are so unanimously eager in the pursuit of things, which, far from having any inherent real good, are varnished over with a specious and deceitful gloss, and contain nothing answerable to their appearances to Hence it proceeds, on the other hand, that, in those things which are called evils, there is nothing so hard and terrible as the general cry of the world threatens. The word exile comes indeed harsh to the ear, and strikes us like a melancholy and execrable found, through a certain persuasion which men have habitually concurred in. Thus the multitude has ordained. But the greatest part of their ordinances are abrogated by the wife.
Rejecting therefore the judgment of those who determine according to popular opinions, or the first appearances of things, let us examine what
* Dum unusquisque mavult credere, quam judicare, nunquam de vita judicatur, femper creditur. Sen. De vita beat. + Sen. Dc con. ad Hel.
exile really is *. It is then, a change of place; and, left you should say that I diminish the object, and conceal the most shocking parts of it, I add, that this change of place is frequently accoinpanied by some or all of the following inconveniencies; by the loss of the estate which we enjoyed, and the rank which we held; by the loss of that confideration and power which we were in possession of; by a separation from our family and our friends; by the contempt which we may fall into; by the ignominy with which those who have driven us abroad, will endeavor to sully the innocence of our characters, and to justify the injustice of their own conduct.
All these shall be spoke to hereafter. In the mean while, let us consider what evil there is, in change of place, abstractedly and by itself.
To live deprived of one's country is intolerable : Is it so ? How comes it then to pass that such numbers of men live out of their countries by choice? Observe how the streets of London and Paris are crowded. Call over thofe millions by name, and ask them, one by one, of what country they are : how many will you find, who, from different
parts of the earth, come to inhabit these great cities, which afford the largest opportunities, and the largest encouragement, to virtue and to více? Some are drawn by ambition, and some are sent by duty; many resort thither to improve their minds, and many to improve their fortunes ; others bring their beauty, and others their eloquence, to market. Remove from hence, and go to the utmost extremities of the East or the West : visit the barbarous nations of Africa, or the inhospitable regions of the North : you will find no climate fo bad, no coun
* Sen. De con. ad Hel.
try so favage, as not to have some people who come from abroad, and inhabit there by choice.
Among numberless extravagancies which have . passed through the minds of men, we may justly reckon for one, that notion of a secret affection, independent of our reason, and superior to our reafon, which we are supposed to have for our country; as if there were some physical virtue in every spot of ground, which necessarily produced this effect in every one born upon
“Amor patriæ ratione valentior omni *.”
As if the heimyei was an universal distemper, inseparable from the constitution of a human body, and not peculiar to the Swiss, who seem to have been made for their mountains, as their mountains seem to have been made for them t. This notion may have contributed to the security and grandeur of states. It has therefore been not unartfully cultivated, and the prejudice of education has been with care put on its fide. Men have come in this case, as in many, from believing that it ought to be so to persuade others, and even to believe themselves that it is so. Procopius relates that Abgarus came to Rome, and gained the esteem and friendship of Augustus to such a degree, that this emperor could not resolve to let him return home: that Abgarus brought several beasts, which he had taken one day in hunt. ing, alive to Auguftus: that he placed in different parts of the Circus some of the earth which belonged to the places where each of these animals had been caught; that as soon as this was done, and they were turned loose, every one of thein ran to that corner where his earth lay: that Auguftus, admiring their sentiment of love for their country
* Ov. Dc Ponto, El. iv.
+ Card. Benti. Let.