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be advanced, both in learning and godliness, to the honour and praise of Thy Name, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Our Father, which art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in Earth, as it is in Heaven; give us this day our daily bread; And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil; for Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Love of God, and the Fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all evermore. Amen.

Let us Pray.

Most merciful God, we yield Thee our humble and hearty thanks for Thy fatherly care and preservation of us this day, and for the progress which Thou hast enabled us to make in useful learning; we pray Thee to imprint upon our minds whatever good instructions we have received, and to bless them to the advancement of our temporal and eternal welfare; and pardon, we implore Thee, all that Thou hast seen amiss in our thoughts, words, and actions. May Thy good Providence still guide and keep us during the approaching interval of rest and relaxation, so that we may be prepared to enter on the duties of the morrow, with renewed vigour, both of body and mind; and preserve us, we beseech Thee, now and forever, both outwardly in our bodies, and inwardly in our souls, for the sake of Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our Lord. Amen.

Lighten our darkness, we beseech Thee, O Lord; and by Thy great mercy, defend us from all perils and dangers of this night, for the love of Thy only Son, our Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen.

Our Father, which art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in Earth as it is in Heaven; give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil; for Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Love of God, and the Fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all evermore. Amen.

4. Weekly Religious Instruction by the Clergy of each Persuasion. Minute adopted by the Council of Public Instruction, 22nd April, 1857.

That in order to correct misapprehensions and define more clearly the rights and duties of trustees and other parties in regard to religious instruction in con. nection with the common senools, it is decided by the Council of Public Instruction that the clergy of any persuasion, or their authorized representatives, shall have the right to give religious instruction to the pupils of their own church, in each common school house, at least once a week, after the hour of four o'clock in the afternoon; and if the clergy of more than one persuasion apply to give religious instruction in the same school house, the trustees shall decide on what day of the week the school house shall be at the disposal of the clergymen of each persua sion, at the time above stated. But it shall be lawful for the trustees and clergyman of any denomination to agree upon any hour of the day at which such clergyman or his authorized representative may give religious instruction to the pupils of his own church, provided it be not during the regular hours of the school.

5. Duties of Masters.*-(See pages 75-79.)

The eightieth and the seven following sections of the Upper Canada Consolidated Common School Act, prescribe, in explicit and comprehensive terms, the duties

Teachers, in order to avail themselves of the Superannuation Fund provided in part by the Legislature, must become annual subscribers to the fund from the year 1854. The subscription is five dollars per annum for past years and four dollars per annum for the cur

of teachers; and no teacher can legally claim his salary who disregards the requirements of the law. Among other things, the act requires each teacher to "maintain proper order and discipline in his school, according to the authorized forms and regulations." Page 78. The law makes it the duty of the Chief Superintendent of Education to provide the forms; and the Council of Public Instruetion prescribes the following regulations for the guidance of teachers in the conduct and discipline of their schools. See pages 99 and 105.

It shall be the duty of each master of a common and separate school:

1. To receive courteously the visitors appointed by law, page 78, and to afford them every facility for inspecting the books used, and to examine into the state of the school; to have the visitor's book open, that the visitors may, if they choose, enter remarks in it. The frequency of visits to the school by intelligent persons, animates the pupils, and greatly aids the faithful teacher.

2. To keep the registers accurately and neatly, according to the prescribed forms; which is the more important under the Common and Separate School Acts, as they authorize the distribution of the school grants according to the average attendance of pupils attending each school.

3. To classify the children according to the books used; to study those books himself and to teach according to the improved method recommended in their prefaces.

4. To observe himself, and to impress upon the minds of the pupils, the great rule of regularity and order,—A TIME AND A PLACE FOR EVERYTHING, AND EVERY


5. To promote, both by precept and example, CLEANLINESS, NEATNESS, and DECENCY. To effect this the teacher shonld set an example of cleanliness in his own person, and in the state and general appearance of the school. He should also satisfy himself by personal inspection every morning, that the children have had their hands and faces washed, their hair combed, and clothes cleaned, and when necessary, mended. The school apartments, too, should be swept and dusted every evening. See No. 13, page 28.

6. To pay the strictest attention to the morals and general conduct of his pupils, to omit no opportunity of inculcating the principles of TRUTH and HONESTY; the duties of respect to superiors, and obedience to all persons placed in authority over them.

7. To evince a regard for the improvement and general welfare of his pupils, to treat them with kindness combined with firmness; and to aim at governing them by their affections and reason, rather than by harshness and severity.

8. To cultivate kindly and affectionate feelings among his pupils; to discountenance quarrelling, cruelty to animals, and every approach to vice.

9. Punctually to observe the hours for opening and dismissing the school. Shall, also, during the school hours, faithfully devote himself to the public service; shall see that the exercises of the school be opened and closed each morning and evening as stated in the preceding part of this section; shall daily exert his best endeavours, by example and precept, to impress upon the minds of the pupils the principles and morals of the Christian religion, especially those vir

rent year, which should be transmitted, early in the year, to the Chief Superintendent of Education. No teachers now engaged in teaching will be entitled to share in this fund, unless they punctually pay their annual subscriptions beginning with the year 1854. This regulation will be strictly enforced in all cases.

*The fifth clause of the eighty-second section of the Upper Canada Consolidated Common School Act, page 78, makes it the duty of the teacher, at the time of his leaving a school, "to deliver up to the (written) order of the trustees, the Register and Visitors' Book appertain ing to the school," besides giving access to them at all times when desired. The first section of the Common School Law Amendment Act of 1860, imposes a penalty on teachers who refuse to comply with the order of their trustees in this respect. See page 79. In regard to procuring Registers, &c., see NOTE on page 77.

tues of piety, truth, patriotism and humanity, which are the basis of law and freedom, and the cement and ornament of society.

10. To practise such discipline in his school as would be exercised by a judicious parent in his family; avoiding corporal punishment, except when it shall appear to him to be imperatively necessary; and in all such cases he shall keep a record of the offences and punishments, for the inspection of the trustees, at or before the next public examination, when said record shall be destroyed.

11. For gross misconduct, or a violent or wilful opposition to bis authority, the master may suspend a pupil from attending at the school, forthwith informing the parent or guardian of the fact, and the reason of it, and communicating the same to the trustees, through the chairman or secretary. But no pupil shall be expelled without the authority of the trustees.

12. When the example of any pupil is very hurtful to the school, and in all cases where reformation appears hopeless, it shall be the duty of the master, with the approbation of the trustees, to expel such pupil from the school. But any pupil under the publle censure, who shall express to the master his regret for such a course of conduct, as openly and explicitly as the case may require, shall, with the approbation of the trustees and master, be re-admitted to the school.

13. The trustees having made such provisions relative to the school-house and its appendages, as are required by the fourth clause of the twenty-seventh section, and the seventh clause of the seventy-ninth section of the Upper Canada Consolidated Common School Act, pages 28 and 72, it shall be the duty of the master to give strict attention to the proper ventilation and temperature, as well as to the cleanliness of the school-house; he shall also prescribe such rules for the use of the yard and out-buildings connected with the school-house, as will insure their being kept in a neat and proper condition; and he shall be held responsible for any want of neatness and cleanliness about the premises.

14. Care shall be taken to have the school-house ready for the reception of pupils at least fifteen minutes before the time prescribed for opening the school, in order to afford shelter to those who may arrive before the appointed hour.

3. Duties of Pupils.

1. Pupils must come to the school clean in their persons and clothes.

2. Tardiness on the part of pupils shall be considered a violation of the rules of the school, and shall subject the delinquents to such penalty as the nature of the case may require, at the discretion of the master.

3. No pupil shall be allowed to depart before the hour appointed for closing school, except in case of sickness, or some pressing emergency; and then the master's consent must first be obtained.

4. A pupil absenting himself from school, except on account of sickness, or other urgent reasons satisfactory to the master, forfeits his standing in his class, and his right to attend the school for the remainder of the quarter.

5. No pupil shall be allowed to remain in the school unless he is furnished with the books and requisites required to be used by him in the school; but in case of a pupil being in danger of losing the advantages of the school, by reason of his inability to obtain the necessary books or requisites, through the poverty of his parent or guardian, the trustees have power to procure and supply such pupil with the books and requisites needed.

6. The tuition fees, as fixed by the trustees, whether monthly or quarterly, shall be payable in advance; and no pupil shall have a right to enter or continue in the school until he shall have paid the appointed fee. See pages 35 and 36.


1. Suggestions to Teachers on the Duties of their Profession. (See pages 75-79.)

(From the Chief Superintendent's Circular of August, 1850.)

The Upper Canada Consolidated Common School Act, provides trustees with greater facilities for raising the salaries of teachers and furnishing the schools with all needful maps, apparatus and text books [pages 29, 50 and 72], than I know of in any other country; while, at the same time, it makes corresponding provision for the punctual payment of Teachers, both from the school fund and school rates [pages 32 and .] You have only to study carefully the provisions of the Act to be impressed with the conviction, that they have been conceived in the spirit of the warmest regard for the interests and efficiency of the teacher's profession; and contain all that can be secured by law to a teacher, under a system of local self-government, where the patronage and emoluments of each school (beyond the amount of the school fund apportioned to each school section) are in the hands of a local elective corporation, and not of a central executive, as in other systems of government. The facilities for Normal School instruction to all teachers who wish to avail themselves of it, are also greater, under the liberal provisions of the new Act, than in any other country in America. A valuable series of uniform text books [page 40], coming so generally into use, and the trustees being authorized to supply all the pupils with them, cannot fail greatly to relieve and facilitate the labours of the teacher.




Such being your position, relations and prospects under the provisions of the new school act, I am desirous of making a few general remarks and suggestions relative to your future conduct.





Permit me first to say, value your profession. If you do not value it, others will not. But do not show your estimate of it, by assuming lofty airs, or making lofty pretensions; but by making yourself thoroughly master of it, by devoting your energies to it, by becoming imbued with its spirit. Let your actions speak, and let your heart feel. If an orator would have his audience feel, he must first feel himself; and if a teacher does not feel, and does not give proof that he feels, the value and importance of his work, can he reasonably expect others to do so? We often hear it said, "Teachers are not respected." But is it not almost as often true, that teachers do not respect themselves-that they do not act respectablythat they themselves provoke the disrespect of which they complain. A teacher cannot be made respectable by Act of Parliament. He must make himself so. In every ordinary employment of life, a man who acts upon high principles, and shows that he understands and values his business, will invariably command respect. Nor are the teacher and his work an exception to the general rule. Nay, wherever a teacher has shown himself the possessor of noble principles, and that he understood and loved his work, has he not commanded respect, and soon acquired commanding influence in the neighborhood of his residence? I am persuaded that the people of Upper Canada do not, to any considerable extent, disrespect teachers worthy of respect. Then, if you value your profession yourself, employ the proper means to give it a place, not only in the esteem, but in the interests and sympathies of others. The profession of a Teacher is a means to an end; it exists, not for the sake of the teacher himself, but for the interests of society. It is a work indispensable to the progress and well-being of society. What is the teacher's work? It is to develop the mind, to mould the heart, and to form the character of the future citizens, magistrates and rulers of our land! It is to teach and implant that which is the only true guarantee of liberty, order, and social stability-the





essential element of a country's prosperity and happiness. Show that you sympathize with these objects-that your heart is in them-that your thoughts and aims do not terminate in yourself alone, but embrace others, and especially encircle the rising generation. Such a spirit, like heat in the atmosphere, will be diffusive. Others will imbibe it; the indifferent will become interested, and the selfish will begin to feel the impulses of intelligent generosity; parents will become increasingly anxious for the education of their children, and children will become increasingly anxious to be educated. In any neighbourhood, both in town and country, where any youth are allowed to grow up uneducated, a teacher should be an educational missionary, as well as an educational pastor; and every instance of success will add to his influence and means of support, as well as usefulness. No class of men in the country will derive so large an individual advantage from the progress of society as school-teachers, and they ought to be intent in their efforts to excite every sentiment and feeling, and to procure and circulate every publication, which will tend to diffuse education and knowledge. A teacher who folds his arms in slothful inactivity-neither improving in knowledge himself, nor advancing it among others-and yet complaining that no Hercules comes to his relief, deserves neither respect nor assistance; while the teacher who nobly exerts himself in both acquiring and diffusing knowledge, will receive both emolument and respect, if not admiration and applause.

The mutual intercourse of teachers-mutual visits to each others' schoolsforming, and meeting occasionally or periodically in Associations for mutual improvement, and the promotion of professional objects,-which are no other than public interests;-these and kindred measures, in connexion with professional reading* and industry, cannot fail to contribute much to the success, enjoyment, and social standing of teachers. Professional friendships will be formed; professional feeling will be enkindled; professional zeal and emulation will be excited; professional skill and usefulness will be improved; and teachers will be more respected by the community at large, by thus evincing proper respect for each other. Faithful teachers have already on their side the enlightened part of the community, the press, the pulpit, and the Legislature. Let them be true to themselves and to their profession. Lord Bacon has said truly-“ Every man owes a debt to his profession."



I would also offer a word of caution against discouragement in your work, or disinclination to it, on account of its comparative obscurity It is true, the circle of your daily labours is narrow, and the results of them are remote; there is little variety in your employment, and the monotony of it is only varied by quar terly examinations and short vacations. It therefore requires more than ordinary patience, perseverance and benevolence to pursue your work, month after month, and year after year, with unabated zeal and energy. Yet your work is now a public profession, recognized by law, and none but a teacher examined and licensed according to law is permitted to receive a farthing of the school fund [pages 33, 85, and 107], any more than a person not examined and admitted by the law society is per mitted to practise as a barrister at law. And the results of the work performed in the humble school-house, though remote, will not be uncertain, and may one day appear in the highest position of a free people's gift, or in the most impor tant affairs of a nation's diplomacy, or in the most honored relations of parental and social life. The common school house is the sole educational college for the vast majority of the present youth and future fathers and mothers of our country. That accomplished scholar and elegant writer, Dr. JARED SPARKS, late President of Harvard University, traces his early training, and several years of his apprenticeship in teaching, to the common school; and the great American statesman and orator, the late DANIEL WEBSTER, was accustomed to refer to the common school as his first alma mater, in which was laid the foundation of his future character. Through long months, and in retirement and solitude, the Italian

* See "N. B.," in the Library Regulations, on page 146.

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