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Among the more important articles in this Volume are the following: SWEATING SYSTEM ....... D. F. Schloss.

UNITED STATESSWEDEN.. ................ J. T. BEALBY.

Geography ............... Professor FRANK B. GREENE. SWEDENBORG ............. JAMES SPEIRS.

Geology. ................. Professor N. S. SHALER. .................... STANLEY LANE-POOLE.

Education. .............. RICHARD G. BOONE. SWIMMING.................. C. J. BUTCHER.

History ................... Professor EDWARD CHANNING. SWINBURNE. ................ WALTER WHYTE.

Literature................. Professor Robert Ellis Thompsox. SWITZERLAND.............. Carus D. CUNNINGHAM.

UNIVERSITIES...

P. HUME BROWN. SYDNEY..................... John PLUMMER.

VACCINATION............. John B. Buist, M.D., F.R.C.P. SYMBIOSIS; ZOOLOGY.. J. ARTHUR THOmson.

VAGRANTS.................. Chief-Constable HENDERSON. TACITUS.................... Dr J, P. STEELE.

VAN DYCK................. J. M. GRAY. TACTICS, MILITARY...... Lieut.-Col. DUNLOP, R.A.

VARIATION. ................. Professor C. LLOYD MORGAN, F.G.S. Tactics, NAVAL......... Captain GARBETT, R.N.

VEDA........................ Professor EGGELING. TAI-PINGS ................. Professor LEGGE.

VEGA; VELASQUEZ... ... John Ormsby. TALLEYRAND; THIERS. William WALLACE.

VEGET. PHYSIOLOGY.... A. J. HERBERTSON. TALMUD; TARGUM.. ... EMMANUEL DEUTSCH & Rev.J. MILNE. VEGETARIANISM.......... Josiah OLDFIELD. TASMANIA .................. Sir E. N. C. BRADDON, K.C.M.G., &c. | VENEZUELA; URUGUAY W. DUNDAS WALKER. TA880......................., Signora CANTAGALLI.

VETERINARY MEDICINE Principal WILLIAMS. TASTE....................... Professor HAYCRAFT.

VICTORIA................... GEORGE COLLINS LEVEY, C.M.G. Tax...... THOMAS RALEIGH,

VINE......

WILLIAM THOMSON. TAYLOR, JEREMY......... Thomas DAVIDSON.

VIOLIN....

Colin STALKER, TEA........................... R. C. HALDANE.

VIRGIL......

J. W. MACKAIL. TECHNICAL EDUCATION. Principal GRANT OGILVIE.

VOLTAIRE......

FRANCIS ESPINASSE. TEETH, DISEASES OF.... John GIRDWOOD.

VOLUNTEERS..

... Lord KINGSBURGH. TELEGRAPA................ W. H. PREECE, F.R.S.

WAGNER ................... FRANKLIN PETERSON, Mus. Bac. TELEPHONE:TELESCOPE Dr ALFRED DANIELL.

WALES--History.......... Dr ALFRED DANIELL. TEMPERANCE.............. Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart.

. Lang. and Lit. Professor J. Morris JONES. TEMPLE...................... Rev. J. SUTHERLAND BLACK.

WALPOLE, HORACE..... Austin Dobson.
TENNIS....
J. NORMAN HEATHCOTE.

WASHINGTON CITY ..... A. R. SPOrford.
TENNYSON................. Professor PALGRAVE.

WASHINGTON, GEORGE Professor EDWARD CHANNING. TERRIER....... .. GEORGE G. TOD.

WASTE PRODUCTS....... A. GALLETLY
TERTULLIAN.
Rev. A. P. DAVIDSON.

WATER-SUPPLY........... Sir F. BRAMWELL, Bart., D.C.L.
TETANUS........
. .............. Dr R. A. LUN
Dr R. A. LUNDIE.

WEAVING .................... JAMES Paton. THACKERAY............... RICHMOND THACKERAY RITCHIE.

WEBER.......

H. WHITEHEAD. THEATRE.................... ROBERT W. LOWE.

WEBSTER, DANIEL...... J. P. LAMBERTON. THEOCRITUS............... John Masson.

WEBSTER, JOHN........... Charles W. Boyd. THEOSOPHY... ...... Mrs AXNIE BESANT.

WEISMANN.................. EDWARD CLODD. THERMODYNAMICS ....... Professor KNOTT.

WELLINGTON..... ... ... ... Lieut.-Col. DUNLOP, R. A. THOMSON, JAMES........ FRANCIS WATT.

WESLEY........

Rev. Hugh PRICE HUGHES. THOREAU ................... John BURROUGHS.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. JAMES BONWICK. THUCYDIDES; TROY.... F. B. JEVONS.

WESTMINSTER.............. Rev. W. J. LOFTIE. TIBET........................ GEORGE BARCLAY.

WHEAT ....................... JAMES MACDONALD. TIDES ...... ...... Professor KNOTT.

WHISKY.................... J. A. NETTLETON. TIMBER; TIN; ZINC.... A. GALLETLY.

Whist ........................ HENRY JONES ('Cavendish'). TITHE........ ......... R. E. PROTHERO.

WHITEBAIT ; WHITING J. T. CUNNINGHAM. TITIAN........................ P. G. HAMERTON.

WHITMAN ; WHITTIER. H. B. BAILDON. TOBACCO .................... A. WINGHAM.

Wight, IsleoF; WILTS F. N. Worth.
TORONTO..................... MARTIN J. GRIFFIN.

WILKES, JOHN........... W. Fraser RAE.
TORPEDO.....
Captain GLADSTONE, R.N.

WILL.......

......... Professor SORLEY. TRACTION-ENGINES...... Professor T. H. BEARE.

WILLIAM I. AND II...... Rev. William Hunt. TRADE-MARKS.............. A. W. RENTON.

WILLIAM I. (Germany) G. BARNETT SMITH. TRADE UNIONS ........... GEORGE HOWELL, M.P.

WINCHESTER.............. Rev. A. G. L'ESTRANGE. TRAMWAYS................. E. R. M'Dermott.

WIND......................... ALEXANDER BUCHAN, LL.D. TRANSUBSTANTIATION.. Rev. W. L. Gildea, D.D.

WINE.......................... John ANGELL, F.C.S., F.I.C. TRANSVAAL; ZULUS.... E. P. MATHERS.

WITCHCRAFT.............. Thomas Davidson. TRENT, COUNCIL OF..... T. G. Law.

Wolf ....................... W. E. HOYLE. TRIASSIC; VOLCANOES.. Professor JAMES GEIKIE.

WOMEN'S RIGHTS....... Mrs FAWCETT. TROLLOPE. ................. T. ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE.

WOOD-ENGRAVING ...... J. R. PAIRMAN. TROTTING................... John GilMER SPEED.

WOOL....................... Professor BEAUMONT. TROUT....................... ARCHIBALD YOUNG,

WORDS WORTH

Professor PALGRAVE.
TUBERCLE.
Dr R. W. Philip.

WRITING.......

Canon Isaac TAYLOR.
TUNIS........
John GUNN.

WYCLIFFE................. F. D. MATTHEW.
TURGOT..................... Thomas KIRKUP.

XENOPHON.................. H. A. HOLDEN, LL.D.
TURKESTAN................ ARMINIUS VAMBÉRY.

YACHT...................... DAVID POLLOCK,
TURKEY ......
STANLEY LANE-POOLE.

YELLOW FEVER.......... Dr R. W. FELKIN.
TURNER, J. M. W........ P. G. HAMERTON.

YORK; YORKSHIRE..... Canon Isaac TAYLOR. TYPES ....................... John SOUTHWARD.

ZEND; ZOROASTER...... Rev. R. L. H. Mills, D.D. UNITARIANS................ Rev. R. B. DRUMMOND.

ZOLA............................. GEORGE SAINTSBURY.

The Publishers beg to tender their thanks, for revising articles, to the Dean of Worcester; the Agentgeneral for Western Australia ; the town-clerks or other officials of Warrington, Warwick, West Bromwich, Whitby, Workington, Yarmouth; to Professor Zahn of Erlangen, for revising "Tatian ;' and to Mr D. L. MILLER, for the materials of 'Tunkers.'

MAPS FOR VOL. X.

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21

131

149

329

SWEDEN AND NORWAY.....
SWITZERLAND .....
TENNESSEE......
TEXAS AND INDIAN TERRITORY....
TURKEY IN EUROPE........
UNITED STATES—I...........
UNITED STATES—II...........
UTAH...
VERMONT............
VICTORIA ..........
VIRGINIA AND WEST VIRGINIA ........

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VOL. I.

PAGE

AFRICA............. Political. ............. 80 | KANSAS..................................................... 392

Physical....

IKENTUCKY.....

415

ALABAMA ...........

116 | LOUISIANA .................................................

ALASKA.....

120 MAINE...................

.............................. 811

AMERICA, NORTI..... Political ..........

216

Physical....

217

VOL. VII.

AMERICA, SOUTI ..... Political ...

MARYLAND.............

Physical..................

MASSACHUSETTS

ARIZONA..

MICHIGAN..........

177

ARKANSAS............*

MINNESOTA.....

219

ASIA ..................... Political........

MISSISSIPPI............

233

Physical........

MISSOURI......

235

ATLANTIC OCEAN....Physical........

544

LONTANA .....

282

AUSTRALIA ............ Political ...........

588

EBRASKA......

424

Physical ..........

589

NEVADA.............

451

AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY.................. 596

NEW HAMPSHIRE.......................................

462

NEW JERSEY............................................. 464

VOL. II.

NEW M EXICO............................................... 467

BELGIUM ..........

............................ 48

472

| NEW SOUTH WALES.....................................

BURMA, SIAM, ANNAM................................

562 NEW YORK................................................. 482

CALIFORNIA........

NEW ZEALAND...................... ............... 488

CANADA- EASTERN PROVINCES...................

688 NORTH CAROLINA..........

523

CANADA, DOMINION OF...........

689 North DAKOTA (IN VOL. III. p. 657).

CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA.............. 732 NORWAY (WITH SWEDEN IN VOL. X. p. 5).

On10

.............. 585

VOL. III.

OREGON...

635

PALESTINE ............

184

CHINA.....

712

COLORADO....

CONNECTICUT.

423

VOL. VII.

DAKOTA, NORTH AND SOUT

657 PENNSYLVANIA ..............

30

DELAWARE.....

738 QUEENSLAND .............................. ............. 528

DENMARK................................................... 756 RHODE ISLAND......................................... 692

ROMAN EMPIRE.......

792

VOL. IV.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA...........

VOL. IX.

ENGLAND.....

345 RUSSIA.....

EUROPE- Political...............

464

SCOTLAND.. ..........

237

Physical..........

465

South AUSTRALIA AND TASMANIA................ 589

Historical ...... ......

466

South CAROLINA........................................ 590

FLAGS, NATIONAL....

663

South DakoTA (IN VOL. III. p. 657).

FLORIDA ..........

687

SPAIN ..........

597

FBANCE-PROVINCES..

| SPECTRA, TABLE OF ...............

...............

617

DEPARTMENTS.

769

VOL. X

VOL. V.

SWEDEN AND NORWAY...

........

GEORGIA .....

SWITZERLAND.

21

GERMANY....

TENNESSEE.......

131

GREAT BRITAIN-Geological.

372

TEXAS AND INDIAN TERRITORY.................... 149

Physical ...........................

TURKEY IN EUROPE....

329

GREECE, ANCIENT............ ..........................

384

UNITED STATES-1......................................

371

HOLLAND................................................... UNITED STATES-II.....................................

371

U T AH .... ...........................................

409

VOL. VI.

VERMONT...

460

IDAHO....................................................... 66 | VICTORIA............

472

ILLINOIS..................................................... 78 VIRGINIA AND WEST VIRGINIA.........

492

INDIA........

98 WASHINGTON..........

555

INDIANA ...........

................. 120 WEST INDIA ISLANDS....

614

INDIAN TERRITORY (WITH TEXAS IN VOL. X. p.149) WEST VIRGINIA.

IOWA........

195 | WISCONSIN................................................ 692

IRELAND ..............

198 W YOMING.................................

702

.......................................

ITALY.......

410 WORLD......................................... Frontispiece.

ITALIA ANTIQUA.....

............

241 | YOSEMITE VALI.EY............... ..................... 782

241

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wastika. See SVASTIKA. | emphasis. It was specially condemned by the

Swatow, a seaport of China | Mosaic law, was long punished by severe penalties, which has been opened to and is still an actionable offence in England foreign trade since 1869, stands (see below). By oaths are loosely understood at the mouth of the river Han, many terms and phrases of a gross and obscene 225 miles E. of Canton, in the character, as well as those words the use of province of Khwang-tung. It | which specially implies profanity proper. Again, is the seat of great sugar-re

there is a legitimate use of imprecations and curses fineries, and bean-cake and when intense hatred is to be expressed, and when grass-cloth manufactures. Its trade has grown it is justifiable. It is only taking the sacred name but slowly : in 1869 it reached a total of £4,800,000, in vain that need be condemned, and we know how in 1889 of £5,170,000, and in 1890 £6,400,000. at my Uncle Toby's one oath “the recording angel The imports, which are valued at two-thirds of dropped a tear upon the word and blotted it out the total amount, consist principally of bean-cake for ever.' It is hardly necessary to say how natural and beans (yearly average, £948,000), cottons

it is for weak men of limited vocabulary, under the (£755,000), opium (£695,000), rice (£145,000),

pressure of excitement, to seek for artificial strength metals, hemp, silks and woollens, and wheat.

or verification by employing irrelevant words that Sagar (£1,093,500 yearly on an average) forms

carry with them ideas of gravity or strength. Seathe chief item amongst the exports ; besides it

faring men and persons in command generally tobacco, cloth and nankeens, joss paper, grass

often use such expressions to add weight to their cloth (made from a kind of hemp fibre), and tea

words, and some apology may be found for them in are sent abroad. Pop. 30,000.

the fact that the persons with whom they have Swaziland, a South African native state, lying

usually to deal have been so accustomed to their

use as not to be readily inclined to obedience with. on the west side of the Libomba Mountains, and

out them. Again, other and more imaginative forming geographically an intrusion into the east

men, alike in England and America, from the side of the South African Republic. It has an area of 6150 sq. m.; a pop. of 60,000 Swazis and

days of Rabelais until now garnish their talk with

oaths as a mere exercise of verbal ingenuity, or by (in 1892) about 1000 white men ; and a trade valued at £70,000 through Natal, exclusive of

way of off-set to their conversation. — How now?'

said Ponocrates, you swear, Friar John ;' It is what goes by way of Delagoa Bay. The independence of this little state was recognised by its

only,' said the monk, but to grace and adorn my

speech; they are colours of a Ciceronian rhetoric." powerful neighbours, the South African Republic

I To call God to witness is a thing natural enough and the British government, in 1884 ; but in 1890

on occasions of grave asseveration, as in giving it was agreed by all parties concerned that the

witness in courts of law and the like, and it has white settlers, who are chiefly engaged in gold

been from the beginning a custom to take oaths on mining, should be governed by a joint administra

things sacred or august, as the head of the emtion of the Boer and British governments. The

peror, the beard of the Prophet, the sword blade Swazis, a Zulu-Kaffir race, smelt copper and iron,

or hilt, and the gospels. "Thomas Becket de. and are noted for their wood-carving.

( nounced John the Marshal of England for swearing Swearing, or PROFANE SWEARING, the habit on the troparium, a collection of versicles and of using the name or attributes of God in a light sequences used in the service of the mass. We and familiar manner by way of asseveration or I find oaths frequent enough among the Greeks and

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