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his wife on pretence of religion; if he do so, he is to be excommunicated; and if he persist, he is to be

driven away.

The seventh--that no priest shall ever meddle with secular affairs.

The nineteenth-that he who has married two sisters shall not be admitted into the clergy.

The twenty-first and twenty-second-that eunuchs shall be admitted into the priesthood, excepting such as have castrated themselves. Yet, Origen was a priest, notwithstanding this law.

The fifty-fifth-that if a bishop, a priest, a deacon, or a clerk, eat flesh which is not clear of blood, he shall be displaced.

It is quite evident that these canons could not be promulgated by the apostles.

XXII.

The Confessions of St. Clement to James, brother of the Lord, in ten books, translated from Greek into Latin, by Rufinus.

This book commences with a doubt respecting the immortality of the soul-Utrumne sit mihi aliqua vita post mortem, an nihil omnino posted sim futurus.* St. Clement, disturbed by this doubt, and wishing to know whether the world was eternal or had been created-whether there were a Tartarus and a Phlegethon, an Ixion, and a Tantalus, &c., resolved to go into Egypt to learn necromancy; but having heard of St. Bartholomew, who was preaching Christianity, he went to him in the East, at the time that Barnabas was celebrating a Jewish feast. He afterwards met St. Peter at Cæsarea with Simon the magician and Zachæus. They disputed together, and St. Peter related to them all that had passed since the death of Jesus. Clement turned Christian, but Simon remained a magician.

Simon fell in love with a woman named Luna; and, while waiting to marry her, he proposed to St. Peter, to Zachæus, to Lazarus, to Nicodemus, to Dositheus, and to several others, that they should become his disciples. Dositheus answered him at once with a blow from a stick; but the stick having passed through Simon's body as if it had been smoke, Dositheus worshipped him and became his lieutenant; after which Simon married his mistress, and declared that she was Luna herself, descended from heaven to marry him. i

* No xvii. and in the Exordium.

But enough of the Confessions of St. Clement. It must however be remarked, that in the ninth book the Chinese are spoken of under the name of Şeres, as the justest and wisest of mankind. After them come the Brahmins, to whom the author does the justice that was rendered them by all antiquity. He cites them as models of soberness, mildness, and justice.

XXIII.

St. Peter's Letter to St. James, and Sta Clement's Letter to the same St. James, brother of the Lord, governor of the Holy Church of the Hebrews at Jerusalem, and of all churches.--St. Peter's Letter contains nothing curious, but St. Clement's is very remarkable. He asserts that Peter declared him bishop of Rome before his death, and his coadjutor; that he laid his hands

upon his head, and made him sit in the episcopal chair, in the presence of all the faithful; and that he said to him, “ Fail not to write to my brother James as soon as I am dead.”

This letter seems to prove, that it was not then believed that St. Peter had suffered martyrdom, since it is probable that this letter, attributed to St. Clement, would have mentioned the circumstance. It also proves, that Cletus and Anacletus were not reckoned among the bishops of Rome.

XXIV.

St. Clement's Homilies, to the number of nineteen. He

says in his first homily, what he had already said in his confessions—that he went to St. Peter and St. Barnabas at Cæsarea, to know whether the soul was immortal, and the world eternal.

In the second homily, No. xxxviii. we find a much

more extraordinary passage. St. Peter himself, speaking of the Old Testament, expresses himself thus

“ The written law contains certain false things against the law of God, the Creator of heaven and earth : the devil has done this, for good reasons; it has also come to pass through the judgments of God, in order to discover such as would listen with pleasure to what is written against him,” &c. &c.

In the sixth homily, St. Clement meets with Appian, the same who had written against the Jews in the time of Tiberius. He tells Appian that he is in love with an Egyptian woman, and begs that he will write a letter in his name to his pretended mistress, to convince her, by the example of all the gods, that love is a duty. Appian writes the letter, and St. Clement answers it in the name of his pretended mistress; after which they dispute on the nature of the gods.

XXV.

Two Epistles of St. Clement to the Corinthians. It hardly seems just to have ranked these epistles among the apocryphal writings. Some of the learned may have declined to recognise them because they speak of “ the Phænix of Arabia, which lives five hundred years, and burns itself in Egypt in the city of Heliopolis.” But there is nothing extraordinary in St. Clement's having believed this fable which so many others believed, nor in his having written letters to the Corinthians.

It is known that there was at that time a great dispute between the church of Corinth and that of Rome. The church of Corinth, which declared itself to have been founded the first, was governed in common: there was scarcely any distinction between the priests and the seculars, still less between the priests and the bishop; all alike had a deliberative voice; so, at least, several of the learned assert. St. Clement says to the Corinthians in his first epistle“ You have laid the first foundations of sedition; be subject to your priests, correct yourselves by penance, bend the knees of your hearts, learn to obey.” It is not at all astonishing that a bishop of Rome should use these expressions.

In the second Epistle, we again find that answer of Jesus Christ, on being asked when his kingdom of heaven should come- “ When two shall make one, when that which is without shall be within, when the male shall be female, when there shall be neither male nor female."

XXVI.

you

Letter from St. Ignatius the Martyr to the Virgin Mary, and the Virgin's Answer to St. Ignatius To Mary the Mother of Christ, her devoted Ignatius.

“ You should console me, a neophyte, and a disciple of your John. I have heard several wonderful things of your Jesus, at which I have been much astonished. I desire with all my heart to be informed of them by you, who always lived in familiarity with him, and knew all his secrets. Fare you well. Comfort the neophytes, who are with me from and through you. Amen." The Holy Virgin's Answer to her dear Disciple Ignatius.

“ The humble servant of Jesus Christ.

All the things which you have learned from John are true: believe in them ; persevere in your belief; keep your vow of Christianity. I will come and see you with John, you and those who are with you. Be firm in the faith: act like a man; let not severity and persecution disturb you; but let your spirit be strengthened and exalted in God

your

Saviour. Amen." It is asserted that these letters were written in the year 116 of the Christian era, but they are not therefore the less false and absurd. They would even have been an insult to our holy religion, had they not been written in a spirit of simplicity, which renders every thing pardonable.

XXVII.

Fragments of the Apostles.-We find in them this passage“ Paul, a man of short stature, with an aquiline nose and an angelic face, instructed in heaven, said to Plantilla, of Rome, before he died,

Adieu, Plantilla, thou little plant of eternal salvation; know thy own nobility; thou art whiter than snow; thou art registered among the soldiers of Christ; thou art an heiress to the kingdom of heaven.' This was not worthy to be refuted.

XXVIII.

Eleven Apocalypses, which are attributed to the patriarchs and prophets, to St. Peter, Cerinthus, St. Thomas, St. Stephen the first martyr, two to St. John, differing from the canonical one, and three to St. Paul. All these apocalypses have been eclipsed by that of St. John.

XXIX.

The Visions, Precepts, and Similitudes of Hermas. Hermas seems to have lived about the close of the first century. They who regard his book as apocryphal, are nevertheless obliged to do justice to his morality. He begins by saying, that his foster-father had sold a young woman at Rome. Hermas recognised this young woman after the lapse of several years, and loved her, he says, as if she had been his sister. He one day saw her bathing in the Tiber: he stretched forth his hand, drew her out of the river, and said in his heart, “How happy should I be, if I had a wife like her in beauty and in manners.” Immediately the heavens opened ; and he all at once beheld this same wife, who made him a curtsey from above, and said,

" Good morning, Hermas." This wife was the Christian Church; she gave him much good advice.

A year after, the spirit transported him to the same place where he had seen this beauty, who nevertheless was old; but she was fresh in her age, and was old only because she had been created from the beginning of the world, and the world had been made for her.

The Book of Precepts contains fewer allegories; but that of similitudes contains many.

One day,” says Hermas, “ when I was fasting and was seated on a hill, giving thanks to God for all that he had done for me, a shepherd came, sat down beside

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