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arms; for true power is to be got by a commander. He will, however, in his arts and industry. He will often argue way of talk, excuse generals for not disthat if this part of our trade were well posing according to men's desert, or incultivated, we should gain from one na- quiring into it: for, says he, that great tion; - and if another, from another. I man who has a mind to help me, has as have heard him prove, that diligence many to break through to come at me, makes more lasting acquisitions than as I have to come at him : therefore, he valour, and that sloth has ruined more will conclude, that the man who would nations than the sword. He abounds in make a figure, especially in a military way, several frugal maxims, amongst which must get over all false modesty, and assist the greatest favourite is, “A penny saved his patron against the importunity of is a penny got.” A general trader of other pretenders, by a proper assurance good sense is pleasanter company than in his own vindication. He says it is a a general scholar; and Sir Andrew having civil cowardice to be backward in asserta natural unaffected eloquence, the per- ing what you ought to expect, as it is a spicuity of his discourse gives the same military fear to be slow in attacking when pleasure that wit would in another man. it is your duty. With this candour does He has made his fortunes himself; and the gentleman speak of himself and others. says that England may be richer than The same frankness runs through all his other kingdoms, by as plain methods conversation. The military part of his as he himself is richer than other men; life has furnished him with many adventhough at the same time I can say this of tures, in the relation of which he is very him, that there is not a point in the com- agreeable to the company; for he is never pass but blows home a ship in which he over-bearing, though accustomed to comis an owner.

mand men in the utmost degree below Next to Sir Andrew in the club-room

him; nor ever too obsequious, from an sits Captain Sentry, a gentleman of great habit of obeying men highly above him. courage, good understanding, but in- But, that our society may not appear vincible modesty. He is one of those a set of humourists, unacquainted with the that deserve very well, but are very awk- gallantries and pleasures of the age, we ward at putting their talents within the have amongst us the gallant Will Honeyobservation of such as should take notice comb, a gentleman who, according to his of them. He was some years a captain, years, should be in the decline of his and behaved himself with great gallantry life, but, having ever been very careful in several engagements and at several of his person, and always had a very easy sieges; but having a small estate of his fortune, time has made but a very little own, and being next heir to Sir Roger, impression, either by wrinkles on his he has quitted a way of life, in which no forehead, or traces on his brain. His man can rise suitably to his merit, who person is well turned, of a good height. is not something of a courtier as well He is very ready at that sort of discourse as a soldier. I have heard him often with which men usually entertain women. lament, that in a profession where merit He has all his life dressed very well, and is placed in so conspicuous a view, im- remembers habits as others do men. pudence should get the better of modesty. He can smile when one speaks to him, and When he has talked to this purpose, I laughs easily. He knows the history of never heard him make a sour expression, every mode, and can inform you from but frankly confess that he left the world, which of the French king's wenches our because he was not fit for it. A strict wives and daughters had this manner of honesty and an even regular behavior curling their hair, that way of placing are in themselves obstacles to him that their hoods; whose frailty was covered must press through crowds who endeavour by such a sort of petticoat, and whose at the same end with himself, the favour of vanity to show her foot made that part

of the dress so short in such a year. No. 10. Monday, March 12, 1711 In a word, all his conversation and knowledge have been in the female world. Non aliter quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum

Remigiis subigit: si brachia forte remisit, As other men of his age will take notice

Atque illum in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni.1 to you what such a minister said upon

- VIRG. such and such an occasion, he will tell you, when the Duke of Monmouth danced It is with much satisfaction that I hear at court, such a woman was then smitten, this great city inquiring day by day after another was taken with him at the head of these my papers, and receiving my mornhis troop in the Park. In all these im- ing lectures with a becoming seriousness portant relations, he has ever about the and attention. My publisher tells me, same time received a kind glance or a blow a

that there are already three thousand of of a fan from some celebrated beauty them distributed every day: So that if I mother of the present Lord Such-a-one.

allow twenty readers to every paper, .. This way of talking of his very

which I look upon as a modest compumuch enlivens the conversation among us tation, I may reckon about threescore of a more sedate turn; and I find there thousand disciples in London and Westis not one of the company, but myself, minster, who I hope will take care to diswho rarely speak at all, but speaks of tinguish themselves from the thoughtless him as of that sort of man who is usually herd of their ignorant and unattentive called a well-bred fine gentleman. To

brethren. Since I have raised to myself so conclude his character, where women are great an audience, I shall spare no pains not concerned, he is an honest worthy

to make their instruction agreeable, and man.

their diversion useful. For which reasons I cannot tell whether I am to account I shall endeavour to enliven morality with him whom I am next to speak of, as one of wit, and to temper wit with morality, our company; for he visits us but seldom, that my readers may, if possible, both but when he does, it adds to every man ways find their account in the speculaelse a new enjoyment of himself. He is tion of the day. And to the end that their a clergyman, a very philosophic man, of virtue and discretion may not be short, general learning, great sanctity of life, transient, intermitting start; of thoughts, and the most exact good breeding. He I have resolved to refresh their memories has the misfortune to be of a very weak from day to day, till I have recovered constitution; and consequently cannot them out of that desperate state of vice accept of such cares and business as pre- and folly into which the age is fallen. The ferments in his function would oblige

mind that lies fallow but a single day, him to; he is therefore among divines sprouts up in follies that are only to be what chamber-councillor is among killed by a constant and assiduous culture. lawyers. The probity of his mind, and It was said of Socrates, that he brought the integrity of his life, create him fol- philosophy down from heaven, to inhabit lowers, as being eloquent or loud advances among men; and I shall be ambitious to others. He seldom introduces the subject have it said of me, that I have brought he speaks upon; but we are so far gone in philosophy out of closets and libraries, years that he observes, when he is among schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and us, an earnestness to have him fall on some assemblies, at tea-tables and in coffeedivine topic, which he always treats with houses. much authority, as one who has no interest I would therefore in a very particular in this world, as one who is hastening to the object of all his wishes, and conceives 1 So the boat's brawny crew the current stem, hope from his decays and infirmities.

And, slow advancing, struggle with the stream;

But if they slack their hands or cease to strive, These are my ordinary companions.

Then down the flood with headlong haste they STEELE

drive. — DRYDEN.

a

manner recommend these my speculations and by that means gathering together to all well-regulated families, that set materials for thinking. These needy perapart an hour in every morning for tea sons do not know what to talk of, till about and bread and butter; and would earnestly twelve a clock in the morning; for by that advise them for their good to order this time they are pretty good judges of the paper to be punctually served up, and to weather, know which way the wind sits, be looked upon as a part of the tea equi- and whether the Dutch mail be come in. page.

As they lie at the mercy of the first man Sir Francis Bacon observes, that a well- they meet, and are grave or impertinent written book, compared with its rivals and all the day long, according to the notions antagonists, is like Moses's serpent, that which they have imbibed in the morning, immediately swallowed up and devoured I would earnestly entreat them not to stir those of the Egyptians. I shall not be so out of their chambers till they have read vain as to think, that where the Spectator this paper, and do promise them that I will appears, the other public prints will daily instil into them such sound and vanish; But shall leave it to my reader's wholesome sentiments, as shall have a consideration, whether, Is it not much good effect on their conversation for the better to be let into the knowledge of one's ensuing twelve hours. self, than to hear what passes in Muscovy But there are none to whom this paper or Poland; and to amuse ourselves with will be more useful, than to the female such writings as tend to the wearing out of world. I have often thought there has ignorance, passion, and prejudice, than not been sufficient pains taken in finding such as naturally conduce to inflame

out proper employments and diversions hatreds, and make enmities irreconcilable? for the fair ones. Their amusements seem

In the next place, I would recommend contrived for them, rather as they are this paper to the daily perusal of those women, than as they are reasonable gentlemen whom I cannot but consider as creatures; and are more adapted to the my good brothers and allies, I mean the sex than to the species. The toilet is fraternity of Spectators, who live in the their great scene of business, and the right world without having anything to do in it; adjusting of their hair the principal emand either by the affluence of their for- ployment of their lives. The sorting of a tunes, or laziness of their dispositions, suit of ribbons is reckoned a very good have no other business with the rest of morning's work; and if they make an mankind, but to look upon them. Under excursion to a mercer's or a toy-shop, so this class of men are comprehended all great a fatigue makes them unfit for any contemplative tradesmen, titular physi- thing else all the day after. Their more cians, Fellows of the Royal-society, Tem- serious occupations are sewing and emplars that are not given to be contentious, broidery, and their greatest drudgery the and statesmen that are out of business; preparation of jellies and sweet-meats. in short, every one that considers the world This, I say, is the state of ordinary women;

I as a theatre, and desires to form a right though I know there are multitudes of judgment of those who are the actors on it. those of a more elevated life and conversa

There is another set of men that I must tion, that move in an exalted sphere of likewise lay a claim to, whom I have lately knowledge and virtue, that join all the called the blanks of society, as being alto- beauties of the mind to the ornaments of gether unfurnished with ideas, till the dress, and inspire a kind of awe and respect, business and conversation of the day has as well as love, into their male beholders. supplied them. I have often considered I hope to encrease the number of these by these poor souls with an eye of great publishing this daily paper, which I shall commiseration, when I have heard them always endeavour to make an innocent asking the first man they have met with, if not an improving entertainment, and whether there was any news stirring? by that means at least divert the minds of my female readers from greater trifles. and the use to which it is applied, with the At the same time, as I would fain give solemnity of the building, and the consome finishing touches to those which are dition of the people who lie in it, are apt already the most beautiful pieces in human to fill the mind with a kind of melancholy, nature, I shall endeavour to point out all or rather thoughtfulness, that is not disthose imperfections that are the blemishes, agreeable. I yesterday passed a whole as well as those virtues which are the afternoon in the churchyard, the cloisters, embellishments of the sex. In the mean- and the church, amusing myself with the while I hope these my gentle readers, who tombstones and inscriptions that I met have so much time on their hands, will not with in those several regions of the dead. grudge throwing away a quarter of an hour Most of them recorded nothing else of the in a day on this paper, since they may do buried person,

but that he was born upon it without any hindrance to business. one day, and died upon another : the

I know several of my friends and well- whole history of his life being comprewishers are in great pain for me, lest I hended in those two circumstances that should not be able to keep up the spirit of are common to all mankind. I could not a paper which I oblige myself to furnish but look upon these registers of existence, every day: But to make them easy in this whether of brass or marble, as a kind of particular, I will promise them faithfully satire upon the departed persons; who to give it over as soon as I grow dull. left no other memorial of them, but that This I know will be matter of great raillery they were born, and that they died. They to the small Wits; who will frequently put put me in mind of several persons menme in mind of my promise, desire me to tioned in the battles of heroic poems, who keep my word, assure me that it is high have sounding names given them, for no time to give over, with many other little other reason but that they may be killed, pleasantries of the like nature, which men and are celebrated for nothing but being of a little smart genius cannot forbear knocked on the head. throwing out against their best friends, when they have such a handle given them

«Τλαυκόν τε Μεδόντα τε θερσιλοχόν τε.” 1 of being witty. But let them remember

- Hom. that I do hereby enter my caveat against

The life of these men is finely described this piece of raillery.

ADDISON

in Holy Writ by “the path of an arrow,

which is immediately closed up and lost. THOUGHTS IN WESTMINSTER

Upon my going into the church, I enter

tained myself with the digging of a grave; ABBEY

and saw in every shovel-full of it that was No. 26. Friday, March 30, 1711 thrown up, the fragment of a bone or skull

intermixed with a kind of fresh mouldering Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas Regumque turres, o beate Sexti.

earth, that some time or other had a place Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam, in the composition of an human body. Jam te premet nox, fabulaeque manes,

Upon this I began to consider with myself, Et domus exilis Plutonia."

Hor. i. Od. iv. 13.

what innumerable multitudes of people lay

confused together under the pavement of WHEN I am in a serious humour, I very that ancient cathedral; how men and often walk by myself in Westminster women, friends and enemies, priests and Abbey; where the gloominess of the place, soldiers, monks and prebendaries, were

crumbled amongst 1 With equal foot, rich friend, impartial fate

one another, and Knocks at the cottage, and the palace gate:

blended together in the same common Life's span forbids thee to extend thy cares, And stretch thy hopes beyond thy years :

1“Glaucus, and Medon, and Thersilochus.” Night soon will seize, and you must quickly go “Glaucumque, Medontaque, Thersilochumque." To story'd ghosts, and Pluto's house below.

- VIRG.

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mass; how beauty, strength, and youth, acquaints us only with the manner of his with old age, weakness, and deformity, death, in which it was impossible for him lay undistinguished in the same promis- to reap any honour. The Dutch, whom cuous heap of matter.

we are apt to despise for want of genius, After having thus surveyed this great show an infinitely greater taste of antiquity magazine of mortality, as it were in the and politeness in their buildings and lump, I examined it more particularly by works of this nature, than what we meet the accounts which I found on several of with in those of our own country. The the monuments which are raised in every monuments of their admirals, which have quarter of that ancient fabric. Some of been' erected at the public expense, repthem were covered with such extravagant resent them like themselves, and are epitaphs, that if it were possible for the adorned with rostral crowns and naval dead person to be acquainted with them, ornaments, with beautiful festoons of he would blush at the praises which his sea-weed, shells, and coral. friends have bestowed on him. There But to return to our subject. I have left are others so excessively modest, that they the repository of our English kings for the deliver the character of the person de- contemplation of another day, when I shall parted in Greek or Hebrew, and by that find my mind disposed for so serious an means are not understood once in a twelve- amusement. I know that entertainments month. In the poetical quarter, I found of this nature are apt to raise dark and there were poets who had no monuments, dismal thoughts in timorous minds and and monuments which had no poets. I gloomy imaginations; but for my own observed, indeed, that the present war had part, though I am always serious, I do not filled the church with many of these un- know what it is to be melancholy; and inhabited monuments, which had been can therefore take a view of nature in her erected to the memory of persons whose deep and solemn scenes, with the same bodies were, perhaps, buried in the plains pleasure as in her most gay and delightful of Blenheim, or in the bosom of the ones. By this means I can improve ocean.

myself with those objects, which others I could not but be very much delighted consider with terror. When I look upon with several modern epitaphs, which are the tombs of the great, every emotion of written with great elegance of expression envy dies in me; when I read the epitaphs and justness of thought, and therefore do of the beautiful, every inordinate desire honour to the living as well as to the dead. goes out; when I meet with the grief of As a foreigner is very apt to conceive an parents upon a tomb-stone, my heart idea of the ignorance or politeness of a melts with compassion : when I see the nation from the turn of their public monu- tomb of the parents themselves, I consider ments and inscriptions, they should be the vanity of grieving for those whom we submitted to the perusal of men of learning must quickly follow. When I see kings and genius before they are put in execution. lying by those who deposed them, when I Sir Cloudesley Shovel's monument has consider rival wits placed side by side, or very often given me great offence. In- the holy men that divided the world with stead of the brave, rough, English admiral, their contests and disputes, I reflect with which was the distinguishing character of sorrow and astonishment on the little that plain, gallant man, he is represented competitions, factions, and debates of on his tomb by the figure of a beau, dressed mankind. When I read the several dates in a long periwig, and reposing himself of the tombs, of some that died yesterday, upon velvet cushions under a canopy of and some six hundred years ago, I consider state. The inscription, is answerable to that great day when we shall all of us be the monument ; for, instead of celebrating contemporaries, and make our appearance the many remarkable actions he had per- together. formed in the service of his country, it

- ADDISON

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