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selves clear. When he wrote they had men far too cunning to say such a thing. that time, and therefore his readers pro- They would have echoed the praises of nounced him a man of genius; but when the man whom they envied, and then have he talked, he talked nonsense, and made sent to the newspapers anonymous libels himself the laughing-stock of his hearers. upon him. Both what was good and He was painfully sensible of his inferior- what was bad in Goldsmith's character ity in conversation; he felt every failure was to his associates a perfect security keenly; yet he had not sufficient judgment that he would never commit such villainy. and self-command to hold his tongue. He was neither ill-natured enough, nor His animal spirits and vanity were always long-headed enough, to be guilty of any impelling him to try to do the one thing malicious act which required contrivance which he could not do. After every at- and disguise. tempt, he felt that he had exposed Goldsmith has sometimes been reprehimself, and writhed with shame and sented as a man of genius, cruelly treated vexation; yet the next moment he began by the world, and doomed to struggle with again.

difficulties which at last broke his eart. His associates seem to have regarded But no representation can be more remote him with kindness, which, in spite of their from the truth. He did, indeed, go admiration of his writings, was not un- through much sharp misery before he had mixed with contempt. In truth, there done anything considerable in literature. was in his character much to love, but very But after his name had appeared on the little to respect. His heart was soft, even title-page of the Traveller he had none to weakness; he was so generous, that he but himself to blame for his distresses. quite forgot to be just; he forgave in- His average income during the last seven juries so readily, that he might be said years of his life certainly exceeded four to invite them, and was so beral to beg

hundred pounds a year, and four hundred gars that he had nothing left for his tailor pounds a year ranked, among the incomes and his butcher. He was vain, sensual, of that day, at least as high as eight hunfrivolous, profuse, improvident. One vice dred pounds a year would rank at present. of a darker shade was imputed to him A single man living in the Temple with envy. But there is not the least reason four hundred pounds a year might then to believe that this bad passion, though be called opulent. Not one in ten of the it sometimes made him wince and utter young gentlemen of good families who fretful exclamations, ever impelled him to were studying the law there had so much. injure by wicked arts the reputation of But all the wealth which Lord Clive had any of his rivals. The truth probably is, brought from Bengal, and Sir Lawrence that he was not more envious, but merely Dundas from Germany, joined together, less prudent, than his neighbours. His would not have sufficed for Goldsmith. heart was on his lips. All those small He spent twice as much as he had. He jealousies, which are but too common wore fine clothes, gave dinners of several among men of letters, but which a man of courses, paid court to venal beauties. He letters who is also a man of the world does had also, it should be remembered to the his best to conceal, Goldsmith avowed honour of his heart, though not of his head, with the simplicity of a child. When he a guinea, or five, or ten, according to the was envious, instead of affecting indiffer- state of his purse, ready for any tale of ence, instead of damning with faint praise, distress, true or false. But it was not in instead of doing injuries slyly and in the dress or feasting, in promiscuous amours dark, he told everybody that he was en- promiscuous charities, that his chief vious. “Do not, pray do not, talk of expense lay. He had been from boyJohnson in such terms," he said to Bos- hood a gambler, and at once the most well; "you harrow up my very soul.” sanguine and the most unskilful of gamGeorge Steevens and Cumberland were blers. For a time he put off the day of



inevitable ruin by temporary expedients. him. He was, not long before his last He obtained advances from booksellers illness, provoked into retaliating. He by promising to execute works which he wisely betook himself to his pen, and at never began. But at length this source that weapon he proved himself a match of supply failed. He owed more than for all his assailants together. Within a two thousand pounds, and he saw no small compass he drew with a singularly hope of extrication from his embarrass- easy and vigorous pencil the characters ments. His spirits and health gave way. of nine or ten of his intimate associates. He was attacked by a nervous fever, Though this little work did not receive which he thought himself competent to his last touches, it must always be retreat. It would have been happy for him garded as a masterpiece. It is impossible, if his medical skill had been appreciated however, not to wish that four or five as justly by himself as by others. Not- likenesses which have no interest for withstanding the degree which he pre- posterity were wanting to that noble tended to have received at Padua, he gallery, and that their places were supcould procure no patients. “I do not plied by sketches of Johnson and Gibbon, practise,” he once said; “I make it a rule as happy and vivid as the sketches of to prescribe only for my friends."

Burke and Garrick. dear Doctor," said Beauclerk, "alter your Some of Goldsmith's friends and adrule, and prescribe only for your enemies." mirers honoured him with a cenotaph in Goldsmith now, in spite of this excellent Westminster Abbey. Nollekens was the advice, prescribed for himself. The rem- sculptor, and Johnson wrote the inscripedy aggravated the malady. The sick tion. It is much to be lamented that man was induced to call in real physicians, Johnson did not leave to posterity a more and they at one time imagined that they durable and a more valuable memorial had cured the disease. Still his weak- of his friend. A life of Goldsmith would ness and restlessness continued. He could have been an inestimable addition to the get no sleep; he could take no food. Lives of the Poets. No

appre“You are worse,” said one of his medical ciated Goldsmith's writings more justly attendants, “than you should be from than Johnson; no man was better acthe degree of fever which you have. Is quainted with Goldsmith's character and your mind at ease?“No, it is not,' habits; and no man was more competent were the last recorded words of Oliver to delineate with truth and spirit the Goldsmith. He died on the 3d of April, peculiarities of a mind in which great 1774, in his forty-sixth year. He was powers were found in company with great laid in the churchyard of the Temple; weaknesses. But the list of poets to but the spot was not marked by any in- whose works Johnson was requested by scription, and is now forgotten. The cof- the booksellers to furnish prefaces ended fin was followed by Burke and Reynolds. with Lyttleton, who died in 1773. The Both these great men were sincere mourn- line seems to have been drawn expressly

Burke, when he heard of Goldsmith's for the purpose of excluding the person death, had burst into a flood of tears. whose portrait would have most fitly Reynolds had been so much moved by closed the series. Goldsmith, however, the news, that he had flung aside his has been fortunate in his biographers. brush and palette for the day.

Within a few years his life has been written A short time after Goldsmith's death, a by Mr. Prior, by Mr. Washington Irving, little poem appeared, which will, as long as and by Mr. Forster. The diligence of our language lasts, associate the names of Mr. Prior deserves great praise; the style his two illustrious friends with his own. of Mr. Washington Irving is always pleasIt has already been mentioned that he ing; but the highest place must in justice sometimes felt keenly the sarcasm which be assigned to the eminently interesting his wild, blundering talk brought upon work of Mr. Forster.




for us.


epochs, and in mere external figure dif

fering altogether, ought, if we look faithFrom HEROES AND HERO-WORSHIP fully at them, to illustrate several things

Could we see them well, we should We have undertaken to discourse here get some glimpses into the very marrow of for a little on Great Men, their manner of the world's history. How happy, could I appearance in our world's business, how but, in any measure, in such times as these, they have shaped themselves in the world's make manifest to you the meanings of history, what ideas men formed of them, Heroism; the divine relation (for I may what work they did; - on Heroes, namely, well call it such) which in all times unites and on their reception and performance; a Great Man to other men; and thus, as what I call Hero-worship and the Heroic it were, not exhaust my subject, but so in human affairs. Too evidently this is much as break ground on it! At all a large topic; deserving quite other treat- events, I must make the attempt. ment than we can expect to give it at It is well said, in every sense, that a present. A large topic; indeed, an il- man's religion is the chief fact with regard limitable one; wide as Universal History to him. A man's, or a nation of men's. itself. For, as I take it, Universal History, By religion I do not mean here the churchthe history of what man has accomplished creed which he professes, the articles of in this world, is at bottom the History of faith which he will sign and, in words or the Great Men who have worked here. otherwise, assert; not this wholly, in many They were the leaders of men, these great cases not this at all. We see men of all ones; the modellers, patterns, and in a kinds of professed creeds attain to almost wide sense creators, of whatsoever the all degrees of worth or worthlessness under general mass of men contrived to do or to each or any of them. This is not what I attain; all things that we see standing call religion, this profession and assertion; accomplished in the world are properly the which is often only a profession and asserouter material result, the practical realiza- tion from the outworks of the man, from tion and embodiment, of Thoughts that the mere argumentative region of him, dwelt in the Great Men sent into the even so deep as that. But the thing world: the soul of the whole world's his- a man does practically believe (and this is tory, it may justly be considered, were often enough without asserting it even to the history of these. Too clearly it is a himself, much less to others); the thing a topic we shall do no justice to in this place! man does practically lay to heart, and

One comfort is, that Great Men, taken know for certain, concerning his vital up in any way, are profitable company. relations to this mysterious Universe, and We cannot look, however imperfectly, upon his duty and destiny there, that is in all a great man, without gaining something by cases the primary thing for him, and him. He is the living light-fountain, creatively determines all the rest. That which it is good and pleasant to be near. is his religion; or, it may be, his mere The light which enlightens, which has en- scepticism and no-religion: the manner it lightened, the darkness of the world; and is in which he feels himself to be spiritually this not as a kindled lamp only, but rather related to the Unseen World or No-World; as a natural luminary shining by the gift of and I say, if you tell me what that is, you Heaven; a flowing light-fountain, as I say,

I tell me to a very great extent what the of native original insight, of manhood and man is, what the kind of things he will do heroic nobleness; in whose radiance is. Of a man or of a nation we inquire, all souls feel that it is well with them. therefore, first of all, What religion they On any terms whatsoever, you will not had? Was it Heathenism, - plurality of grudge to wander in such neighbourhood gods, mere sensuous representation of this for a while. These Six classes of Heroes, Mystery of Life, and for chief recognized chosen out of widely-distant countries and element therein Physical Force? Was it

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