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low; it is the very household god of age; and certainly it seems likely to effect society, as at present constituted, inspir- what Religion has aimed at abolishing in ing neatness and decency in the servant vain. girl, propriety of carriage and refined manners in her mistress, uprightness, Hence it is that it is almost a definition manliness, and generosity in the head of of a gentleman to say he is one who never the family. It diffuses a light over town inflicts pain. This description is both and country; it covers the soil with refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. handsome edifices and smiling gardens; it He is mainly occupied in merely removing tills the field, it stocks and embellishes the the obstacles which hinder the free and shop. It is the stimulating principle of unembarrassed action of those about him ; providence on the one hand, and of free and he concurs with their movements expenditure on the other; of an honour- rather than takes the initiative himself. able ambition, and of elegant enjoyment. His benefits may be considered as parallel It breathes upon the face of the commu- to what are called comforts or convennity, and the hollow sepulchre is forth- iences in arrangements of a personal nawith beautiful to look upon.

ture: like an easy-chair or a good fire, Refined by the civilization which has which do their part in dispelling cold and brought it into activity, this self-respect fatigue, though nature provides both infuses into the mind an intense horror of means of rest and animal heat without exposure, and a keen sensitiveness of them. The true gentleman in like manner notoriety and ridicule. It becomes the carefully avoids whatever may cause a enemy of extravagances of any kind; it jar or a jolt in the minds of those with shrinks from what are called scenes; it whom he is cast; - all clashing of opinion, has no mercy on the mock-heroic, on pre- or collision of feeling, all restraint, or tence or egotism, on verbosity in language, suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his or what is called prosiness in conversation. great concern being to make every one at It detests gross adulation; not that it their ease and at home. He has his eyes tends at all to the eradication of the ap- on all his company; he is tender towards petite to which the flatterer ministers, but the bashful, gentle towards the distant, it sees the absurdity of indulging it, it and merciful towards the absurd; he can understands the annoyance thereby given recollect to whom he is speaking; he to others, and if a tribute must be paid to guards against unseasonable allusions, or the wealthy or the powerful, it demands topics which may irritate; he is seldom greater subtlety and art in the preparation. prominent in conversation, and never Thus vanity is changed into a more dan- wearisome. He makes light of favours gerous self-conceit, as being checked in its while he does them, and seems to be repatural eruption. It teaches men to ceiving when he is conferring.

He never suppress their feelings, and to control their speaks of himself except when compelled, tempers, and to mitigate both the severity never defends himself by a mere retort, and the tone of their judgments. As Lord he has no ears for slander or gossip, is Shaftesbury would desire, it prefers playful scrupulous in imputing motives to those wit and satire in putting down what is who interfere with him, and interprets objectionable, as a more refined and good- everything for the best. He is never mean natured, as well as a more effectual method, or little in his disputes, never takes unfair than the expedient which is natural to advantage, never mistakes personalities uneducated minds. It is from this im- or sharp sayings for arguments, or insinupatience of the tragic and the bombastic ates evil which he dare not say out. From that it is now quietly but energetically a long-sighted prudence, he observes the opposing itself to the unchristian practice maxim of the ancient sage, that we should of duelling, which it brands as simply out ever conduct ourselves towards our enemy of taste, and as the remnant of a barbarous as if he were one day to be our friend.

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He has too much good sense to be affronted And this deduction of his reason, or creaat insults, he is too well employed to re- tion of his fancy, he makes the occasion of member injuries, and too indolent to bear such excellent thoughts, and the startingmalice. He is patient, forbearing, and point of so varied and systematic a teachresigned, on philosophical principles; he ing, that he even seems like a disciple of submits to pain, because it is inevitable, Christianity itself. From the very acto bereavement, because it is irreparable, is irreparable, curacy and steadiness of his logical powers,

, and to death, because it is his destiny. he is able to see what sentiments are conIf he engages in controversy of any kind, sistent in those who hold any religious his disciplined intellect preserves him from doctrine at all, and he appears to others to the blundering discourtesy of better, feel and to hold a whole circle of theoperhaps, but less educated minds; who, logical truths, which exist in his mind like blunt weapons, tear and hack instead no otherwise than as a number of deducof cutting clean, who mistake the point in tions. argument, waste their strength on trifles, misconceive their adversary, and leave the

KNOWLEDGE VIEWED IN RELAquestion more involved than they find it. He may be right or wrong in his opinion,

TION TO LEARNING but he is too clear-headed to be unjust;

From THE IDEA OF A UNIVERSITY he is as simple as he is forcible, and as brief as he is decisive. Nowhere shall we find It were well if the English, like the greater candour, consideration, indulgence: Greek language, possessed some definite he throws himself into the minds of his word to express, simply and generally, inopponents, he accounts for their mistakes. tellectual proficiency or perfection, such He knows the weakness of human reason as “health,” as used with reference to the as well as its strength, its province and its animal frame, and “virtue,” with reference limits. If he be an unbeliever, he will be to our moral nature. I am not able to too profound and large-minded to ridicule find such a term; — talent, ability, genius, religion or to act against it; he is too wise belong distinctly to the raw material, to be a dogmatist or fanatic in his infidelity. which is the subject-matter, not to that He respects piety and devotion; he even excellence which is the result of exercise supports institutions as venerable, beauti- and training. When we turn, indeed, ful, or useful, to which he does not assent; to the particular kinds of intellectual perhe honours the ministers of religion, and fection, words are forthcoming for our it contents him to decline its mysteries purpose, as, for instance, judgment, taste, without assailing or denouncing them. and skill; yet even these belong, for the He is a friend of religious toleration, and most part, to powers or habits bearing upon that, not only because his philosophy has practice or upon art, and not to any pertaught him to look on all forms of faith fect condition of the intellect, considered with an impartial eye, but also from the in itself. Wisdom, again, is certainly a gentleness and effeminancy of feeling, more comprehensive word than any other, which is the attendant on civilization. but it has a direct relation to conduct, and

Not that he may not hold a religion too, to human life. Knowledge, indeed, and in his own way, even when he is not a Science express purely intellectual ideas, Christian. In that case his religion is one but still not a state or quality of the intelof imagination and sentiment; it is the lect; for knowledge, in its ordinary sense, embodiment of those ideas of the sublime, is but one of its circumstances, denoting majestic, and beautiful, without which

a possession or a habit ; and science has there can be no large philosophy. Some- been appropriated to the subject matter times he acknowledges the being of God, of the intellect, instead of belonging in sometimes he invests an unknown principle English, as it ought to do, to the intellect or quality with the attributes of perfection, itself. The consequence is that, on an

occasion like this, many words are neces- various ways. I said that the intellect sary, in order, first, to bring out and convey must have an excellence of its own, for what surely is no difficult idea in itself, there was nothing which had not its spethat of the cultivation of the intellect as cific good; that the word “educate” would an end; next, in order to recommend what not be used of intellectual culture, as it is surely is no unreasonable object; and used, had not the intellect had an end of its lastly, to describe and make the mind own; that, had it not such an end, there realize the particular. perfection in which would be no meaning in calling certain that object consists. Everyone knows intellectual exercises "liberal," in contrast practically what are the constituents of with "useful," as is commonly done; that health or of virtue; and every one recog

the very notion of a philosophical temper nizes health and virtue as ends to be pur- implied it, for it threw us back upon resued; it is otherwise with intellectual search and system as ends in themselves, excellence, and this must be my excuse, if distinct from effects and works of any I seem to any one to be bestowing a good kind; that a philosophical scheme of deal of labour on a preliminary matter. knowledge, or system of sciences, could

In default of a recognized term, I have not, from the nature of the case, issue in called the perfection or virtue of the in- any one definite art or pursuit, as its end; tellect by the name of philosophy, philo- and that, on the other hand, the discovery sophical knowledge, enlargement of mind, and contemplation of truth, to which or illumination; terms which are not un- research and systematizing led, were commonly given to it by writers of this surely sufficient ends, though nothing day: but, whatever name we bestow on beyond them were added, and that they it, it is, I believe, as a matter of history, had ever been accounted sufficient by manthe business of a University to make this kind. intellectual culture its direct scope, or to Here then I take up the subject; and, employ itself in the education of the in- having determined that the cultivation tellect, just as the work of a Hospital of the intellect is an end distinct and suffilies in healing the sick or wounded, of a cient in itself, and that, so far as words Riding or Fencing School, or of a Gym- go, it is an enlargement or illumination, I nasium, in exercising the limbs, of an proceed to inquire what this mental Almshouse, in aiding and solacing the old, breadth, or power, or light, or philosophy of an Orphanage, in protecting innocence, consists in. A Hospital heals a broken of a Penitentiary, in restoring the guilty. limb or cures a fever: what does an InstiI say, a University, taken in its bare idea, tution effect, which professes the health, and before we view it as an instrument of not of the body, not of the soul, but of the the Church, has this object and this mis- intellect? What is this good, which in sion; it contemplates neither moral im- former times, as well as our own, has been pression nor mechanical production; it found worth the notice, the appropriation, professes to exercise the mind neither in of the Catholic Church? art nor in duty; its function is intellectual I have then to investigate, in the Disculture; here it may leave its scholars, and courses which follow, those qualities and it has done its work when it has done as characteristics of the intellect in which much as this. It educates the intellect to its cultivation issues or rather consists; reason well in all matters, to reach out and, with a view of assisting myself in this towards truth, and to grasp it.

undertaking, I shall recur to certain ques

tions which have already been touched This, I said in my foregoing Discourse, upon. These questions are three : viz. was the object of a University, viewed in the relation of intellectual culture, first, itself, and apart from the Catholic Church, to mere knowledge; secondly, to profesor from the State, or from any other power sional knowledge; and thirdly, to religious which may use it; and I illustrated this in knowledge. In other words, are acquirements and attainments the scope of a Uni- ematics, and for his taste in the Poets and versity Education? or expertness in par. Orators, still, while at school, or at least, ticular arts and pursuits? or moral and till quite the last years of his time, he acreligious proficiency? or something be- quires, and little more; and when he is sides these three? These questions I shall

These questions I shall leaving for the University, he is mainly examine in succession, with the purpose I the creature of foreign influences and cirhave mentioned; and I hope to be excused, cumstances, and made up of accidents, if, in this anxious undertaking, I am led to homogeneous or not, as the case may be. repeat what, either in these Discourses or Moreover, the moral habits, which are a elsewhere, I have already put upon paper. boy's praise, encourage and assist this And first, of Mere Knowledge, or Learning, result; that is, diligence, assiduity, reguand its connection with intellectual illu- larity, despatch, persevering application; mination or Philosophy.

for these are the direct conditions of ac

quisition, and naturally lead to it. AcI suppose the prima-facie view which the quirements, again, are emphatically propublic at large would take of a University, ducible, and at a moment; they are a considering it as a place of Education, is something to show, both for master and nothing more or less than a place for scholar; an audience, even though igacquiring a great deal of knowledge on a norant themselves of the subject of an great many subjects. Memory is one of examination, can comprehend when questhe first developed of the mental faculties; tions are answered and when they are not. a boy's business when he goes to school is Here again is a reason why mental culture to learn, that is, to store up things in his is in the minds of men identified with the memory. For some years his intellect is acquisition of knowledge. little more than an instrument for taking The same notion possesses the public in facts, or a receptacle for storing them; mind, when it passes on from the thought he welcomes them as fast as they come to of a school to that of a University : and him; he lives on what is without; he has with the best of reasons so far as this, that his eyes ever about him; he has a lively there is no true culture without acquiresusceptibility of impressions; he imbibes ments, and that philosophy presupposes information of every kind; and little does knowledge. It requires a great deal of he make his own in a true sense of the reading, or a wide range of information, to word, living rather upon his neighbours all warrant us in putting forth our opinions, around him. He has opinions, religious, on any serious subject; and without such political and literary, and, for a boy, is very learning the most original mind may be positive in them and sure about them; able indeed to dazzle, to amuse, to refute, but he gets them from his schoolfellows, or to perplex, but not to come to any usehis masters, or his parents, as the case may ful result or any trustworthy conclusion. be. Such as he is in his other relations. There are indeed persons who profess a such also is he in his school exercises; his different view of the matter, and even act mind is observant, sharp, ready, retentive; upon it. Every now and then you will he is almost passive in the acquisition of find a person of vigorous or fertile mind, knowledge. I say this in no disparage- who relies upon his own resources, despises ment of the idea of a clever boy. Geog- all former authors, and gives the world, raphy, chronology, history, language, nat- with the utmost fearlessness, his views upon ural history, he heaps up the matter of religion, or history, or any other popular these studies as treasures for a future day. subject. And his works may sell for a It is the seven years of plenty with him: while; he may get a name in his day; but he gathers in by handfuls, like the Egyp- this will be all. His readers are sure to tians, without counting; and though, as find on the long run that his doctrines are time goes on, there is exercise for his argu- mere theories, and not the expression of mentative powers in the Elements of Math- facts, that they are chaff instead of bread,

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