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upon subjects connected with economy, lite- | Wheaton had his final audience with the rature and art, addressed within a few years King of Prussia, having been recalled by to the secretary of the National Institution at President Polk; and, after a short residence Washington, and published in the National In- at Paris, he returned to the United States. telligencer of that city. They are honourable -Since these pages were first published, Mr. exhibitions of his taste, research, and erudition. Wheaton has been added to the company of our

He is a corresponding member of the Insti- illustrious dead. He died suddenly on the eletute of France, and of several other distin- venth of March, 1818, at Roxbury, near Bosguished scientific and literary societies abroad, ton, having taken up his residence there with and is held in the highest respect by the scho- a view to enter upon the professorship of Interlars and statesmen of all countries.

national Law, in Harvard College, to which On the twenty-second of July, 1846, Mr. I he had a short time previously been elected.

SCANDINAVIAN MANNERS. appropriated to distinguish the champions who FROM THE HISTORY OF THE NORTHMEN.

were subject to this species of martial insanity.

They were called Bersærker, and the name occurs Religion had its influence in promoting this so frequently in the Sagas, that we must conclude spirit of adventurous enterprise. That professed that this disease prevailed generally among the by the people of the north bore the impress of a Vikingar, who passed their lives in roving the seas wild and audacious spirit, such as, according to tra- in search of spoil and adventures. dition, marked the character of its founder. What- Even the female sex did not escape this wideever distinction of sects may have existed among spread contagion of martial fury, and the love of the Northern pagans, and however various the wild and perilous adventure. Women of illustrious objects of their worship, the favourite god of the birth sometimes became pirates and roved the seas. Vikingar was a Mars and a Moloch. The religion More frequently, however, they shared the toils of Odin stimulated the desire of martial renown and dangers of land-battles. These Amazons were and the thirst of blood, by promising the joys of called Skjöld-meyar, or virgins of the shield. The Valhall as the reward of those who fell gloriously romantic Sagas are filled with the most striking in battle. His ministering spirits, the Valkyrur, traits of their heroic hearing. In the Völsungahovered over the bloody field, watched the fortune saga we have the romantic tale of Alfhilda, daughof battle, and snatching the souls of those who were ter of Sigurdr, king of the Ostrogoths, who was doomed to fall, bore them away to the blissful pre- chaste, brave, and fair. She was always veiled sence of the god of war. Those who adhered to from the gaze of vulgar curiosity, and lived in a the more ancient deities of the North, or rejected secluded bower, where she was guarded by two indiscriminately all the national objects of religious champions of prodigious strength and valour. worship, were animated by a still wilder and more Sigurdr had proclaimed that whoever aspired to lawless spirit. Some of these chieftains carried his daughter's hand, must vanquish the two gigantheir audacity so far as to defy the gods themselves. tic champions,—his own life to be the forfeit if he

Their national freedom, and that proud and in- failed in the perilous enterprise. Alf, a young dependent bearing which always marks the barba- sea-king, who had already signalized himself by rian character, contributed to swell this lofty spirit, his heroic exploits, encountered and slew the two which was always fomented by the songs extem- champions; but Alfhilda herself was not disposed porized or recited by the Skalds in praise of mar- to surrender tamely. She boldly put to sea with tial renown, or the glorious exploits of their an- her female companions, all clothed, like herself, in cestors. The kings and other chieftains were male attire, and completely armed for war. They surrounded by champions who were devoted to fell in with a fleet of Vikingar, who having just their fortunes, and dependent upon their favour lost their chieftain, elected the intrepid heroine for for advancement. T'hese warriors were some

his successor. She continued thus to rove the times seized with a sort of phrensy—a furor Baltic sea, at the head of this band of pirates, until Martis,-produced by their excited imaginations the wide-spread fame of her exploits came to the dwelling upon the images of war and glory,—and ear of Alf, her suitor, who gave chase to her squadperhaps increased by those potations of stimulating ron, and pursued it into the Gulf of Finland. The liquors, in which the people of the north, like brave Alfhilda gave battle. Alf boarded the bark other uncivilized tribes, indulged to great excess. of the princess, who made a gallant and obstinate When this madness was upon them, these Orlan- resistance, until her helmet being cloven open by dos committed the wildest extravagancies, attacked one of his champions, disclosed to their astonished indiscriminately friends and foes, and even waged view the fair face and lovely locks of his coy miswar against inanimate nature—the rocks and trees. tress, who, being thus vanquished by her magnaniAt other times, they defied each other to mortal mous lover, no longer refuses him the hand he combat in some lonely and desert isle. The an- had sought, whilst his gallant chainpion espouses cient language of the north had a particular term one of her fair companions.


[Born 1782. D'ed 1850.]

John Caldwell Calhoun was born in Ab- From this time Mr. Calhoun's history is so beville, South Carolina, on the eighteenth of closely identified with that of political conMarch, 1782. His grandfather, who had emi- troversies, of which no intelligible account grated from Ireland to Pennsylvania in 1733, can be given in the limits which I here prewas one of the first settlers of that district, and scribe to myself, that I shall do little more his father, a man of ability and daring energy than mention the periods during which he has of character, represented it in the colonial and held the various high offices to which he has state legislatures more than thirty years. been called under different administrations.

In his thirteenth year, Mr. Calhoun was From his entrance into the House of Repreplaced at an academy in Georgia, of which sentatives until 1817, when he was made Mr. Waddell, a Presbyterian clergyman who Secretary of War, he was the acknowledged had married his sister, was principal. But the leader and most powerful champion of the death of his father, in 1796, caused an interrup- democratic party in that body, though in this tion of his studies, which were not resumed period the supporter of a protective tariff and until he was nearly nineteen years of age. Hav- of a national bank. His services in the War ing determined to be a planter, he had abandoned Department during the eight years of Mr. all thoughts of a classical education; but an Monroe's administration are universally adelder brother at this period persuaded him to pur- mitted to have been of vast importance to the sue one of the liberal professions, and he entered country, and the estimation in which they so earnestly upon the business of preparation, were held at the time is shown in the large that within two years from his commence- majority by which he was chosen Vice Prement of the Latin grammar he was received sident in the celebrated contest of 1824, when into the junior class of Yale College. It is there was no choice by the people of Presirelated that after an animated controversy with dent. He was again elected Vice President the student, which arose during a class recita- in 1828, but a rupture occurring between himtion from Paley, the eminent head of the col- self and General Jackson, he was thrown into lege remarked to a friend that “the young the ranks of the opposition; and South Caroman had talents enough to be President of lina soon after declaring the tariff law of that the United States, and would one day attain year unconstitutional, and threatening forcible to that station.” The aim of his ambition resistance of its execution, he resigned the was shown in the selection of his commence- vice presidency to accept a place on the floor ment thesis, which was, “ The qualifications of the Senate as the special apologist and vinnecessary to constitute a perfect statesman.” dicator of his state in that memorable crisis He graduated in September, 1804, and imme- of its affairs. His speeches on the Force Bill, diately began the study of the law, in the on the Federative Principle of the Constituwell-known school of Litchfield, where he tion, and on the Removal of the Deposits, in remained nearly two years. He afterward the sessions of 1833 and 1834, are among the passed several months in the office of the most earnest, able, and characteristic that he Chancellor De Saussure in Charleston, and has made since his first appearance in Conwas admitted to the bar in Abbeville in 1807. gress. He remained in the Senate until the He at once took a high rank in the courts, death of Mr. Secretary Upshur in 1844, when and in 1809 was elected by a large majority he accepted the place of that gentleman in the to the state legislature, where he so distin- Department of State, which he held until the guished himself that at the end of his second close of Mr. Tyler's administration. For the session he was transferred to the national first time in many years he was without office, House of Representatives, in which he made but he was soon called from his retirement to his first appearance in the autumn of 1811. resume his place in the Senate, where he appeared immediately after the great southern he more than any other statesman resembles and western convention at Memphis, of which Jonathan Edwards. His mind has the same he was president, near the close of 1845. quickness of perception, subtle sharpness of

A collection of Mr. Calhoun's speeches from discrimination, and comprehensive grasp. 1811 to 1843 was published in New York in He has the same sincerity of conviction, fer1844. It is incomplete, but perhaps contains vour of tone, and heartiness of purpose. One every thing he had written in illustration or de- of the differences between him and Edwards fence of the principles he held at the time of its in the manner of approaching a point of appearance. His subsequent speeches and re- controversy. The great divine who gave to ports, especially his speech on the Oregon ques- metaphysics so much of the exactness and tion and report on the memorial of the Mem-certainty of mathematics, assailed the central phis Convention, are not inferior in terseness proposition of his antagonist cautiously, and and clearness of expression, or in argumenta- by various trains of reasoning, each of which tive power, to any of his earlier productions. seemed conclusive, but all of which, starting

The doctrines for the defence of which he at different points and ending in the same reis chiefly distinguished are those of free trade sult, were overwhelming. Mr. Calhoun, on and the sovereignty of the individual states. the contrary, fixes his eye at once upon the He holds that the union is a league for spe- essential issue, and upon this expends his cial purposes between the governments, and not whole force; and his clear and skilful analybetween the people, of the states which “ac- sis and rapid generalization are not unworthy ceded” to the Constitution, and that under cer- of that great master of logic, to whom in pertain contingencies each state may decide and spicuousness of arrangement and in the hard act for itself upon the laws of Congress, and, polish of his diction he is frequently snperior. holding them unconstitutional, may oppose its In the Senate Mr. Calhoun's countenance is own force to their execution. But "state rights always serious. are no more !” he exclaims in his speech on

Deep on his front engraven

Deliberation sits and public care. the removal of the deposits: “The bill which vested in the central government the privilege It has been said that when speaking here he has of judging of the extent of its powers, and no action and exhibits no emotion. This may authorized it to enforce its judgments by the be true, generally, but it is not so always. He sword, prostrated the states as helpless corpo- was very much excited during the remarkable rations at its feet.And since the defeat of scene of the declaration of war against Mexico his party on this question he has generally in a preamble to a bill of supplies. I sat near acted with the one under whose auspices he him during one of his speeches on that occafirst came into Congress.

sion. He stood erect and motionless at first, It has been stated that he has devoted his but as he proceeded his head turned from side leisure for several years to the composition of to side, and his eyes glowed, and his words a work on the Principles of Government, in came fast and faster, and when he declared which his peculiar views will be more me- with vehement earnestness of tone that he thodically defined and vindicated.

would sooner stab himself to the heart than Mr. Calhoun is in many respects one of vote for that lying clause, he flung the back the most extraordinary men of the nineteenth of his skeletonlike hand upon the desk before century, and is undoubtedly one of the few him with such energy, that men looked from for whom this period will be memorable in all parts of the hall as if to see whether it after times. His eloquence is altogether un- had not been shattered to atoms by the blow. like that which is supposed to belong to a | Yet this is not often his manner. He speaks new country, or to a democracy, which is the rapidly indeed, but calmly, with the most eloquence of passion. Its power is from an judicious emphasis, and with perfect distinctexcessive refinement and compactness of reason, which requires the perfect submission of -Mr. Calhoun died in Washington on the the mind, and carries it forward with irresist thirty-first day of March, 1850; in what ible force; and its glow from the vehement seemed the most important period of his energy and rapidity with which his argument political life ; reverenced for wisdom by his is conducted. In his intellectual constitution | party, and for virtue by all the nation.




intolerable, and cannot otherwise be thrown off

if liberty must perish, or the government be overFROM A SPEECH IN REPLY TO JOHN RANDOLPH, IN 1811.

thrown, I would not hesitate, at the hazard of life, If taxes should become necessary, I do not hesi

to resort to revolution, and to tear down a corrupt tate to say the people will pay cheerfully. It is

government, that could neither be reformed nor for their government and their cause, and it would

borne by freemen; but I trust in God things will be their interest and duty to pay. But it may be,

never come to that pass. I trust never to see such and I believe was said, that the people will not

fearful times; for fearful indeed they would be if pay taxes, because the rights violated are not they should ever befall us. It is the last remedy, worth defending, or that the defence will cost

‘and not to be thought of till common sense and more than the gain. Sir, I here enter my solemn

the voice of mankind would justify the resort. protest against this low and “calculating avarice" entering this hall of legislation. It is only fit for shops and counting-houses, and ought not to disgrace the seat of power by its squalid aspect.

FORMATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. Whenever it touches sovereign power, the nation is ruined. It is too short-sighted to defend itself. It is a compromising spirit, always ready to yield THERE never existed an example before of a a part to save the residue. It is too timid to have

free community spreading over such an extent of in itself the laws of self-preservation. It is never territory; and the ablest and profoundest thinkers, safe but under the shield of honour. There is, at the time, believed it to be utterly impracticable sir, one principle necessary to make us a great that there should be. Yet this difficult problem people—to produce, not the form, but real spirit was solved-successfully solved, by the wise and of union, and that is to protect every citizen in the sagacious men who framed our Constitution. No: lawful pursuit of his business. He will then feel it was above unaided human wisdom—above the that he is backed by the government—that its arm sagacity of the most enlightened. It was the reis his arm.

He then will rejoice in its increased sult of a fortunate combination of circumstances strength and prosperity. Protection and patriot- co-operating and leading the way to its formation; ism are reciprocal. This is the way which has

directed by that kind Providence which has so of. led nations to greatness. Sir, I am not versed in

ten and so signally disposed events in our favour. this calculating policy, and will not, therefore, pretend to estimate in dollars and cents the value of national independence. I cannot measure in shillings and pence the misery, the stripes, and the

THE OLD PARTIES. slavery of our impressed seamen; not even the value of our shipping, commercial and agricultural losses, under the orders in council and the I avail myself of the occasion to avow my high British system of blockade. In thus expressing respect for both of the great parties which divided myself, I do not intend to condemn any prudent the country in its early history. They were both estimate of the means of a country before it enters eminently honest and patriotic, and the preference That is wisdom, the other folly. which each gave to its respective views resulted

from a zealous attachment to the public interest. At that early period, before there was any expe

rience as to the operation of the system, it is not REBELLION AND REVOLUTION. surprising that one should believe that the danger FROM A SPEECH ON THE BILL FOR THE ADMISSION OF was a tendency to anarchy, while the other be

lieved it to be towards despotism, and that these I shall resist all encroachments on the Consti- different theoretical views should honestly have a tution, whether it be the encroachment of this decided influence on their public conduct. governinent on the states, or the opposite—the executive on Congress, or Congress on the executive. My creed is to hold both governments, and all the departments of each, to their proper sphere, THE DANGER OF SUBSERVIENCY. and to maintain the authority of the laws and the Constitution against all revolutionary movements. I believe the means which our system furnishes PIRACY, robbery, and violence of every descripto preserve itself are ample, if fairly understood tion may, as history proves, be followed by virtue, and applied; and I shall resort to them, however patriotism, and national greatness; but where is corrupt and disordered the times, so long as there the example to be found of a degenerate, corrupt, is hope of reforming the government. The result and subservient people, who have ever recovered is in the hands of the Disposer of events. It is their virtue and patriotism? Their doom has my part to do my duty. Yet, while I thus openly ever been the lowest state of wretchedness and avow myself a curiservative, God forbid I should misery: scorned, trodden down, and obliterated ever deny the glorious right of rebellion and revo- for ever from the list of nations. May Heaven lution. Should corruption and oppression become grant that such may never be our doom !


on a war.




(Born 1782.1

A NOTICE of the great statesman of the south Mr. Webster was born in Salisbury, a rural is naturally followed by one of the illustrious town on the headwaters of the Merrimack river, New Englander who sits opposite to him in in New Hampshire, in 1782, and after an imthe Senate, and who from their first entrance perfect preparation, in the common schools, into Congress has been his most powerful and entered Dartmouth College, where he was most constant antagonist. Daniel Webster and graduated when about twenty years of age. John Caldwell Calhoun were born in the same He soon after turned his attention to the law, year. One is the son of a respectable northern but the necessity of exerting himself for his farmer, who emigrated into New Hampshire support interrupted and finally induced the when it was a wilderness, and served as an abandonment of his studies. The pursuit of officer in the old French war and the Revo-business however led him to Boston, and lution; and the other of a southern planter, while there into the office of Mr. Gore, who of similar circumstances, who was a pioneer discerned his genius, cultivated his acquaintin the forests of Carolina, and, with the same ance, and became his instructor. Here he rank, fought the Cherokees and the British. finished the study of his profession, and was The fathers of both, after distinguishing them- admitted an attorney and counsellor, in 1805. selves in the field, were called to honourable He then opened an office at Boscowen, a small civil stations, but they continued to be culti- village near his birthplace, but in 1807 removed vators of the soil, and their sons, after partially to Portsmouth, where a larger field was opened acquiring their education, decided to follow to him, and there, in constant competition with their inherited occupations, and passed some the best lawyers of New Hampshire, he rose three years in the quiet pursuits of agriculture. rapidly until he was acknowledged to be seWhat changed the purpose of Webster is un- cond to no one at the bar in the state. known, but Calhoun was led to study his pro- Among the earliest, perhaps the first of all fession by the just appreciation of an elder Mr. Webster's published writings, was an brother. When Christopher Gore presented oration “ delivered before the Federal gentlehis pupil, young Daniel Webster, for admis- men of Concord and its vicinity” on the fourth sion to the bar of Boston, he ventured a pre- of July, 1806. He was then but twenty-four diction of his future eminence, which all his years of age, and the performance is interestpresent fame has not more than fulfilled; and ing for its subject and its style. He discusses Doctor Dwight, about the same time, at the the question whether it be possible to preserve close of a class examination at Yale College, the Constitution. He saw thus early the danforetold that his southern student, John Cald-gers to which it was exposed, and enlisted for well Calhoun, would one day be President of life in its defence. the United States. For a while, they lingered Soon after the declaration of war, in 1812, about the northern and southern horizons, and he was elected a member of the national House then simultaneously shot up into mid-heaven, of Representatives, in which, during four seswith a steady, but different lustre, to fix the sions, he greatly distinguished himself by his

а gaze, not of their admiring countrymen only, eloquence, extensive knowledge, and indepenbut of mankind. Whatever may now or here- dent action. Although opposed to the war, after be the estimation in which any man or he advocated such measures as were essential men engaged in our public affairs may be held, to the honour and safety of the country, and Daniel Webster and John Caldwell Calhoun particularly an increase of the Navy. “Even will continue to be regarded as the representa- our party divisions cease at the water's edge,” tives of the genius and of the leading opinions he said : “ They are lost in attachment to the in political philosophy, held by the northern national character, where that character is made and southern states of the confederacy in the respectable.” We were contending on land first half of the nineteenth century.

for maritime rights. “In time,” he continued,

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