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who conduct and control, as far as it is possible to to the uttermost extremities of the west; who can control, the commerce of all nations, with those see scenes of savage desolation transformed, almost manufacturers who fill every market with their un- with the suddenness of enchantment, into those of rivalled products; go into that bank which is the fruitfulness and beauty ; crowned with flourishing repository of the precious metals for all Europe; cities, filled with the noblest of all populations; if consider its notes as well as the bills of private there be a inan, I say, that can witness all this bankers, at a premium everywhere, more valuable passing under his very eyes, without feeling his than specie, symbols not merely of gold, but of heart beat high, and his imagination warmed and what is far more precious than gold, yea, than fine transported by it, be sure, sir, that the raptures of gold, of perfect good faith, of unblemished integ- song exist not for him; he would listen in vain to rity, of sagacious enterprise, of steadfast, persever- Tasso or Camoens, telling a tale of the wars of ing industry, of boundless wealth, of business co- knights and crusaders, or of the discovery and conextensive with the earth, and of all these things quest of another hemisphere. possessed, exercised, enjoyed, protected under a Sir, thinking as I do of these things; not doubting, system of liberty chastened by the law which main for a moment, the infinite superiority of our race tains it, and of law softened and mitigated by the in every thing that relates to a refined and well spirit of liberty which it breathes throughout. Sir, ordered public economy, and in all the means and I know, as well as any one, what compensations instruments of a high social improvement, it strikes there are for all this opulence and power, for it is me as of all paradoxes the most singular, to hear the condition of our being that we “ buy our bless- foreign examples seriously proposed for our imitaings at a price." I know that there are disturbing tion in the very matters wherein that superiority causes which have hitherto marred, in some degree, has ever appeared to me to be most unquestionthe effect of this high and mighty civilization ; but the able. The reflection has occurred to me a thousand hand of reform has been already applied to them, times in travelling over the continent of Europe, as and every thing promises the most auspicious re- I passed through filthy ill-paved villages, through sults. I have it on the most unquestionable autho- towns in which there is no appearance of an imrity, because, from an unwilling witness, that with- provement having been made since the Reformain the memory of man, never were the labouring tion, as I have looked at the wretched hovel of the classes of England so universally employed, and poor peasant or artisan, or seen him at his labours so comfortably situated as at the beginning of the with his clumsy implements and coarse gear—what present year.

a change would take place in the whole aspect of But I said that there was another nation that the country, if it were to fall in the hands of Amehad some experience in banking and its effects. ricans for a single generation ! Sir, I dare not trust myself to speak of my coun- But is it paper money and the credit system try with the rapture which I habitually feel when alone that have achieved all these wonders? I do I contemplate her marvellous history. But this I not say so, sir; but can you say, can any one presume will say, that on my return to it, after an absence that they have not done much of all this? of only four years, I was filled with wonder at all I know that the cardinal spring and source of our I saw and all I heard. What upon earth is to be success is freedom-freedom, with the peculiar compared with it? I found New York grown up character that belongs to it in our race-freedom to almost double its former size, with the air of a of thought, freedom of speech, freedom of action, great capital, instead of a mere flourishing com- freedom of commerce, freedom not merely from mercial town, as I had known it. I listened to the oppressions, but from those undue restraints accounts of voyages of a thousand miles in mag- and that impertinent interference of government in nificent steamboats on the waters of those great the interests properly belonging to individuals, lakes, which, but the other day, I left sleeping in which stand in the way of all improvement in the the primeval silence of nature, in the recesses of a nations of continental Europe. It is this vital vast wilderness; and I felt that there is a grandeur principle, the animating element of social equality, and a majesty in this irresistible onward march of tempered and sobered by a profound respect for the a race, created, as I believe, and elected to possess authority of the laws, and for the rights of others, and people a continent, which belong to few other and acting upon that other prominent characterisobjects, either of the moral or material world. We tic of the Anglo-Norman race, the strong instinct may become so much accustomed to such things of property, with the personal independence and that they shall make as little impression on our personal comfort that belong to it, that explains minds as the glories of the Heavens above us; but, our unrivalled and astonishing progress. But of looking on them, lately, as with the eye of the this rational, diffusive liberty, among a people so stranger, I felt, what a recent English traveller is intelligent as ours, the credit system is the natural said to have remarked, that, far from being without fruit, the inseparable companion, the necessary poetry, as some have vainly alleged, our whole means and instrument. It is part and parcel of country is one great poem. Sir, it is so; and if our existence. Whoever heard of credit in a there be a man that can think of what is doing, in despotism, or an anarchy ? It implies confidenceall parts of this most blessed of all lands, to em- confidence in yourself, confidence in your neighbellish and advance it, who can contemplate that bour, confidence in your government, confidence in living mass of intelligence, activity and improve- the administration of the laws, confidence in the ment as it rolls on, in its sure and steady progress, sagacity, the integrity, the discretion of those with

to

say,

as,

whom you have to deal; confidence, in a word, in ning of his Institutes, we mean Homer among the your destiny, and your fortune, in the destinies and Greeks, and Virgil among the Roinans; and there the fortune of the country to which you belong ; are others besides the Mantuan bard, who seem in

for instance, in the case of a great national the same way to take precedence of our favourites debt. It is the fruit, I say, of all that is most pre- in the estimation of ancient writers. cious in civilized life, and to quarrel with it is to Catullus had, among the poets of his own counbe ungrateful to God for some of the greatest bless- try, the title of doctus, or learned; for what reason, ings he has vouchsafed to man. Compare Asia is not quite clear. If we are to suppose, however, with Europe; hoarding has been the usage of the with some of the commentators, that it was beforiner from time immemorial, because it is slavish, cause of his familiar acquaintance with the Greek oppressed and barbarous; and it is curious to see language and literature, we must do him the justice the effect of English laws in breaking up (as they to say, that of all imitators he has the most origiare doing) that system in Hindoostan. Depend nality—that of all erudite men he retains the greatupon it, sir, all such ideas are utterly alien to our est share of the playfulness, the buoyancy, and the way of thinking-to all the habitudes of our people, vigour of natural talent. There is no constraints hatand all the interests of the country. My friends ever in his movements-no parade or pedantry in from beyond the mountains are familiar with the his style. On the contrary, there never was a poetgreat principle, the magical effect of credit in a we do not even except Shakspeare- who seemed to young and progressive country. They know that write more as the niood happened to prompt, and miracles are wrought by a small advance of money whose verses are stamped with such a decided cba. to enable enterprise and industry to bring into cul- racter of facility and of spontaneity. This, indeed, is tivation a virgin soil. They know how soon the the great, and among the Latin poets, the peculiar treasures of its unworn fertility enable them to pay charm of Catullus. Of all the Romans, he is most off a loan of that sort with usurious interest, and of a Greek, not by study and imitation, but by na make thein proprietors of estates rising in value ture. His lively wit, his voluptuous character, bis with the lapse of every moment. Compare the hearty affections, his powerful imagination, seem great western country now, with what it was twenty naturally to overflow in verse and voluntary wake years ago-sell it sub hasta—and compute, if | harmonious numbers.” Julius Cæsar Scaliger, the powers of arithmetic will enable you to do so, who finds fault with every thing, disputed this the augmentation of its riches. Sir, this is one of poet's pretensions to learning, and denounced his the phenomena of our situation to which attention works as stuffed with nothing but vulgarity and has hardly ever been called—the manner in which ribaldry, but he afterwards sung a palinodia, dethe mere increase of population acts upon the value claring the Galliambic ode a mest noble composiof property. To be struck with the prodigious re- tion, and the Epithalamium of Thetis and Peleus sults produced in this siinple way, you have only worthy to be placed by the side of the Eneid. to compare the estimated taxable property in Penn- Other writers have been equally lavish of their sylvania and New York, when it was returned for praise for other excellencies ; Martial, for instance, direct taxation in '99, with the returns of the same ascribes to him an unrivalled superiority in the property, for the same purpose, in 1813, after an in- epigram. It is impossible to imagine any two terval of fourteen years—you will see how it is that things from the same pen more entirely unlike each our people have been enriched by debt, and “ by other, than the ode just mentioned, and the sweet owing, owe not”-how with a balance of payments and delicate eflusion upon Lesbia’s Spariow, nor almost continually against them from the first set- any falling off so sudden as from either of these tlement of the country, they have grown in riches to the vulgarity and nastiness of some of the Heabeyond all precedent or parallel. You will appre- decasyllables. His amatory poetry is less tender ciate all the blessings of the credit system and than that of Tibullus, and less gay and gailunat imagine, perhaps, how this wonderful progress than that of Ovid; but it is more simple, more corwould have been impeded and embarrassed by the dial, more voluptuous than either. A poder difficulties of a metallic circulation.

reader would be very much disappointed if he ex

pected to find in it that delicacy of sentiment; that CATULLUS.

culie des femmes ; that distant, mysterious, and

adoring love which inspired the muse of Dante Iv reference to the merits of any merely literary and Petrarch, and which has ever since character. composition, a foreigner must ever distrust his own ized the amorous ditties of our sonnetteers. The opinions when they do not entirely coincide with passion of Catullus had not a particle of Platonic those of native critics. For this reason, we feel abstraction in it-it was as far as possible from being bound to aclmit that we probably overrate Catullus metaphysical. It is deeply tinged with sensuality, and Lucretius in considering them (for we profess but it has absolute possession of his whole being; be to have always considered them)-as in point of seems to be smitten to the bottom of his heart with original genius, the two first poets of ancient Rome. its power—to be quite intoxicated with its delicious The critics of their own country say nothing that raptures. It is that“ drunkenness of soul,” of which is not in their favour, but it is plain that they do Byron speaks, from an imagination excited and exnot entertain so exalted an opinion of their excel- alted by visions of bliss and images of beautylence as we have ventured to express. When we with every feeling absorbed in one devoted passion, speak of “the poet," says Justinian, in the begin- | and all the senses dissolved in a dream of love.

FROM AX ESSAY ON ROMAX LITERATURE.

The sensibility of Catullus, however, is not con- ! it. Its compass and flexibility, its riches and its fined to the subjects of amatory song. There are powers, are altogether unlimited. It not only exseveral of his poems, on various occasions, which presses with precision all that is thought or known are full of tenderness and deep pathos. Quando at any given period, but it enlarges itself naturally, leggete, says Flaminio, his imitator and almost his with the progress of science, and allords, as if withrival-fi non vi sentite voi liquefare il cuore di dol- out an effort, a new phrase, or a systematic nomencezza." Nothing can be more true to nature and clature whenever one is called for. It is equally more touching than his address to the Peninsula adapted to every variety of style and subject to of Sirmio—his home, and perhaps his birth-place. the most shadowy subtlety of distinction, and the The Carmen Nuptiale has been often imitated, and utmost exactness of definition, as well as to the is committed to memory by every scholar, and the energy and the pathos of popular eloquence-10 Epithalamium of Julius and Manlius may be re- the majesty, the elevation, the variety of the epic, garded as perfect in its kind. But the noblest and the boldest license of the dithyrambic, no less specimen, beyond comparison, of poetry and pathos than to the sweetness of the elegy, the simplicity which the works of Catullus present—the most of the pastoral, or the heedless gaiety and delicate powerful appeal to the sympathies of the human characterization of comedy. Above all, what is bosom as the liveliest picture of its hidden work- an unspeakable charm—a sort of naiveté is pecuings and intensest agonies, is that Galliambic ode liar to it, which appears in all those various styles, to which we have already alluded. The subject is, and is quite as becoming and agreeable in a histoto be sure, a very affecting one. Under the influence rian or a philosopher-Xenophon for instance-as of a frenzied enthusiasm, a young man forsakes his in the light and jocund numbers of Anacreon. home and his country, for the purpose of dedicato | Indeed, were there no other object in learning ing himself to the service of the Idæan Goddess. Greek but to see to what perfection language is The vow of chastity which a monk may break, capable of being carried, not only as a medium of was rendered inviolable to the Gallæ (for so the communication, but as an instrument of thought, priests of Cybele were called) by the same means we see not why the time of a young man would which, in later times, a father of the church adopted not be just as well bestowed in acquiring a knowto disarm the temptations of the flesh. Atys, in ledge of it--for all the purposes, at least, of a libe. the frenzy of his first excitement, is regularly ini- ral or elementary education—as in learning algetiated. He rushes madly forth to mingle in the bra, another specimen of a language or arrangement revelry of the Gallæ, whom he arouses by the trump of signs perfect in its kind. But this wonderful and the timbrel, and wildly exhorts to follow him idiom happens to have been spoken, as was binted to the lofty groves of the goddess. Their frantic in the preceding paragraph, hy a race as wonderful. demeanor, the Bacchanalian dances, their shrill and The very first monument of their genius—the most piercing howls are painted with a force of colour ancient relic of letters in the western world stands ing which nothing can surpass. The imitative to this day altogether unrivalled in the exalted class harmony of the versification is perfect—it is ab- to which it belongs. What was the history of this rupt, irregular, disordered. You hear it in the immortal poem and of its great fellow? Was it a hurried step, the clashing cymbal, the resounding single individual, and who was he, that composed timbrel. To all this commotion and disorder, a them? Had he any master or model? What had moment of repose-of soft but fatal repose-suc- been his education, and what was the state of soceeds. The Mänades, exhausted by their furious ciety in which he lived? These questions are full excitement, sink down at the threshold of the tem- of interest to a philosophical inquirer into the inple to sleep. A beautiful morning rises upon them, tellectual history of the species, but they are espeand Atys wakes—to despair. His lament is affect- cially important with a view to the subject of the ing beyond the power of language to describe. It present discussion. Whatever causes account for seems wrung from a broken heart and is fraught the matchless excellence of these primitive poems, with all its agony and desolation. All the poetry and for that of the language in which they are of all ages may be safely challenged to produce written, will go far to explain the extraordinary cirany thing more painfully interesting and pathetic. cumstance, that the same favoured people left

nothing unattempted in philosophy, in letters and

in arts, and attempted nothing without signal, and GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. in some cases, unrivalled success. Winkleman

undertakes to assign some reasons for this aston

ishing superiority of the Greeks, and talks very Ir is impossible to contemplate the annals of learnedly about a fine climate, delicate organs, exGreek literature and art, without being struck with quisite susceptibility, the full development of the them, as by far the most extraordinary and brilliant human form by gymnastic exercises, &c. For our phenomena in the history of the human mind. own part, we are content to explain the phenomeThe very language-even in its primitive simpli- non after the manner of the Scottish school of me. city, as it came down from the rhapsodists who taphysicians, in which we learned the little that we celebrated the exploits of Hercules and 'Theseus, profess to know of that department of philosophy, by was as great a wonder as any it records. All the resolving it at once in an original law of nature: other tongues that civilized man has spoken are in other words, by substantially, but decently, conpoor and feeble, and barbarous, in comparison with fessing it to be inexplicable.

FROM AN ESSAY ON CLASSICAL LEARNING.

1

WILLIAM WARE.

(Born 1797.]

William Ware was born at Hingham in the summer of 1838. It is a sort of sequel to ! Massachusetts on the third of August, 1797. the Zenobia, and is composed of letters purHe is a descendant in the fifth generation from porting to be written by Piso from Rome to Robert Ware, one of the earliest settlers of the Fausta, the daughter of Gracchus, one of the colony, who came from England about the old Palmyrene ministers. In the first work year 1644. His father was Henry Ware, D.D., Piso meets with Probus, a Christian teacher, many years honourably distinguished by his and is partially convinced of the truth of his connection with the Divinity School at Cam- doctrine; he is now a disciple, and a shares of bridge, and the late Henry Ware, jr., D. D., the persecutions which marked the last days of was his elder brother. His only living brother the reign of Aurelian. The characters in Prois Dr. John Ware, who also shares of the lite- bus are skilfully drawn and contrasted, and rary tastes and talents of his family.

with a deeper moral interest, from the frequent William Ware was graduated at Harvard discussions of doctrine which it contains, the University in 1816. After reading theology romance has the classical style and spirit which the usual term he was settled over the Unita- characterized its predecessor. rian society of Chambers street, New York, Mr. Ware's third work is entitled Julian, or where he remained about sixteen years. He Scenes in Judea, and was published in 1811. gave little to the press except a few sermons, The hero is a Roman, of Hebrew descent, who and four numbers of a religious miscellany visits the land of his ancestors, to gratify a called The Unitarian, until near the close of liberal curiosity, during the last days of the this period, when he commenced the publica- Saviour. Every thing connected with Pales. tion in the Knickerbocker Magazine of those tine at this period is so familiar that the ground brilliant papers which in the autumn of 1836 might seem to be sacred to History and Rewere given to the world under the title of Ze- ligion; but it has often been invaded by the nobia or the Fall of Palmyra, an Historical romancer, and perhaps never with more sucRomance. Before the completion of this cess than in the present instance. Although work he had resigned his pastoral office and Julian has less freshness than Zenobia, it has removed to Brookline, near Boston.

an air of truth and sincerity that renders it! The romance of Zenobia is in the form of scarcely less interesting. letters to Marcus Curtius, at Rome, from Lu- Mr. Ware was several years editor of the cius Manlius Piso, a senator, who is supposed Christian Examiner, the very able journal of to have been led by circumstances of a private religion and letters published at Boston, and nature to visit Palmyra toward the close of the he was recently minister of the Unitarian So third century, to have become acquainted with ciety at West Cambridge, but ill health has the queen and her court, to have seen the City since compelled him to relinquish all kinds of of the Desert in its greatest magnificence, and occupation. to have witnessed its destruction by the Em- The writings of Mr. Ware betray a familiar, peror Aurelian. For the purposes of romantic ity with the civilization of the ancients, and fiction the subject is perhaps the finest that had are written in a graceful, pure and brilliant not been appropriated in all ancient history; style. In our literature they are peculiar, and and the treatment of it, which is highly pictu- they will bear a favourable comparison with resque and dramatic throughout, shows that the most celebrated historical romances relatthe author has been a successful student of the ing to the same scenes and periods which institutions, manners and social life of the age have been written abroad. They have passed he has attempted to illustrate.

through many editions in Great Britain, and Mr. Wace's second romance, Probus, or have been translated into German and other Rome in tie" hiru Cerlvry, was published in 1 languages of the continent.

THE JOURNEY TO PALMYRA. clearly deceived by those of whom I had made the YROM ZENOBIA.

most exact inquiries at Berytus. The event proved,

however, that it was not for nothing; for soon afI will not detain you long with our voyage, but ter we had started on our journey, on the morning will only mark out its course. Leaving the Afri- of the second day, turning suddenly around the can shore, we struck across to Sicily, and coasting projecting rock of a mountain ridge, we all at once along its eastern border, beheld with pleasure the beheld, as if a vail had been lifted up, Heliopolis towering form of Ætna, sending up into the hea- and its suburbs spread out before us in all their vens a dull and sluggish cloud of vapours. We various beauty. The city lay about three miles then ran between the Peloponnesus and Crete, and distant. I could only therefore identify its prinso held our course till the Island of Cyprus rose ciple structure, the Temple of the Sun, as built by like her own fair goddess from the ocean, and filled the first Antonine. This towered above the walls our eyes with a beautiful vision of hill and valley, and over all the other buildings, and gave vast ideas wooded promontory, and glittering towns and of the greatness of the place, leading the mind to villas. A fair wind soon withdrew us from these crowd it with other edifices that should bear some charming prospects, and after driving us swiftly proportion to this noble monument of imperial and roughly over the remainder of our way, re- magnificence. As suddenly as the view of this warded us with a brighter and more welcome vision imposing scene had been revealed, so suddenly still the coast of Syria and our destined port, was it again eclipsed by another short turn in the Berytus.

road, which took us once more into the mountain As far as the eye could reach, both toward the valleys. But the overhanging and impenetrable north and the south, we beheld a luxuriant region, foliage of a Syrian forest shielding me from the crowded with villages, and giving every indication fierce rays of a burning sun, soon reconciled me of comfort and wealth. The city itself, which we to my loss—more especially as I knew that in a rapidly approached], was of inferior size, but pre- short time we were to enter upon the sandy desert sented an agreeable prospect of warehouses, public which stretches from the Anti-Libanus almost to and private edifices, overtopped here and there by the very walls of Palmyra. the lofty palm, and other trees of a new and pecu- Upon this boundless desert we now soon enliar foliage. Four days were consumed here in the tered. The scene which it presented was more purchase of slaves, camels, and horses, and in other dismal than I can describe. A red, moving sand preparations for the journey across the desert. -or hard and baked by the heat of a sun such as Two routes represented themselves, one more, the Rome never knows-low, gray rocks just rising here other less direct; the last, though more circuitous, and there above the level of the plain, with now appeared to me the more desirable, as it would take and then the dead and glittering trunk of a vast me within sight of the modern glories and ancient cedar, whose roots seemed as if they had outlasted remains of Heliopolis. This, therefore, was de- centuries—the bones of camels and elephants, scattermined upon; and on the morning of the fifth tered on either hand, dazzling the sight by reason day we set forward upon our long march. Four of their excessive whiteness—at a distance occaslaves, two camels, and three horses, with an Arab sionally an Arab of the desert, for a moment surconductor, constituted our little caravan; but for veying our long line, and then darting off to his greater safety we attached ourselves to a much larger fastnesses—these were the objects which, with one than our own, in which we were swallowed scarce any variation, met our eyes during the four up and lost, consisting of travellers and traders from wearisome days that we dragged ourselves over all parts of the world, and who were also on their this wild and inhospitable region. A little after the way to Palmyra, as a point whence to separate to noon of the fourth day, as we started on our way, various parts of the vast east. It would delight having refreshed ourselves and our exhausted anime to lay before you, with the distinctness and mi- mals, at a spring which here poured out its warm nuteness of a picture, the whole of this novel and but still grateful waters to the traveller, my ears to me interesting route; but I must content my received the agreeable news that toward the east self with a slight sketch, and reserve fuller com- there could now be discerned the dark line which munications to the time when, once more seated indicated our approach to the verdant tract that with you upon the Cælian, we enjoy the freedom encompasses the great city. Our own excited of social converse.

spirits were quickly imparted to our beasts, and a Our way through the valleys of Libanus was like more rapid movement soon revealed into distinctone long wandering among the pleasure grounds ness the high land and waving groves of palın trees of opulent citizens. The land was everywhere which mark the site of Palmyra. richly cultivated, and a happier peasantry, as far It was several miles before we reached the city, as the eye of the traveller could judge, nowhere that we suddenly found ourselves-landing as it exists. The most luxuriant valleys of our own were from a sea upon an island or continent-in a Italy are not more crowded with the evidences of rich and thickly peopled country. The roads indiplenty and contentment. Upon drawing near to the cated an approach to a great capital in the increasancient Baalbec, I found, on inquiry of our guide, ing numbers of those who thronged them, meetthat we were not to pass through it, as I had hoped, ing and passing us, overtaking us, or crossing our nor even very near it, not nearer than between path. Elephants, camels, and the dromedary, two and three miles. So that in this I had been which I had before seen only in the amphitheatres,

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