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WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION.

CONFERENCES BY THE SOCIETY OF ARTS ON THURSDAY

and FRIDAY, JULY 24th and 25th.

VOL. VIII.-H. C.

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1.-WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION

361 THE AREA OF CHALK AS A SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY. By W. WHITAKER, B.A., F.G.S. .

364 WATER SUPPLY IN ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF

THE POPULATION. By W. Topley, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E. . 373 A POSSIBLE INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY. By

CHAS. E. DE RANCE, A.I.C.E., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. WATER FROM THE CHALK. By Joseph LUCAS

385

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378

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THE ORIGIN OF WATER SUPPLY. By G. J. Symons, F.R.S.
WATER SUPPLY TO VILLAGES AND RURAL DISTRICTS.

EARDLEY BAILEY-DENTON, C.E., B.A. (Oxon)

By

404

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WATER SUPPLY. By EDWARD EASTON, M. Inst. C.E.

414 SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY. By James MANSERGH, M. Inst. C.E. and M.E., F.G.S., F. .S.

424

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II.-QUALITY OF WATER. FILTRATION AND SOFTENING 459

WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE. By S. C. HOMERSHAM, M. Inst. C.E.
SOFTENING OF WATER. By BALDWIN LATHAM, M. Inst. C.E.,
F.G.S., etc.

467 THE DETECTION OF SEWAGE CONTAMINATION BY THE USE

OF THE MICROSCOPE, AND ON THE PURIFYING ACTION OF

MINUTE ANIMALS AND PLANTS. By H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S. 488 THE CHEMISTRY OF POTABLE WATER. By Professor ODLING, M.B., F.R.S., F.R.C.P.

· 492

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THE PURIFICATION OF WATER BY IRON ON A LARGE SCALE.
By W. ANDERSON, M. Inst. C.E. .

• 509 III.-METHODS OF DISTRIBUTION. MODES OF GIVING

PRESSURE, HOUSE FITTINGS, DISCOVERY AND PRE.
VENTION OF WASTE, Etc.
WATER DISTRIBUTION AND DUAL SUPPLY. By Colonel Sir FRANCIS

BOLTON

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MODE OF DISTRIBUTION, WITH REMARKS ON DUAL SUPPLY.
By HENRY J. MARTEN, M. Inst. C.E.

537

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REMARKS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER. By Joseph Quick,
Jun , M. Inst. C.E.

563

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBU

TION.

CONFERENCES ON THURSDAY AND FRIDAY,

JULY 24 AND 25, 1884.

Sir FREDERICK ABEL, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., in the chair.

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THE CHAIRMAN, in commencing the proceedings, said the active interest displayed by his Royal Highness, the President of the Society of Arts, on this subject, had led the Council to hope that it might have been in his to open the proceedings ; indeed, at one time, there was no doubt that this Conference would have been the opening one of the series arranged by the Executive Council of the Health Exhibition, and that his Royal Highness would have presided, at any rate, over a portion of the proceedings, when that unexpected calamity occurred which had so deeply afflicted the Royal Family and the nation. The fact that even quite recently the Prince had fixed the present date for this Conference was an indication that, had it been possible, he would have marked his sense of its importance by attending at the opening. In 1878, his Royal Highness addressed a letter to the Council of the Society of Arts, calling attention to the importance of the subject of water supply; pointing out that whereas various large towns were at that time incurring heavy expenditure to improve their water supply, smaller towns, and particularly villages, were left to shift for themselves; and suggesting that it might be desirable to discuss fully the question how VOL. VIII.-II. C.

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far it might be possible to apply the great natural sources of water supply according to some national comprehensive scheme. The Council of the Society, acting on that suggestion, issued inquiries and invitations for papers, and received more than twenty papers in response, some written by men of eminence who had devoted a great deal of attention to this subject. Those papers, and the topics arising out of them, were very carefully discussed, and the general conclusion arrived at was that local conditions and circumstances presented such very considerable variations that it appeared impossible to devise any comprehensive national scheme for the supply of water to communities. But a resolution was passed that it was desirable to memorialise the Government to appoint a small permanent Commission to collect facts connected with the water supply throughout the kingdom, in order to utilise the natural resources, as indicated by his Royal Highness, according to some general system for the benefit of the country as a whole. That suggestion was not acted upon, but, nevertheless, the discussion which took place in 1878 had been fruitful of beneficial results, and it was quite certain that the subject of improved water supply had made an important advance since that time. The influence of polluted water in promoting the spread of epidemics had become more thoroughly understood and recognised, and the mischievous effects of using water derived from surface wells, and from the careless storage of water in houses, arising out of intermittent supply and other circumstances, had received much public attention ; but there could be no doubt that many points bearing upon the supply of wholesome water still required further elucidation. Many interesting discussions connected with one branch or another of this subject had taken place since 1878, and probably none were more interesting than those connected with the questions as to what constituted a good water for drinking and domestic purposes, and how a sufficient quantity might be ensured. It was scarcely necessary to remind the audience that amongst the most intelligent men who had given attention to this subject there had existed, and still remained, diversities of opinion on some important points more especially connected with the question of how the purity of water was affected, and how it was re-established if the water were once polluted. Thus some authorities had maintained that no river which had been in any way polluted could ever be fit for use afterwards, or, at any rate, that the time when it might become fit for use as potable water was very remote; but that, on the other hand, it was only necessary to sink wells deep enough in order to obtain water absolutely free from injurious organic contamination, so that water could be furnished in any degree of abundance by means of artesian wells. On the other hand, there were authorities, not less well recognised as possessing special knowledge and experience, who had maintained that it was quite erroneous to suppose that river water, when it became polluted by sewage, was thereby rendered permanently unfit for potable purposes; that a river had only to flow a comparatively short distance for its self-purification to take place, a purification which, although it might vary in degree according to circumstances, must ultimately he carried out to a sufficiently perfect extent to render the water absolutely wholesome. Probably the truth lay between the extremes; in fact, it was already recognised that it did so, and there were indications that amongst the most extreme exponents of either view there was a tendency to an assimilation of opinions. These subjects had been lately so warmly fought out on many battle-fields that the weak points on each side had become more and more apparent to advocates and adversaries alike; and, therefore, there was a hope that something like that unity of view might, before long, be arrived at, without which any real progress cold hardly be looked for. There was probably no subject which could be selected for discussion which involved so many considerations of primary importance as that of water supply. On the one hand, there were geological, medical, chemical, and engineering considerations; and, on the other hand, there were financial, legal, municipal, and it might be even

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