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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

TIG.

PIGE

8 30 31 33 33 53

1. Flasks for determination of carbonic acid
2. Apparatus for analysis of air by absorption
3. Bottle for preserving volumetric solutions from change
4. Eudiometer.
5. Pipette, used in the analysis of air .
6. Apparatus for ammonia analysis
7. Cassella's anenometer, or air-meter
12. Bothriocephalus cordatus
13. Head of the bothriocephalus latus .
14. Eggs of the bothriocephalus latus .
15. Platinum dish used in milk-analysis
16. Bulb to take the sinking-point of butter
17. Beaker, &c., arranged to take the sinking-point of butter
18. Microscopical appearances of ground chestnut (after Atcherley).
19. Microscopical appearances of chicory (after Atcherley)
20. Microscopical appearances of cocoa (after Atcherley)
21. Microscopical appearances of coffee (after Atcherley
22. Cysticercus cellulose from measly pork
23. The head of the Tania mediocanellata from ration beef
24. The opalina, or first stage of the liver fluke affecting sheep
25. Hydatids in various stages
26. Two echinococci, the one with the head contracted, the other with the head

extruded
27. An echinococcus viewed transversely
28. The circle of hooklets and the separate hooklets of the echinococcus enlarged
29. The guinea worm, anterior extremity
30. The guinea worm, posterior extremity
31. Diagram of the relative position of structures at the anterior extremity of the

guinea worm 32. Various appearances of the posterior end of the guinea worm 33. The young of the guinea worm 34. Wheat starch (after Atcherley)

35. Professor Kerr's aspect compass 36, 37. Diagrams of Pettenkofer's experiment on the porosity of building materials 38, 39. Plan and elevation of the Herbert Hospital

40. Plan of a ward

41. Plan of a ward in the Herbert Hospital 42, 43, Different methods of arranging hospital wards on the separate block system . 45, 46. Plan and section of American ambulance tent (after Gordon)

47. Plan of small hospital for infectious diseases 48. Plan of temporary hospital .

98 98 98 111 111 112 127 127 149 151 171 172 191 198

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

PAGB 301 302 310

332

333 333 334 334 335 335 353 357 384 409 413 463

465

49. Edmond's ventilating cowl .
50. Thiers' automatic ship ventilator
51. Maize starch .
52. Microscopical appearances of lentil-flour (after Atcherley)
53. Mr Gravatt's Dumpy level
54. Diagram explanatory of levelling
55. Diagram explanatory of levelling
56. The body louse .
57. The head louse
58. The crab louse
59. The madura foot, showing the ramification of the fungus.
60. The fungus causing the madura foot disease
61. Diagram of platinum dish for milk-analysis
62. Microscopical appearances of oatmeal (after Atcherley)
63. Diagram of an apparatus for testing oils

68. The Peranospora infestans, or potato disease fungus (after W. G. Smith) 69, 70,

Plan, elevation, section, &c., of a privy · 71, 72. S

73. Microscopical appearances of rice (after Atcherley)
74. Microscopical appearances of sago (after Atcherley)
75. Section of a school showing Mott's system of warming and ventilating

76. Diagram showing the effect of position on the spinal column
77, 78. Various seats and benches used in American schools
79, 80. Section and plan of Bailey Denton's sewage-tank .

81. Diagram showing the proper method of joining sewers
82. Diagram illustrating the necessity for the ventilation of sewers
83. Diagram illustrating the necessity for the ventilation of sewers
84. A ventilating chamber affixed to a sewer

85. Section of a grating supplied with a charcoal pan 86, 87, Baldwin Latham's spiral charcoal ventilators

88.
89. Section of a ventilating pipe to the connecting drain of a sewer
90. A patent method of connecting drains with sewers
91. Brook's combined drain and soil pipe
92. Diagram of an open chandelling
93. Various forms of pipe drains

94. Plan of a model abattoir 95, 96,

Plan and section of a model abattoir 97. 98, 99, 100, 103.)

Diagrams of Westphal's balance 104. Tous-les-mois, polarised (after Atcherley) . 105. St. Vincent arrowroot (after Atcherley) 106. Potato starch polarised (after Atcherley) 107. Different stages of development of the Tænia solium 108. The head (magnified) of the Tænia solium . 109. The circle of hooklets of the Tænia solium 110. The mature proglottis of the Tenia solium 111. The cysticercus of the Tania mediocanellata, natural size 112, The Tania mediocanellata. 113. The Cysticercus cellulosa from measly pork 114. The Tænia mediocanellata from ration beef 115. A filter-tank 116. Microscopical appearances of tapioca (after Atcherley) 117. Diagram of the tea plant (after Atcherley)

494 499 509 511 512 527 532 533 534 531 531

534

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543

557

559 560 560 577 578 578 578 578 579 579 579 581 583 585

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

xi

FIG.

118 Tea leaves after having been used (after Atcherley)
119. Diagram of sloe, hawthorn, beech, and willow leaves
120. Diagram of the leaves of Chloranthus inconspicuus and Camellia sasanqua

121. A common sink trap
122, 123. Sections of Dean's patent drain trap

124. Sections of Banner's patent trap
195. Section of Banner's disinfecting apparatus
126. The Trichina spiralis
127. The same encysted
128. A good form of urinal
120. V‘Kinnell's ventilating tube

130. Banner's patent ventilating cowl
135, 132: Sections and plans of Galton's ventilating grate

135. Mr. George's calorigen
136. Mr. George's calorigen
137. Section of a house ventilated and warmed on Drysdale and Hayward's system .
138. A slow combustion stove
139. Plate showing different living vegetable and animal forms found in water
140. Apparatus for estimation of nitrates in water

PAGE 580 586 586 611 611 612 613 614 614 617 622 623

624

624 625 625 630 636 640

MAP OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH AND DISEASE (by permission, from Keith Johnston's Physical Atlas)

To face page 186 DIAGRAM OF THE INTERMITTENT DOWNWARD FILTRATION SEWAGE SYSTEM, as in opera

tion at Merthyr Tydfil (by permission of Mr Bailey Denton) To face page 524 ERRATA.

Page 4, col. 1, line 2, for “ receives” read “receive."

4, col. 2, the formula for caffeic acid should be C1,H1607.
11, col. 2, for “hence 1110:8 must be added” read “hence 110-8 c.c. must be

added.”
50, col. 2, for “amygdala oleum ” read “amygdalæ oleum.”

76, col. 1, 3d line from the bottom of the page, for "at figure 6" read “at figure 9.” , 120, col. 1, the formula for caramel should be C12H1309.

210, in the table, 1st column, 3d line, for “100” read 120.” 218, col. 3, near the bottom, for “offa” read offal."

256, article “Glucose,” for “effluvia" read effluvium." , 293, article “Hygiène,” after the word “ labourer " insert" and.”

323, article “Lactin,” for or C1,H.,0,H.20" read or C1,H..OH,0.” 334, article “Lice,” for “especially the pubis ” read especially the pubes." 397, the formula of sinapine in article “Mustard” should be C16H.NOs, and that of

"myronate of potash ” K,C20H3N28_019. -400, last line in article “Mutual Aid Societies,” for “and 1860” reail "1860 and 1875." 425, in article “Paraffine,” for “a mat or garment” read sand, earth, ashes, or a mat

or garment.” , 475, col. 2, line 28, for “1844” read "1814."

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DICTIONARY OF HYGIÈNE.

Abattoir --Abattoirs are public slaughter- thine is the bitter principle. It is omitted now houses established in Continental and other from the British Pharmacopoeia, and its place towns. The subject is fully considered under occupied by the active principle santonine. SLAUGHTER-HOUSES.

Absinthe is the name given to an intoxiAblution - Personal cleanliness is one

cating drink used largely by all classes of of the most important habits to inculcate society on the Continent. An analysis recently on a people. It cannot be, however, lost made at the Conservatoire des Arts shows sight of, that in order to introduce among of antimony, a poison which cannot fail to add

that absinthe now contains a large quantity the poorer classes habits of cleanliness, a plentiful water-supply and cheap baths are

largely to the irritant effects necessarily prorequisite. The amount as well as the nature duced on the alimentary canal and liver by of the water-supply should be inquired into constant doses of a concentrated alcoholic by every medical officer of health. The

liquid. And we have recently received the rebody should be washed all over every morn.

sults of some experiments made by M. Magnau ing with either cold or lukewarm water he has been able to isolate various products

of Paris. By means of successive distillations and soap. This custom is more necessary for workmen employed in laborious and (1) a blue oil; (2) a yellowish oil; (3) an oxygendirty occupations than for men of sedentary residue left in the glass. These various sub

ated product. There was besides a yellowish lives; but all people perspire, and from every stances were tried on animals ; ten grammes of drop of perspiration the water evaporates the yellow sediment given to a small dog proaway, and leaves a trace of solid matter on and around the sweat-pores. If this solid

duced no effect; thirty centigrammes (about matter is not washed off , it accumulates, and five grains) of the blue oil produced from eight

to ten epileptiform attacks. The oxygenated may derange the health. It is then well to remember that dirt on the skin does not product proved, however, the most poweralways come directly from without, but also ful toxic agent. Fifteen centigrammes of it, from within. Cold ablution, that has been so

injected into the veins of a large dog, caused

the most violent epileptic attacks, which fol. indiscriminately recommended, is not half so etficacious or so safe as lukewarm. The Ger- lowed in rapid succession, and ended in death. man aurists, struck with the prevalence of There was an extraordinary rise of temperadeafness in England, ascribe it to our habit ture, from 39° Centigrade to 42°, and the post of washing the head and ears each morning Dr. Decaisne regards the terrible evil of this

mortem showed various apoplectic centres. with cold water.

almost universal absinthe-drinking as the Absinthium-Wormwood-The flower- greatest national calamity that has ever being herb of Artemisia Absinthium ; nat. fallen France, and has made an eloquent order Compositæ; indigenous, growing in appeal to the Government to strike at once thickets and mountainous places. It occurs a decisive blow at the trade in this liqueur. in bundles of the dried herbs, having a silky Originally the only important ingredient in touch, disagreeable lour, and intensely its composition besides alcohol was the essenbitter taste. The plant yields its bitterness tial oil of absinthium, or wormwood; and to water and spirit, and contains a volatile though this without doubt added something oil, green in colour, with the odour of the to the mischievous effects of the liquor, it plant; also a bitter extract yielding absin. would be impossible to trace to it, or to the thine (C H20.) and absinic acid. The absin- | other comparatively trivial ingredients, the

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