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CUMBERLAND. Prof. Harkness reports that a boulder of Silurian conglomerate (the Queensbury grit of the Geological Survey) occurs at the village of Bothel, in the parish of Sorpenhow, North Cumberland. In length it is about 20 feet, in height 9 feet, in breadth 8 feet. It is beautifully striated on the western side. It is situated between the 400 and 500 feet contour-line, and has been transported from the north-west portion of Dumfriesshire, having travelled about forty miles from N.N.W. to S.S.E.
This boulder goes by the name of “ Samson.”
Prof. Harkness further reports that some fragments of Shapfell (Wastdale crag) granite occur in a field in the farm of Hindrig, near Dufton, Westmoreland, at about 800 feet above the sea-level. These have for the most part been blasted, and many fragments occur in the wall adjoining. Some of the blocks are untouched ; but these are so imbedded in the soil that their size cannot be determined.
There are also several small blocks of this granite in gravels, which Prof. Harkness regards as Eskars, in a gravel-hole on the farm of Luhan, in the parish of Edenhall, about three miles east of this. Near the village of Newton Reigny, about two and a half miles west from Penrith, large boulders occur. They are so imbedded in the soil that their size cannot be determined. They consist of the Lower Silurian trap of the Lake country. Boulders of the same kind and of a large size are also seen on the east side of Newton Moss, which is a short distance S.W. of the village. The height of these Newton boulders is about 600 feet above the sea.
Mr. D. Mackintosh contributes the following account of the boulders in North Wales. An account of previous observations will be found in the Quart. Journ. of Geol. Soc., Dec. 1874.
Between a mile and a mile and a half west of Llan-y-cil, on the northwest side of Bala Lake, the glacial striæ in several places average between 45° and 50° north of geographical west; and tho boulders are of precisely the same kind as would have come from about the north-west or from the neighbourhood of Llyn Arenig. Both the direction of the strix and course of the boulders would cross Bala Lake at nearly right angles to its length; so that if the basin of the lake had ever been scooped out by land-ice, this ice must have come from the south-west before the period of the great boulder transportation from the Arenig mountain.
At the south-west end, and along the south-east side of Bala Lake, many of the boulders are not the same as those from the Arenig mountain, which are chiefly found on the north-west side; and they decrease in number northeastwards, suggesting the idea that they came from the south-west.
Through the gap immediately south of Moel Ferna, numbers of boulders appear to have found their way into Glyn Ceiriog, and cast as far at least as Chirk. Numerous large boulders have gone nearly due east along the valley of the Dee, as far at least as Cefn and Ruabon. The east and north-east boundary of the Arenig dispersion may be roughly defined as extending from Chirk by Cefn, Ruabon, Wrexham, Caergwrle, Mold, and the east side of Halkin mountain to Holywell, and thence in a westerly direction to the vale of Clwyd. This line nearly coincides with the boundary of the great northern granitic drift. Both drifts (the Welsh and northern) have, to a slight extent, crossed the average boundary, and a few small Arenig boulders have found their way across the estuary of the Dee into the peninsula of Wirral, where they have become mixed with the very abundant northern drift from the Lake district and the south of Scotland.
The western boundary of the Arenig felstone drift would appear to run from the Arenig range in a N.N.E. direction as far at least as the celebrated Cefn Cave, near St. Asaph, where, to a slight extent, it has become mixed with the northern drift, and likewise with erratics probably from the neighbourhood of Conway. Few or no boulders from the southern part of the Snowdon range would appear to have found their way over the high tablelands situated to the east of Llanrwst and Bettws-y-coed, the Snowdon dispersion having radiated in all directions to short distances only, excepting towards the south. This Arenig dispersion is one of the most remarkable in South Britain. The felstone boulders from the Arenig range have radiated to great distances over an area extending from N.N.E. to E., and to short distances from E. to S.E.—that is, over the fourth of a circle. The boulders have found their way across valleys and over watersheds and high mountains. In most places they have wholly ignored the configuration of the ground, excepting where gaps in mountain-ranges have facilitated their transportation. A detailed examination of the surface-configuration, viewed in connexion with the positions occupied by the boulders, would seem to favour the idea that they could only have been carried by floating ice; but it ought to be observed that there is an apparent distinction between the large angular and subangular boulders which are seen chiefly on the surface, and those smaller and well-glaciated boulders which are found imbedded in the Lower Boulder-clay at comparatively low levels.
Among the Arenig felstone boulders, which are so remarkable for size, for the unexpected routes they have taken, or for the distances they have travelled, as to render them worthy of being preserved, the following may be mentioned :-(1) The Cefn boulder, a short distance west of Cefn station, near Ruabon, which measures 15 x 14 feet, and at least 10 feet in depth; (2) the Maendigwychyn, or great immovable stone in the village of Eryrys, near Llanarmon (about 5 miles east of Ruthin), which measures 15 x 15 x 12 feet, and is situated about 1130 feet above the sea ; (3) a boulder in a field near Bryn-Cloddian, north-east of Caerwys railway-station, and a few miles south-west of Holywell.
The direction of glacial striæ on rock surfaces in the eastern part of North Wales, as well as in the neighbourhood of the Arenig mountain, Corwen, &c., in general agrees with the course the boulders have taken. On the summit of Halkin mountain, in a quarry a short distance west of Holywell, there are well-defined striæ, indicating the passage of ice from the south-west; and in the neighbourhood of Llangollen, especially near Trevor (as lately ascertained by Mr. Morton, F.G.S.), there are several instances of striæ pointing from west to east.
Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John LUBBOCK, Bart.,
Prof. PRESTwich, Prof. Busk, Prof. T. M‘K. HUGHES, Prof. W. Boyd DAWKINS, Prof. MFALL, Rev. H. W. CROSSKEY, and Mr. R. H. TIDDEMAN, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration of the Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by R. H.
TIDDEMAN, Reporter. The Committee have to report that work has been carried on at the Victoria Cave throughout the year, with the exception of the interval from the 24th December, 1875, to January 3rd, 1876, and that the Settle Local Committee have expended during the year ending August 13th, 1876, the sum of £90 138. 3d., besides the grant of £100 entrusted to them by the British Association.
A considerable amount of work has been done in the course of the year in excavating the central chamber A and that which lies to the right of it, called D. These, though formerly separate chambers, are now seen to form one large one. They consisted at first of mere spaces between the roof and the cave deposits, which had not been filled up entirely by the latter, branching off from one another and merely communicating at the bifurcation, From the lowering of the deposits by excavation, they now form only one large and long entrance-hall to the remainder of the cavern, and the old line of demarcation can now only be distinguished on the present ceiling by the following circumstance. Chamber A cuts higher into the roof than chamber D, and is marked off from it by a line of joint, along which a thick bed of limestone has fallen down on to the floor in chamber A, but still forms the roof of chamber D. This huge block, which extended a distance of about 60 feet, from about Parallel 15 to 44, at the extreme end of chamber A, has given us great trouble in the course of the year, partly from its size, and also because, being fissured by cracks here and there and lying on a clayey layer, it was subject to successive slips. Considerable downfalls threatened from time to time, and these had to be anticipated by quarrying it away. The large body of laminated clay which has been described in former reports ended off for the most part against this block towards the north, and must have been deposited against it. This is the mass of laminated clay which overlay the bone-beds containing the older mammals Elephas antiquus, Rhinoceros leptorhinus, Hippopotamus, Hyæna, and others, with Man.
There can be no doubt now, to whatever agents the formation of that interesting deposit be due, that there are somewhat similar beds also underlying that Pleistocene bone-bed in places. From about 2 feet Parallel 10 as far as present workings inwards at Parallel 30 an exceedingly dark, tough, waxy clay lies below that layer. It varies much in thickness, from 7 or 8 feet on the right or east side of the cavern to lesser dimensions towards the west, and eventually loses itself amongst large fallen blocks of limestone on the
A thin layer of stalagmite, varying from 8 inches to a mere film, occurs at the base of the above clay. It is often very fibrous, and in some places it has a distinctly greenish hue. At the suggestion of the Committee, Dr, Marshall Watts kindly analyzed it; and his report is as follows:
"The mineral is as nearly as possible pure Calcium Carbonate. It contains no Phosphoric Acid. Its specific gravity is 2.879; that of Calcspar varios from 2.70 to 2:75, and of Arragonite from 2.92 to 3.28, so that for a noncrystalline deposit of stalagmite the agreement is sufficiently close.
(Signed) W. M, Watts.”
To return to our scction. Here and there this stalagmite rises into small bosses, showing that its existence was mainly owing to the dripping of water from the roof. It forms a kind of dotted line of demarcation between the dark clay above and the layer next to be described beneath,
The bed beneath this stalagmite is somewhat like the dark clay above it in arrangement, but is not of so fine a texture. Its colour is much lighter, a yellowish brown. It is somewhat sandy, presents on digging a rougher section than the waxy lustre of the dark clay above, and is more clearly laminated, though tho laminations in it are wider apart. This clay appears to follow the upper surfaces of the fallen blocks on which it rests, and is rudely parallel with them. We find that as these blocks rise in successive steps towards the south-west, so this clay rises on them, and covers them continuously at higher and higher levels.
There is one point about this lower light-brown laminated clay which is of much interest; channels appear to have been formed in it. Hollow troughs occur, which may perhaps be due to its subsidence through chinks in the rocks beneath, or they may have been formed by little streams of water cutting out channels subsequently to the formation of the main mass of it. However they were formed, the thin overlying stalagmite appears to have made a thin coating over their walls simultaneously with the like formation on the flatter surfaces between them. The overlying dark waxy clay, on minute examination, is seen to dip into these cavities sometimes at a con. siderable angle. It is only possible to see this lamination when the clay is cut with a clean knife; the spade obliterates the bedding. This arrangement of the layers at the sides of the trough would seem to point rather to our first hypothesis of their formation as being the more probable.
It has been suggested in former reports that the laminated clay which lies above the Ilyæna-bed may possibly be the result of a deposit from glacier water at the time of the ice-sheet, it being now distinctly proved that the animals whose bones occur some distance beneath it existed in that district at a time prior to that cold period. The chief evidences for this last consist of-(1) the superposition of the boulder-deposits at the entrance of the cave upon the edges of the bone-bed, and (2) the total removal of the remains of these animals from the open ground in those particular areas where direct evidence of the former extension of an ice-sheet exists.
We must not forget, however, that further south and east the same animals are found in the river-gravels under such circumstances as imply that a cold period occurred also previous to their ranging through the country, the gravels being of later age than certain glacial beds in the south and east of England. These facts imply that the animals whose bones are found in the lowest known bone-beds in the Victoria Cave lived in this country in the course of a well-marked interval between two periods of extreme cold, and that the earlier left traces of its effects further south than the later. It is therefore within the limits of possibility that this lower waxy laminated clay is a representative in time of some of the earlier glacial beds of the south-east of England. The subject, however, is an extremely wide one, and our present knowledge of the age and succession of the drifts must receive many additions before such an hypothesis can be either proved or disproved.
Bronze Objects.--The Romano-Celtic layer is probably now completely eliminated from Chamber A. That portion of the present large entrancehall which we used to call Chamber D was apparently never occupied by the folk who used the bronze articles. Chamber B, that to the left of Chamber A, may still, perhaps, contain some relics of that period; but we have not worked in that chamber for some years; our finds of articles of that age are consequently rare and exceptional. On the 12th of February, 1876, whilst blasting and removing a portion of the huge fallen mass of limestone already referred to, a bronze harp-shaped fibula was found, in good preservation, with traces of its iron pin. It was in Parallel 16, 5 feet left of the datum-line, and at a depth of 9 feet, below a chink in the limestone block; and, as Mr. Jackson suggests, there is every probability of its having fallen down the crack from abore. Whether dropped there by one of the cave refugees, or fallen down a crack which had been enlarged by the settlement of the blocks consequent on the explorations, is immaterial. It was certainly far below its natural level, and the block of limestone beneath which it was found extended up to the Romano-Celtic floor.
Another object in bronze was found during the year upon the old upper tip. It is in the form of an ovate leaf, with a broad midrib and rude veining; the apex of the leaf is broken off. Where the leaf-stalk would be is a quadrate expansion pierced with a rivet-hole. It is 1.5 inch long and 1.1 inch broad, and curved in the direction of its length.
Animal Remains.- Professor Busk has again kindly examined the bones, and given their determination in a register. He remarks :
" As usual, the collection is chiefly interesting on account of the large proportion of Ursine remains, some of which, as you will perceive, I am inclined to assign to Ursus spelwus; but most belong to the ferox type, whilst some few could not be well distinguished from Ursus arctos. Some of the bones are remarkably perfect, and have the same polish as that already recorded. The only addition to the former fauna, if I remember rightly, is Mustela martes. There is also a remarkably small fox, but not Canis lagopus.
(Signed) G. Busk.” Amongst the remains returned by Prof. Busk is a lower jaw of Weasel. This was found in the Lower Cave-earth, beneath the boulders ; so that that is another addition, besides the Marten, to our list of animals from the early Pleistocene layer.
In speaking of the animals found, the place of honour necessarily falls to the Hyæna—not by reason of the number of his remains discovered, but because to him we are indebted for by far the larger number of bones of other animals introduced. It is, indeed, singular to note that, notwithstanding the abundant evidence of his presence, from the characteristically gnawed and cracked bones of other animals, we have hardly any remains of him this year except teeth. There can, indeed, be scarcely a doubt that a dead hyæna was as acceptable to his survivors as the carcass of any other beast. :
Of Bear we have found a fine series of tusks. We have already given Prof. Busk's remarks upon them. A very large humerus, which he attributes to the Grisly Bear, was found in Parallel 21, at a depth of 12 feet. From the way in which its proximal extremity has been gnawed off, and some of its more prominent ridges removed, there can be no doubt that it was coexistent with Hyæna. Some remains of very young Bears have been found-so young, indeed, as to make it doubtful whether they ever had an independent existence.
of Rhinoceros we have a femur, found in Parallel 36, at a depth of 7 ft. 6 in. It has been gnawed, as such bones always are, by the Hyæna, and to the usual extent. Several exceedingly fine teeth of Rhinoceros have been found since the bones were submitted to Prof. Busk, and their determination must be for the present postponed. A lower premolar 4 of Rhinoceros, which was the