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(18.) Colossians ii. 2, 3. "To the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ; in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge," εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἐν ᾧ εἰσὶ πάντες οἱ θησαυροὶ τῆς σοφίας καὶ τῆς γνώσεως ἀπό κρυφοι.

The words καὶ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, “ and of the Father, and of Christ," are marked as doubtful by Knapp, and omitted by Griesbach, Schott, Scholz, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Olshausen, De Wette, Conybeare and Howson, Professor Eadie, Mr. Norton (see p. 297), and others.

Lachmann, Meyer, Steiger, Huther, and Granville Penn adopt the reading τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ Χριστοῦ, which admits, grammatically, of different interpretations. It may mean, 1. "of the mystery of the God of Christ" (comp. Ephes. i. 17); so Huther and Meyer; or, 2. "of the mystery of God, namely, Christ," the word "Christ" being in apposition with "mystery" (comp. Col. i. 27). Steiger understands XpioToû to be in apposition with coû, but, to justify his interpretation, the Greek, as De Wette and Olshausen remark, should be τοῦ Χριστοῦ Θεοῦ, and not τοῦ Θεοῦ Χριστοῦ.

Theile reads, τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ Χριστοῦ, "of the mystery of God, the Father of Christ."

Whichever of these readings is genuine, év &, “in whom,” or "in which," in the last clause, should probably be understood as referring to μvornpiov. So Grotius, Hammond, Bengel, Schleusner, De Wette, Meyer, and others explain the words, and Professor Eadie translates, — "to the full knowledge of the mystery of God, in which all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are laid up."

The meaning of the word translated "mystery" in the Common Version would be better conveyed to most readers by the term "new doctrine," or "new religion."

(19.) Colossians iii. 13. "Even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye."

Here, instead of 8 Xplorós, "Christ," the reading ó kúpios, "the Lord," is adopted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, Olshausen, and Meyer.

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(20.) Colossians iii. 15. "And let the peace of God your hearts."

rule in

"The peace of Christ" is the reading adopted by Griesbach, Knapp, Schott, Tittmann, Vater, Scholz, Lachmann, Hahn, Theile, Tischendorf, Meyer, and De Wette.

(21.) 2 Thessalonians ii. 8.

"Whom the Lord shall

consume with the breath of his mouth."

For ó kúpios, "the Lord," Griesbach, Knapp, Tittmann, Schott (in his 3d ed., 1825), Scholz, Lachmann, Hahn, Theile, and Lünemann read ó kúpios 'Inσoûs, "the Lord Jesus." But Matthæi, Pelt, Schott (in his Commentary, 1834), Tischendorf, De Wette, and others, retain the common reading, regarding 'Inooûs as a gloss.

(22.) 1 Peter iii. 15. "But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts."

Here, instead of eeór, "God," the reading Xploróv, "Christ," is adopted by Lachmann, Theile, Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Huther. Tregelles argues from this reading as compared with Isaiah viii. 12, 13, that "the expression 'Jehovah of Hosts himself' in the prophet finds its New Testament exposition as an equivalent in κύριον τὸν Χριστόν, 'the Lord Christ,' thus marking the divine glory of our Lord in the most emphatic manner.” * But nothing is more common than for the writers of the New Testament to borrow the language of the Old to express their own

* Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament, p. 235.

thoughts, and thus to apply it to very different subjects from those to which it relates in its original connection. See, for example, 1 Peter ii. 9, comp. Exodus xix. 6;— Romans x. 6-8, comp. Deut. xxx. 12 – 14;- Romans x. 18, comp. Psalm xix. 4.

(23.) 1 John iii. 16. "Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us."

Here the words Toû OeOû, "of God," are rejected as spurious by all modern editors. They are found, so far as is known, only in one Greek manuscript, and in the Latin Vulgate version. In most editions of the Common Version they are now printed in Italics; but they are not so distinguished in the original edition of 1611. Our translators followed Beza and the Complutensian Polyglot in reading

τοῦ Θεοῦ.

(24.) Jude 4. "Denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ,” τὸν μόνον δεσπότην Θεὸν καὶ κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν ἀρνούμενοι.

Supposing the common text to be correct, Granville Sharp would render, "Denying our only Master, God, and Lord, Jesus Christ." (See before, p. 199, note.) But the word cór, "God," is omitted by Griesbach, Knapp, Schott, Tittmann, Vater, Scholz, Lachmann, Hahn, Theile, Tischendorf, Huther, De Wette, and others. We may then translate, "Denying the only Sovereign Lord, and our Lord Jesus Christ." Compare Norton's Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels, Vol. II. p. 166.

(25.) Jude 5. "The Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not."

For kúpios, "the Lord," the reading ó 'Inσoûs, "Jesus," is adopted by Lachmann, and favored by Huther.

(26.) Jude 25. "To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power," &c.

Here the word oop, “wise," is omitted, and the words διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν are inserted after μόνῳ Θεῷ σwτîρι μwv, by Griesbach, Knapp, Schott, Tittmann, Vater, Scholz, Lachmann, Hahn, Theile, Tischendorf, Huther, De Wette, and others. The passage may then be translated, "To the only God our Saviour, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory and majesty, dominion and power," &c. See before, p. 305, note.

(27.) Revelation i. 8. "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord," &c.

Instead of ὁ κύριος, “ the Lord,” κύριος ὁ Θεός, “ the Lord God," is adopted by all the modern critical editors who have been mentioned in this note, and even by Bloomfield, who also remarks, "By most recent commentators these words are understood of God the Father." He himself, however, explains them as referring to Christ. Professor Stuart observes, in his note on the passage, that "the weight of external testimony is greatly in favor of kúpios ó cós," and that, admitting this reading, "it is more facile to regard God as the speaker."

The words, "I am Alpha and Omega," are explained in ch. xxi. 6 and xxii. 13 by "the beginning and the end," "the First and the Last." (The words translated "the beginning and the ending" in the present passage are an interpolation.) Compare Isaiah xli. 4; xliv. 6; xlviii. 12. These expressions have been variously interpreted; by some, as denoting eternity, or unchangeableness; but "the be

ginning and the end" can hardly mean "without beginning and without end"; - by others, as signifying completeness, or perfection. Here, and in ch. xxi. 6, where they are also applied to God, they seem rather used to denote the

certain accomplishment of his purposes; that what he has begun he will carry on to its consummation. Thus Hengstenberg remarks: "The emphasis is to be laid upon the Omega. It is as much as: I am as the Alpha, therefore also the Omega. The beginning is surety for the end."*

The words in question may be understood in a similar manner when applied to Christ, as in ch. xxii. 13; comp. i. 17, ii. 8. Thus Erasmus remarks in his note on John viii. 25, as cited by Wilson in his Concessions of Trinitarians: "Christ is called the beginning and the end, because he is the beginning and the consummation of the Church, which was founded by his first, and will be completed by his second appearance."† So one of the Latin Fathers, Fulgentius, says, though he gives other meanings to the words: "Principium Christus, quia ipse inchoavit perficienda; finis Christus, quia ipse perficit inchoata"; that is, "Christ is the beginning, because he himself commenced the work to be accomplished; Christ is the end, because he accomplishes the work begun." It is, perhaps, in a somewhat similar sense that he is called by the author of he Epistle to the Hebrews "the Author and Finisher of the faith,” ὁ τῆς πίστεως ἀρχηγὸς καὶ τελειωτής. §

(28.) Revelation i. 11. "I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last; and, What thou seest, write in a book," &c.

Here, the words which precede "What thou seest" are rejected as spurious by all the modern critical editors.

"The Revelation of St. John, expounded," &c., Vol. I. p. 107, Amer. ed. of the Engl. translation.

↑ Opp. Tom. VI. col. 376, E.

Ad Trasimundum, Lib. II. c. 5; in Migne's Patrol. Tom. LXV. col. 250, C.

Hebrews xii. 2.

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