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when the mean velocity was 6.64 miles. These statements agree very nearly with those made in the preceding year, when the most windy hour was from 2 to 3 P.M. and the calmest hour, from midnight to 1 A..!.

Rain and Snow.— The depth of rain 33.274 inches, shows an increase of more than 5 inches on that of the year 1858, and was 2.415 above the average. The depth of snow shows also an increase of 9 inches on that of the preceding year. This however, was principally due to the heavy falls in December, as the amount that fell in other months was below the average in every case but in January, when it exceeded it only by about 3 inches. The total depth of rain and melted snow exceeded the average by 2.724 inches.

November was the most rainy month with respect to the amount of rain, and June with respect to its frequency. The smallest amount of rain fell in February, and the fewest rainy days occurred in December.

The heaviest rain occurred on August 23rd, when it fell to the depth of 1.655 inches, and the heaviest fall of snow on December 18th, when the depth was estimated at 6 inches.

The fall of rain was distributed over 127 days, and the fall of snow over 87 days, including 23 days which occurred in December alone; and there were 169 days only, or less than half the year, without either rain or spow.

The rain occupied about 514 hours and the snow about 380 hours in its fall, making thus a total of about 894 hours, or 377 days, during which either rain or spow was falling; a result it is to be remarked differing only by about one day from that of last year.

The hour at which rain or snow was most frequent, was between 2 P.M. and 3 P.M. and the hour most free from rain and snow, on the average of the year, was between 1 A.J. and 2 A.M.

Thunderstorms.—There were 30 thunderstorms, reckoning as such those cases in which thunder or lightning occurred accompanied by rain or hail, besides 16 instances in which the thunder or lightning occurred singly or together, but without rain or bail.

Auroras.- The auroras in 1859 were not quite so numerous as in 1858, but there was an increase in the number of days in which those of the first class were observed. The aurora of August 28th, and the following days, was probably one of the most remarkable ever recorded, when considered with respect to its brilliancy, its duration, and the extent of the earth's surface at which it was visible. It was accompanied by an extraordinary magnetic disturbance. The magnets were deflected from their normal positions to the extent of about 20 7 in the dclination and 2° 20' in the dip; and in the horizontal and vertical components of the force, there was a departure from their normals, of about .08 and .006 of their respective normal absolute values. The magnitude of these deviations will be better appreciated when it is remembered that a disturbance is reckoned large when the declination differs 5', the dip 1', the horizontal forue .0012, and the vertical force .00026, from their respective normals.

The following is the general Meteorological abstract for the year 1859, deduced from the observations taken at the Provincial Observatory :

GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL

Provincial Magnetical Observatory,

LATITUDE, 43° 39'.4 North. LONGITUDE, 5 h. 17 m. 33 s. West. ELEVATION ABOVE

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REGISTER FOR THE

Y E AR

1859.

Toronto, Canada West.

LAKE ONTARIO, 109 feet. APPROXIMATE ELEVATION ABOVE THE SEA, 342 feet.

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29.6196 29 6493 29.5990 29.6686 29.6116 29.6746 29.7092 29.6209 29.0267 29.6051 29.5999 29.6249 +.0378 +.0510 4.0371 +.0145 --.0252 +.0558 +.0629+.0010 +.0008 - .0145 .0200 +.0050

29.966 30.141 29.811 30.049 29.962 30.252 30.392 30.392 30.408 30.361 30.480 30.552 29.260 29.159 29.300 29.038 29.018 08.881 29.201 28.286 28.819 28.452 28.459 28.459 0.706 0.982 0.505 1.011 0.944 1.371 1.191 2.106 1.559 1.909 2.021 2.093

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N 77 W N 56 w N 36 W X 41 W N 68 W N 81 w N 53 w N 61 W N 41 W N 74 W N 71 W N 62 w 1.95 1.48 1.62 1.60 5.04 3.39

4.29

2.21 1.59 2.54 3.03 2.51 7.19

5.81 5.96 6.36 8.12 9.65 10.77 8.17 7.64 7.99 8.31 8.18 +2.18 +1.08 +0.76 +0.95 +2.36 +2.45 +2.73 +1.60 +1.2 +1.68 +2.19 +2.33

4.085 2.611 3.990

3.525 0.9401 5.193 1.035 33.274 28.051 33.205 21.505 31.650 +0.887 -0.879 +1.063 -0.574 -1.617 +2.084 -0.571 +2.415 - 2.074 +2.223 -9.329 +0.286 16 12 11 15 11 12

3 127 131 131 99 103

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MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, AT THE PROVINCIAL MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, TORONTO, CANADA WEST-DECEMBER, 1859.

Latitude-43 deg. 39.4 min. North. Longitude-5 h. 17 min. 33 sec. West. Elevation above Lake Ontario, 108 feet.

Excess
Tens. of Vapour. Humidity of Air. Direction of Wind. Re:

Velocity of Wind.
of

sultant
mean

Direc-
above
6 2 10

6

2 10 6 A.M. 2 P. M. 10 P.M. MEAN.6 A.M 2 P.M 10PM ME'N Average A. M P.M P.M.

M'N 6 A.M. 2 P.M. 10 P. M.

tion. 16 A.M 2 P.M 10PM

sul't. A.MPMP.M

ME'N

Rain in Inches.

Snow in Inches.

M'N

Re:

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29.326 29.295 29.680 29.4478 48.0 53.8) 31.7 47.37 + 13.58 320 - 370.135.281) .93 .89 .86 .90 SbW S b W NW W N 79 w 6.0 10.5 16.0 10.23 15.000.255 0.1

.813 .802 30.103 .9272) 23.8 17.6 13.6 17.27 -13.22.114.083.067.082.89 .83.83 .84 NNW NW WNW N 37 W (14.2 17.5 9.0 1..51 13.02 2.5
3 30.336 30.317 30.18030.2720 1.7 8.2 11.1 6.80 23.28.038.055 .055 .049 .801 .86 .74 .81 NNW N NNEN 12 E 9.4 12.5 18.2 14.00 14.5+

2.0
29.931 29.845

.072 . 107
.85 .76
Ν Ν Ε NE N N 22 E 20.6 13.5 9.0 12.90 13.2+

2.5
.864 .801 29.798 29.8172) 27.7 36.8 36.8 34.23 + 4.87.135.203.196.184) .89 .93 .89 .92 NNE ENE Calm. | N 66 E 10.5 8.4 | 0.0 3.39 3.67 Ivap.
0 .707 .432

.451 .5242 38.2 40.7 36.8 38.08 + 9.02.220 - 250 - 203 218 .95.98 .93 .94 EbN ENE W N 68 W 5.8 8.2 13.5 4.73 10:51]0.780 3.5
.576

.881
7418/ 22.0 20.1 7.1 15.38 -13.28.111.091.048 .080 .9+.85.78 .86W NW W WbNS 88 W 12.5 12.6 4.0 8.48 8.59

2.5
8 .915 .929 983 9458 4.3 18.0 6.8 9.60 -18.870.46 .081/.048 - 056| .87 .81 .81 .82 W WSW WSW S 70 W 7.0 9.5 4.2 5.55 5.66
9 .809

.386 .621 .6738) 16.5 26 3 23.422.25 -- 5.90.083.130.101. 1071 .90 .91 .81 .88/8W bW SW W S 66 W1.5 15.0 20.5 13.49 18:46 0.5
.970 30.017 753 .9040

9 7 12.6 27.0 15.60 -- 12.25.057.066 · 129.082.85 .86 .88 •87) NW NW SSWS 79 W 14.6 0.5 17.0 4.54 7.86 .551 29.365 29.5 35.0

. 149 166 .92 .82 SW SSW

SW

S 74 W 11.2 12.5 29.0 15.29 17.9+ 0.2 12 .424 .484 .655 .5135) 10.8 12.2 6.4 8.35 19.00.046 059 052 053) 65 .78 90 8+ W WSW WNW N 68 W 20.6 10.2 1.8 5.01 5.70

0.1 13 .799 .878

.898 .8687 4.6 19.8 16.5 13.65 -13.501.018.076.069.069.90 .71 .77 .84 W NW Calm. Nb E N5 E 5.6 0.0 8.8 5.5+ 6.021 3.0
141 .835 .823
.822 .8285 15.18-7 17.6 15.80--11.171.083 089 088 080.95 87 .92 90 N N Nb W N9W 13.8 7.5 4.8 7.297.53

0.2
15
.810
.826 .816514.7 25.9 12 6 17.48 - 9.28).072 107.066.080.85 .76 86.82 NW NW SW S 45 W 1.0 0.6 1.5 1.61 1.67

Inp.
16

.810 785 .793 .7982) 19.1 31.0 29.5 26.60 + 0.03.090 133 154 . 124.87 .76 .94 .85 Calm. Calm. NE N 16 E 0.0 0.0 9.4 3.36 4.07
17 .683) .548 . 454 .542727.7| 28.8 29.7 29.03 + 2.67) 142 .137.163 150 -94 .86 .99 .93 NNE EN EbNN 73 E 13.2 24.4 21.5 20.23 20:49 4.0
18
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31.7 31.7

.95 .99

EbN EN Sb W S 69 E 21.2 10.5 7.5 4.21 11.01 6.0 19 .353 .395 .510 .42 15 32.8 31.4 31.732.97 + 6.90.180 158.162 164.96 79.90 .87 SW W WbS WSW S 63 W 12.3 9.0

8.05 8.08

0.4
20
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2928 30.3 31.7 27.7 29.60 + 3.72.148.162 . 142 . 1511 .88.90 .94 .92] Calm. N W NW N 40 W] 0.0 4.8 8.2 5.34 5.8+ 1.5
• 436 .559

.5423 22.0 22.7 20.9 21.68 - 4.10.111.102.095.0991.93 83 .85 85 WNW WbN Wb S 88 W8.0 17.5 13.8 13.16 13:33 0.2
22 .613 .500 .495 . 5152 16.5 20.5) 14.4 17.02 --- 8.671.083 100 .070.055) .90 .91 .83 .89 W WbN W N 88 W] 9.2 10.0 3.4 6.78 6.82
• 423 .370

.411 - 4075 18.3 15.3 10.4 14.12 -11.45 .080 .071 -062.071.81.82 .89.861 Wbs W NW W' N 88 W 13.4 18.0 14.0 13.59 14.88 0.3
• 591 .619 .657 .6 102

0:31 11.1 12.2 7.78 --17.70.041 055 .071.057) -971.74 94.90 N W WS S 89 W 4.2 8.2 16.6 9.84 10.19) 0.2 .374 13.6 25.6

.83.72 Wbs WSW WSW S 77 W 7.8 7.5 2.5 4.561 4.59

0.2 26 .238 .333 30.3 31.3

.148 155
.88.88

Wbs WNWWNW N 48 W 2.5 17.5 15.0 10.77 12.21) Inp.
27 .923 30.051 30.115 30.0352) 14.9 6.6 0.6 6.071--19.221.076 048 010-050 -89 .80.88 .84 NENDE NE N 18 E 7.0 12.8 8.5 11.65 12.18
28 30.068 30.069 30.058 30 0728-2.3 1.7 0.4-0.53 -25.681.036 035 .041.038 90.80.94 -88 NE NE NEb E N 45 E 18.5 18.8 21.5 18.13 18.18 3.5
29 29.915 29.598 29.317 29.5987 1.0 6.4 12.9 7.02 -18.15.041 030 075 . 055) .881 .85 .96! .89 NE NE NE N 48 E 17.6 19.8 13.0 13.57 14.07 4.0
30 .361 .399 .513 • 4398 12.2 24.5 13.6 16.05 – 9.12.071 .105.055.0741.94 .80.67 .80 NNW WSW WSWS 73 W] 2.0 12.6 17.0 13.69 13.90
31 .724 769 .838 .78521 -0.9 1.5-2.6 -1.08-26.22.037.033.033.035) .881 .73 87 .88 WSW WSWS S 75 W 18.5 19.4 16.4 14.61 14.71

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| Days.

Barom. at temp.of 32o. Temp. of the Air.

.731

.799

14.7 25.9

.170 177

.273

.608

.067 100

.201

.60+

M29.7108 29.6862 29.7186/29.7092116.5221.03'17.23'17.89

9.20.097 . 1101.094.099 .891 .83.87

.87

9.99 11.28 11.29

10.77'1.035 37.4

REMARKS ON TORONTO METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER FOR DECEMBER. Highest Barometer.

30.302 at 11 a. m., on 3rd Monthly range= m. 5408-Minimum on 2nd, 2 p. m 1705 - Range in 22 hours =3703. Lowest Barometer ... 29.201 at 4 p.m. on 20th 1.191 inches The Resultant Direction and

Velocity of the Wind for the month of December,
Maximum Temperature
54°8 on p. 6. of Ist Monthly range=

from 1848 to 1859 inclusive, were respectively N 700 W, and 2.79 miles.
Minimum Temperature

The Mean Temperature of December, 1859, was the coldest yet recorded at To-
Mean maximum Temperature

ronto, having been no less than 3°2 below that of December, 1845, which was the

coldest previously noted; and 8°08 lower than the average of 20 years.
Mean minimum Temperature

The depth of snow was more than twice the mean quantity, and absolutely the
Greatest daily range ............

26°7 from p. m. of 10th to p. m. of 11th. greatest recorded here in December.
Least daily range.
202 from a. m. to p. m. of 7th.

The Mean Velocity of the Wind was 2.75 miles per hour above the average of 12 years.
Warmest day
1st Mean temperature......... 44.37

The month was, therefore, excessively cold, very windy, and remarkable for an
Coldest day,
31st Mean temperature..

linusual depth of snow.
Maximum Solar,

COMPARATIVE TABLE FOR DECEMBER.
Aurora observed on 5 nights, viz., on 13th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, and 30th.
Possible to see Aurora on 11 nights; impossible on 20 nights.

TEMPERATURE. Rain. Snow.

WIND.
Snowing on 23 days,--depth 37.4 inches; duration of fall 163.4 hours.
Raining on 3 days,--depth 1.035 inches ; duration of fall 28.5 hours.

Difi.

Resultant
Max Min.

Mean
Mean of cloudiness = 0.73.

M'n. from
Most cloudy hour observed, 4 p. m., mean = 0.80; least cloudy hour observed,

ob'd. ob'd.

Force or

Aver.
10 p. m., mean, = 0.64.

Direction. V'y. Velocity.
Sums of the components of the Atmospheric Current, expressed in miles. 1840|| 21.3-1.741.0 -4.4 45 4 3 Inap. 18
North.
South.
East.
1841 28.7 +2.7 45.5 +2.4 43.1 7 6.600

1 33 lbs.
1842 24.7-1.3 40.3 +3.8 86.5
1109.62

3
3046.27

0.880 17

0.61 1631.23

38.4 1843 $0.0 +4.0 41.1 +2.

6 1.040 8 Resultant direction N. 53o W.; Resultant Velocity 4.29 miles per hour.

8.1

0.53
1844 28.2 +2.2 48.9 -0.8 49.7

6
6 Imp.

0.40
Mean velocity
10.77 miles per hour.

1845 21.1-4.9 37-6 -2.7 40.3
35.0 miles, from 1 to 2 a. m. on the 11th.

2 Inap. 12 4.7

0.70 Maximum velocity ..........

1846 27.5 +1.5 49.2 +3.7 45.5 1.215

6.0

0.57
Most windy day.
17th... Mean velocity 20.49 miles per hour.
1847 30.] +4.1 50.0 +6.6 43.4 7 1.185 8 6.8

0.35
Least windy day

ditto.
15th.., Mean velocity 1.67
Mean velocity 11.67 ditto. Difference 1848 29.1 +3.1 49.1 +0.6 48.5 7 2.750 7

16.5
Most windy hour... 11 p. m. to midnight..

830 W 1.12 5.44 mls.
..Mean velocity 10.22 ditto. ) 1.45 miles. 1849 26.5 +0.5 41.3 -5.2 46.5 0 810 12 9.6
Least windy hour... 5 to 6 a. m .......

N 820 W 2.56 6.23
1850 21.7-4.3 48.3 -9.7 58.0 0.190 18 29.5

N 44° W 2.93 7.40

1851 21.5 -4.5| 43 8-10.5 54.3 1.075 15 1st. Fog 3 to 4 p. m. Very mild day.

10.7 820 W 4.00 7.37

1852 31.9 +5.9 51.0 +13.9 37.1 7 3.995 10 20.1 S 69° W 1.03 6.54 3rd. Solar Halo from 8.30 a. m. to 2 p. m.

1853| 25.3 -0.7 42.2 -5.2 47.4 4 0.625 13 22.3 5th. Fog 2 to 4 p. m. Mild day.

N 359 W 2.39 4.98
1854 21.9-4.1 41.5 -5.9 47.7 0.590 12

17.2
6th. Dense Fog 10.15 a. m. to 7 p. m. Very mild day.

N 410 W 4.30 8.56
13th. Beautiful display of Auroral Light and Streamers tinged with purple and 1855 26.8 8 45:9 -2.1 480 1.845 10 29.5 S 88° W 5.29 11.39

| -9.1 50.3 6 1.790 20 16.3 red in N.N.E. from 5 to 6.45 a.m.

S 87° W 4.62 11.56 17th and 18th. Stormy days. Wind very high, with heavy fall of snow.

1857|| 31.9 +5.9 45.61 +5.7 39.9 7 3.205 14 9.0 N 89° W 2.51 6.84

1.657
1858 27 4 +1.4 43.6 +5.0 38.6| 11

18 10.4
28th and 29th. Very cold, stormy days; high wind, and heavy fall of snow.

N 18° W 1.66 9.36

1859| 17.9--8.1 54.8 -3.3 58.1 3 1.035 23 37.4 31st. Lunar Corona from 6 to 7 p. m.

N 53° W 4.29 10.77 Very rapid change of Temperature from 1st to 2nd; Mean Temperature ist = 44°37–Mean Temperature and=17027–Difference 27°10. Maximum on ist, 4 p.

M 125.971 45. ul-0.72 45.83 5.4 1.606 12.7 15.19

8.04 MI.

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