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inconvenient as a barbour, another shall be substituted for it, to be opene i on the
first of January, 1860.

It will thus be seen that we have one port in Kinsin, Nagasaki; three in Nipon,
Hiogo, Kanagawa, and Nee-e-gata. In the remaining large Island of the Japanese
group-viz., Yesso, we have secured Hakodadi. It was opened to foreign trade
on the 1st of last July. Our ships of war have recently visited Hakodadi
frequently. It is described as a beautiful spot, situated in a country resembling
England in its climate, productions, and natural features.

The limits of this paper will not, unfortunately, admit of my adverting, at any length, to the singular political and social institutions of this most remarkable people-otherwise, it might have been interesting to have described the spiritual Emperor passing a sub-celestial existence at Miaco, reminded only of his humanity by twelve wives, who are not spiritual; and the temporal Emperor, confined within the massive walls of his handsome palace, little better than a State prisoner. We cannot now speculate upon the power and influence wielded by the Council of State, composed of five feudal nobles ; or discuss the share which an ancient and powerful aristocracy possess in the administration of public affairs. That most striking feature in the social government of Japan, which consists of an elaborate system of espionage, exercised alike upon prince and beggar, and retaining all within the thraldrom of its iron grasp, would be a fertile theme for a paper in itself; while the celebrated Hara Kiri, or happy despatch, already so familiar to all, that it is scarcely necessary to allude to it as the resource alike of the unsuccessful politician, the detected criminal, and the injured member of society. It may not, however, be so well known that the old practice of ripping open the abdomen has been extinguished in favour of a less disgusting method of immolation, by which the duty of terminating the existence of the victim falls not upou himself but upon his friend, who decapitateshim in the presence of his family and relations.

Still less can we now venture upon a discussion of the various creeds which obtain in Japan, of the old pational religions of the Empire, known as the Sinsyn religion or faith of the gods, or of the extent to which it has become modified by those more recently introduced dogmas of Bhuddism (now a faith widely diffused throughout the Empire,) or of the influence exercised upon both; by the more Confucian tenets practised by those who follow Suitoo, or the way of the philosophers.

Having, thus enumerated and briefly discussed, so far as our limited information will admit, the five ports of Japan recently opened by treaty to the commerce and enterprise of the West, it may not be uninteresting to glance at the probable nature and extent of that commerce which is likely to spring up at them.

From the little we know of the internal resources of Japan, it is probable that we shall find a more profitable source of trade in its mineral than its vegetable productions. Unless we have been totally misinformed, these former are of vast extent and great value.

We know that the principal profits of the early Portuguese settlers were derived from the export of gold and silver. So lucrative was it that Kainipfer remarks—" It is believed that, had the Portuguese enjoyed the trade of Japan but twenty years longer, upon the same footing as they did for some time, much riches

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would have been transported out of this Ophir to Macao, and there would have been such a plenty and flow of gold and silver in that town, as sacred writ mentions there was at Jerusalem in the time of Solomon. At a later period, the Dutch carried on this same traffic to so great an extent that a native political economist, writing in 1708 on the subject, computes the annual exportation of gold at about 150,000 cobaugs, so that in ten years the empire was drained of 1,500,000 cobaugs, or about two millions and a half sterling.

The gold is found in various localities. That procured from Sado has the reputation of being the finest, and it is stated that the ore will yield from one to two oz. of fine metal per 17 lb. The copper mines in Garonga are stated to be very rich, the copper ore raised also being impregnated with gold. The ore from Satsuma yields from 4 to 6 oz. per 17 ib. These are the principal mines. Gold dust is found in some of the streams. Copper is superabundant, as is evident from the lavish use made of it for ornamental purposes.

For a long period the Dutch received at Nagasaki (in exchange for their merchandise) Japan copper. This however, as well as the sale of gold, has been stopped for many years. The Government allows no more copper to be produced now than is absolutely necessary for home consumption, which is comparatively very small. It will be for us to develope more fully one of the most important elements in the wealth of this vast empire.

By the treaty recently concluded, gold and silver coins may be exported from Japan, but not as cargo; the exportation of copper coin, as well as copper io bars, is prohibited, but the government engages to sell from time to time at public auction, any surplus quantity of copper that may be produced.

Iron abounds in various parts of Japan. The mines of iron are extensively worked, much more so at present than those of copper. Judging from articles of casting of their own construction, the ores must be of excellent quanlity. Specimens of wrought iron, cast and blister steel, have been examined with very satisfactory results. The wrought iron is usually hammered, and in smallffilat bars varying from 12 to 20 lbs. each. This is probably to be attributed to a want of proper machinery for heavier bars, and its being suited to their purposes. The steel of which the swords were composed which we procured at Yedo, was of admirable temper and quality.

I have already alluded to the coal mines which exist in the Island of Kinsigone of them is distant only seven miles from Nagasaki. They are a Governmeut monopoly. Hitherto the coal brought for sale since the opening of trade at Nagasaki has been surface coal, and consequently inferior in quality; it is described as small. It burns slaty, leaving considerable ash, and is very light. There can be little doubt that good coal is to be found in the island, when the mines begin to be properly worked. By the treaty of Yedo, coals, zinc, lead, and tin, are to be exported, at a duty of five per cent.

The vegetable productions of Japan, which are most probably destined to become articles of commerce, are camphor, vegetable tallow, rice, wheat, drogs, seaweed, &c. Among manufactured articles we may mention lacquer ware and porcelain, but it is almost impossible at this early stage of our commercial relations to predict either their character or extent. Immediately on our return

from Japan, some merchant ships went out to Nagasaki—not altogether strictly in accordance with international law-to open trade at that port. Since November last we have an actual experience to refer to ; but we must beware of drawing conclusions rashly from it. That the result has not equalled the anticipations formed at the commencement is due to the fact that trade has not been carried on under the provisions of the treaty concluded at Yeddo, but under that now obsolete system formerly pursued by the Dutch, in which the foreigo merchant was compelled to deal with and through Government alone. The consequence was, that after the first few Government contracts were completed, the trade could only be carried op under those restrictions and disadvantages which have rendered it 80 little profitable to the Dutch throughout this long course of years Now, however that those restrictions are removed, and a currency established, which will once more enable merchants to enter upon extensive commercial transactions under favorable conditions, instead of confining them to a paltry barter trade, carried out under Government regulations, I have no doubt that we shall receive very different accounts of our mercantile prospects in this quarter. When we hear that be. tween November, 1858, and March, 1859, no less than 10,000 tons of British and American shipping have left Shanghae for Nagasaki, a port the annual trade of which had been carried on by two Dutch ships, and that upwards of 11,000 tons have returned thence, many of the vessels being announced to go back again, we are driven to suppose either that the British merchant is more than usually blind to his own interest, or that there really is a trade worth engaging in. About fourteen hundred bales of silk in all have been procured and exported at Nagasaki, since the trade began last November. It is exp ed that the supply of this article will increase materially, the climate being suitable for the growth of the mulberry, and the habits of the people well adapted to the manipulation of silk

Among the imports into Japan, produce from the Straits and China naturally forms a large proportion. This is for the most part composed of drugs and what is technically termed Chow-chow cargo-viz., spices and condiments of various sorts ; also Sandal and Sapan wood. We have contributed damasks, cottons, muslins, velvets, woollens, &c; wbile American piece goods have found a ready market. As yet, however, our merchants are only feeling their way, and some time must elaps before it will be possible for us to predict with any certainty either the nature or extent of that trade which is capable of being created in this most interesting quarter of the globe. Meantime, a heavy responsibility will rest alike upon the merchants engaged in developing commerial relations in this country, and on our own official agents employed in supporting them and at the same time in protecting the Government to which they are accredited in due exercise of their treaty rights.

We are ignorant of the political considerations which induced the Japanese Gov. ernment to relinguish that system of exclusiveness which had for many years distinguished it among the nations of the East. We do know, however, that this result was not arrived at without much angry discussion and violent oppositioa on the part of some of the most influential members of the aristocracy; and we can have little doubt that a strong feeling adverse to intercourse with foreigners

or the establishment of commercial relations with them, exists throughout a large important class in Japan.

At present, this party is in the minority, but whether it will remain so or not, must depend upon the skill and tact with which our political relations are conducted, and upon the impression which the foreign mercantile community will create upon the people generally. Of a haughty and independent spirit, the Japanese are also suspicious and vindictive, and it is possible that, unacustomed to contact with Europeans, they may grow restive under the annoyances and evils which follow in the wake of civilization, and manifest a temper calculated to irritate the nation with which they have so recently entered into a friendly compact. It will be at this juncture that we shall be called upon to exercise that forbearance and moderation which it is ever becoming in the strong to display towards the weak

It would be well to remember that while we have achieved a great result in thus opening to the world this prosperous and happy community, we have also incurred serious obligations towards them, and are bound not to take advantage of their ignorance and inexperience in their dealings with western nations. We can only hope to commend our civilization to them by maintaining a high moral standard, both in our commercial and political intercourse. They are sufficiently enlightened to appreciate a policy influenced by higher considerations than those involved in the accumulation of wealth. Unless we follow such a policy, it is not too much to predict that we shall lose alike their confidence and respect, and involve ourselves in complications disastrous to our commerce, and discreditable to our national character. Of all the nations of the east, the Japanese are the most susceptible to civilizing influences, and I quote the words of an eminent Chinese and Japanese scholar in saying that, in one respect, they are far in advance of their ancient neighbours the Chinese, in that their attention is directed to obtain a knowledge of other nations. Their own efforts in this way will form their greatest security. Their soldiers once formed the bodyguard of the King of Siam, their Consuls once examined Spanish ships in Acapulco, their sailors once took a Dutch Governor out of his house in Formosa, and carried him prisoner to their rulers, their princes once sent an embassy to the Pope, their Emperor once defied the vengeance of Portugal, by executing her Ambassadors. The knowledge of these historical events remains among them. We may reasonably hope for a great preponderance of good results from an extension of an intercourse which has recommenced peacefully. Let us indulge in the expectation that the land of the rising sun may not only soon be fitted to take her place among nations, but also among Christian nations, with all the institutions, and liberty, and purity, of the best of these.

ERRATUM.

Vol. IV., page 442, line 10, for a procis," read " proboscis."

MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, AT THE PROVINCIAL MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, TORONTO, CANADA WEST-SEPTEMBER, 1859.

Latitude-43 deg. 89.4 min. North. Longitude-5 h. 17 min. 33 sec. Wost. Elevation above Lako Ontario, 108 feet.

Excess
Tens. of Vapour. Humidity of Air. Direction of Wind. Re.

Velocity of Wind.
of

sultant
mean

Direc-
above
6 2 10

| Re.
M's
'N 6 A.M. 2 P.M. 10 P. M.

tion. 164.M2 P.M 10PM A.MPMP. M

Rain in Inches.

Snow in Inches.

sulit. ME'N

97

29.549 29.333 29.390 29.4335 48.0 66.6 35.9 56. 6.52) 2871.401.288.323 .86 .66.64.70 W NW ssw WNW s 83 W 1.2 9.8 15.4 6.41 8.47 0.075
478
.571 601 .5550 48.7 61.8 52.754.83 7.90.234.208. 298.256.65) .37 75 .61 WSW WON Calm. N 84 W10.4 12.6

7.70 8.77
31 . 491
.329

4308/ 56.3 61.6 51.5 58.45 3.98) 359.428-307.370.79 .71 72.751 SSE SSW NNW S 44 W 9.5 10.6 8.8 3.75 6.520.395
.631 .731
46.9 61.7

.263.265 .81 .48 -NNW WNW NW N N 61 W | 2.9 8.2 5.0

6.00 6.35 5 .865

.847 932 .8895/ 45.3 58,4 47.2 51.07 -10.77). 275.320 - 258 289 82.65 .79 .77 NW W SSW NW N N 76 W 1.5 10.5 0.5 3.84 4.770.117 30.005

.936 30.001 30.00 +5| 41.7 59.8 51.2 52.97 8. 47).234 .303 - 24 - 260.79 .61 .65 .65/NWON SSW N N 67 W 4.8 9.8 3.5 2.01 4.79 7 30.008 .974 29.963 29.9815] 47.6 60.6 45.7 33.43 7.72] 224 .335 -300 .286.68 .63 .87 .70 N SSW

SbW S 77 W1.2

7.8 0.2

1.82 3.68 8 30.000 .973 .957 .9758 42.2 62.8 52.3 54.23 6.50) 211.261 325 - 279.781 .45 82.67) WbN SbE

SSE S 8 E 0.4 7.5 0.5

1.84 2.14 9 29.966 .823 .899049.4 66.4 58.459.10 –1.25) 292 .258 359 .317) .82 .39 .80

SE EbN ENE E

6.0 1.6 3.44 3.8110.665 10 .703 .607 .592 .6217) 58.5 67.1 64.2,83.27 + 3.22.465.593 -583 -551.94 .S9.97 .94 NE SSW SW S 26 W 0.5

4.2 4.4 4.39 4.800.100
11 .381 .219

SWS WbN WbN S 87 W 9.0 23.0 15.0 12.40 13.34|0.038
12 .314 .065 .079 .1432 52.3 72.4 62.4 63.02 + 3.78.319 .334 - 396 - 367.81 .42.70.65 SW b W WSW SW W S 64 W 3.5 19.2 6.0 10.67 12.03
13 . 169 .327 .351 .2338 52.7 52.3 48.5 50.52 – 8.33.197.213-212-2111 .45 .61.66 .57 W NW NW SWS N 67 W 125.0 21.5 9.6 16.76 18 00 Inap
14 . 458 .669 .$561 6950 40.450.1) 37.8 13.17 -15.171. 191.109.157.130.76 29 .69

.50

W NWWW NW N 55 W 11.5 22.0 3.0 12.94 13.82 15 30.018 .988 .970 .9963) 35.7 46.5 4 0 13.08 -14.83.122 .068.195.138.58 20 .69.50 NNE E EN E N 74 E 6.5 6.6

5.24 5.65 16 29.812 .770 .6531 .7477 45.8 53.4 53.4 51.12 - 6.401.195 .259 .331 268) .64 .62 S1 -70N EWE ENE NE E N 63 E 8.5 13.0 3.4

8.30 8.46 17 .639) .391 .650 6272) 53.1 58.450.9 53.93 – 3.07) 365.400 - 35 - 362) .89 82 .SC/NE EN ELS SEE N 79 E3.5 5.8

1.86 2.62 18 .666 .611

78 73 NE EN ELS Eb N N 86 E 2.8 8.6

3.0

2.88 3.15)
19 .419 351, .357 .3752 50.9 60.3 59.5 57.97 + 1.95 .3-15 .423 - 4701.422) .92 .81 .89.87 ENE E NNW N 14 E 3.2 2.5 0.5 3.80 5.02]0.110
201 •510 .COS

.676 .6025 51.6 51.953.8 52.07 - 3.53 303 .362 - 281-291 .79 .94.68.75 Nb E NENNEN N 37 E 13.8 8.0 6.0 7.02 7.180.00
21
.6331 578

.511 .5710| 48.7 53.4 54.851.90 – 3.22 311.359-379-352.90 .87 .88 90 NE NE NE ENE N 64 E 5.6 10.8 19.5 13.66 13.80/1.183
22 .509) .522 .612 .5563 55.2 61.0 53.8 56.82 + 2.18.407.452 -381-425) .91.90 92 92 E NE EEN

Calm. N 78 E 12.6 8.5 0.0 3.61 3.69 0.250
23 .670 .657 .675 .6662 53.7 62.4 57.758.68 + 4.47). 393.444 · 432.424.95.79 .91 .86 Calm. Calm, Calm. S 35 W 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.15 0.15 Inap
24 .64 .630 .6641 .6112 57.0 66.2 58.8 60.70 + 6.95 436.457 -431-447.94 .70 .86 .85 Calm. SELS ENE N 16 E

0.0

3.41 3.0) 1.25 2.61
25 .6551 .623

.87 .79 -IN W SSW Calm. S 43 W 4.5 1.0 0.0 0.401 0.63
26 .616 .593 .571 .5980 51.2 65.0 60.6 58.87+ 6.13.341.473 455 -428.90 .76 86 86 SSW SWS SSW S 44 W 0.5 1.2 1.5 1.60 1.760.045
27 .506 .536 .619 .5573/ 60.2 65.3 60.2 61.67 + 9.45 - 465.496 499) -477] .89.79 96.87 SbW NW NNW N 21 W 0.5 6.5 9.2 5.30 7.6210.007
28 .744 .818 .9101 8300 57.0 64.9 50.1 57.47 + 5.63.441.424 - 334.393.95 .69 .92 .83 Nb W WNW SW N 2 E 8.0

3.0 3.48 5.88
29 .931 .993 .926 .9582 50.9 54.8 49.151.23 - 0.08.292.270.285 - 290.77 .63.81.77) EbN SES NEDEN 85 E 5.8 6.0 2.0 4.08 4.25
30
.861 749 .621 .7347) 48.3 61.9 62.4 58.62) + 7.80.316.389.470.413 .93 .69 .84 .83

SE S88 E 1.5 10.4 6.2 3.167.02 0.530

4.0

Vol. V.

Barom. at temp.of 320 Temp. of the Air.

6 2 10 6 A.M. 2 P. M. 10 P.M. NEAN.64.M2 P.1 10PM ME'N Average A.M P.M P.M.

35.958.52

6 DOVOR 10 Days.

62.8 73.3

.542 .415

.95 .50

46.259.0

212 .379

57.0 64.6

.407.485

M 29.6761 29.6550 23.6717 29.668650.35 60.18 53.88 55.18

2.311.308.350). 348.337 - 82.65 -81 .75)

5.44 8.97 4.57

6.36 3.525

...

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