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(1) As I think it is somewhere said by Cæfar, Fight on, my brave fellow-foldiers, you will either conquer or sup with Jupiter.

(m) Ne Python quidem vulnerabilis----al. invulnerabilis---ne pilo quidem vel ne publis---Erasmu. ne Pythio (i. e. Apollina) Suret. But I am more apt to think, with Pincian, that the whole sentence is not genuine. Or, if I may not be allowed the sense given it in the translation, I should sooner prefer Erasmus' pilo, (i. e. he was invulnerable to the pyke or spear) than either Python or Pythio.

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I T seems you are inquisitive, Lucilius, to know how I spend my time, even my whole time; and are pleased to entertain so good an opinion of me as to think, that I desire not to conceal any part of it from you. . Indeed we ought so to live, as in the sight of man; and so to employ our thoughts, as if the inmost recesses of our hearts were open to some inspector. They certainly are so: for what avails it to keep any thing fecret from man;

when we can hide nothing from God! He is intiinate to our souls (a); and interposeth himself in our common thoughts; so indeed as never absolutely to leave us. I will oblige you therefore in your request, and will transınit to you in writing how I pass my time, and after what method I generally act. I will, forthwith, make some observations on myself; and what is truly useful and of consequence, review the day past.

Nothing contributed more to the making men worse, as to their mosals, than their not regarding their past conduct. We think indeed upon what we are about to do; though this but seldom; and what we have done, is entirely forgotten. Good counsel however for the future depends, in a great measure, upon the experience of what is past. This, my Lucilius, hath been a complete day with me (6): not a person hath broke in upon a moment of it. The whole was divided between


, for me.


couch and reading-desk: very little allowed for exercise of the body: I am oblig'd to old age for this; it puts me to very little trouble in this respect; when I stir, I am soon tired, But this is the common end of exercise, even to the strongest. Would you know, who are my companions (c) herein? One is enough for me, Eurinus, an amiable boy not unknown to you. But I must change him. He

grows too robust He says indeed, that we are both at the same crisis of

age, forasmuch as we are shedding our teeth; but the young rogue runs too fast for me; I can scarce overtake him; and in a few days I shall not be able; so much he gains upon me by daily exercise. In a very short time there is a great distance between two that are travelling different ways. As he is going up, I am going down: and you know how much swifter the one travels than the other. Did I say, I was going down? I was mistaken; for my age is such I am not going, but falling down. But would you know how ended this day's contention between us ? why, as seldom it does between two racers, neither of us beat (d).

From this, rather a fatigue, than exercise, I go into the cold bath; I do not mean such as is extremely cold: for I (who took so much delight in bathing and swimming that even on the Kalends of January, I would leap into the coldest pond; and as I was wont to begin the new year (e) with reading, writing, or dictating something, as a foretoken of success; so began I to bath, by plunging into fpring water) first moved my tent to the river Tyber (), and afterwards had recourse to the bathing tub: which, as I am yet pretty strong, and would have all things done as should be, the sun alone fufficiently warmeth for me. I spend not however much time in bathing; and after that, I eat a piece of dry bread, or biscuit, and dine without a table; nor have I any occasion to wash my hands after dinner. I Neep a little while: you

know custom: my fleep was always very short; I rest, as it were a while (g); and think it enough not to be broad awake. Sometimes indeed I know that I have flept; but sometimes I only think so. Lo! the noise of the Circus is continually buzzing in my ears, and sometimes strikes them with a sudden and universal thout: however it does not chafe away my thoughts: nor even interrupt them. I bear the clamour most patiently: and the many voices, that are joined together in one con



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fused sound, are no more to me than the rolling of a wave, or the ruftling of wind through a wood; and the like insignificant noises.-And what of all this? why, I will tell you now, what I was meditating upon.

For I am still reflecting upon the fame to-day as yesterday: what those wise men could mean, who in fome serious matter, used the most trifling and perplexing arguments: which bowever true were to be fufpected of a falfity.

Zeno, (b) for instance, that most extraordinary man and the founder of the bravest and most religious sect, proposed to deter man from drunkenness. And


Thall hear in what manner he proves that a good man will never be drunk.

No one trusts a secret to a drunken man:

But a good man is trusted with secrets. Therefore, A good man will not be drunk. (Ebrius.) But observe now how you may play upon him with the alike-form'd fyllogism: for one of many will serve our present purpose:

No one commits a secret to one that is asleep,

Secrets are committed to good men: Therefore, A good man will not sleep. Popdonius endeavours, as well as he can, to defend our Zeno herein: but, in my opinion, he makes but a poor defence of it. For, he says, that a man may be called a drunken man two ways; the one, when he is overcharg'd with wine, and not master of himself; the other, when he is subject to this vice, and only now and then gets drunk. Zeno here means the latter, one that is subject to be drunk, not one that actually is fo; and such a one, he says, no one will trust with a secret lest he should blab in his cups. But this is false. For the former fyllogysm absolutely includes the man that is drunk, not one that may be fo: as there is a great difference between (Ebrium and Ebriofum), one that is drunk, and a drunkard. For it may be that he who is now drunk, was never so before: and he that is a drunkard may often be sober; therefore by the word, Ebrius, I must understand what is gene meant by the same, one that is drunk; especially as the word is used, by a man of learning, and profess’d diligence in weighing well his expressions. Add likewise, that Zeno, if he understands him, hath left room for a fallacy, by using an ambiguous word, which by no means becomes a man, who is in search of truth.



my wine?

Be this as it will; he could not but know that the major (first) proposition is false, no one trusts a secret to a drunken man. For confider how soldiers, who are none of the soberest people, are trusted with secrets by their general, the tribune or centurion. Tullius Cimber was trusted with the secret of a conspiracy against the life of Cæsar (I mean Caius Cæfar, who having overcome Pompey feised upon


government) as well as Caius Cassus. Cafius had, all his life, drank nothing but water : Tullius Cimber was scarce ever sober, and a prattler. He used often to jest upon himself, saying, How can I carry any one, who cannot carry

Let any one now name those, whom he thinks worthy to be trusted with a secret, but not with wine. I will give you one example, that recurs to me, before I forget it. For life is best instructed by some famous example; nor need we always have recourse to antiquity. Lucius Pif (i), The warden of the city, after he was once drunk, spent the greater part of the night in banqueting and riot: and then would he sleep 'till noon the next day, which was generally his morning. Yet was he very diligent in the administration of his office, wherein depended the security and welfare of the city: even the godlike Augustus entrusted him with secret orders, . when he gave him the government of Thrace, which he had subdued. And Tiberius, when he was going into Campania, and leaving Rome, in suspicion and disgust, yet, I suppose, because drunkenness had no worse an effect upon Piso, made Coljus (k) governor of the city in his absence. Now Coffis was a grave and moderate man, but would sometimes get so very drunk as to be carried out of the senate, (when he was come thither from fome banquet) overwhelm’d with so found a sleep, that it was impossible to wake him: yet to this man did Tiberius, with his own hand, write many things, with which he was afraid to trust his own ministers: and never did a secret, either of a public or private nature, drop from Collus.

Let us hear no more then those frequent declamations,-the mind has no command of itself, when fetter'd with drunkenness.-- As barrels are burst with nero wine, and the lees are thrown to the top by fermentation; A when wine boils within a man, and stupefies the brain, whatever fecret is hid in the heart, it is thrown up and made public.--I own this may fometime happen, yet it also happens, that we scruple not to consult even in serious and necessary matters with those, who are given to wine. This is false therefore what is here set forth as an indisputable maxim, that a secret is never entrusted to a man who is subje&t to drunkenness. How much better is it openly and plainly to accuse, and shew forth the vice and folly of it; which even a decent man would avoid, and much more one that is wife and perfect: who is satisfied with quenching his thirst; and who, at a time of mirth, though it be carried to a great height upon some extraordinary occasion, still refrains from drunkenness.


We shall dispute hereafter, whether the mind of a wise man may be disturb’d by too large a dose, and whether he will act as drunken men generally do. In the mean while, if you would prove that a good man ought never to be drunk, what need is there of having recourse to syllogism? Rather Thew, how ridiculous and vile a thing it is, for a man to pour down more than he can hold, and not to know the strength of his constitution.--How many things drunken men are apt to do, which when sober they would be ashamed of.--And that drunkenness is nothing else but a voluntary madness.--And, suppose this evil habit to grow upon a man (?), can you doubt of its being somewhat more than madness, even rage and fury? The fit is not less though it be shorter.--Declare how Alexander, King of Macedon, New at a banquet Clytus, his dearest and most faithful friend; but being made conscious of the fact, when sober, he desired to die, and indeed he deserv'd no better (m).

Drunkenness heightens and displays every vice. It takes away modesty, the usual restraint upon every bad intention. For many, it is to be feared, abstain from vice, more through the dread of shame, than their own good will. When the strength of wine hath overpower'd the mind, whatever evil lay conceal'd therein, is apt to emerge. For


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