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from the fore was lefs fetid, but its surface shewed a difpofition to granulate.'
In fomewhat less than three months, this was the fituation of things:
No deep induration whatever is felt in the feat of the former fore, or in that part of the fubftance of the breaft which was occupied by the finus; the whole of which bears handling and preffure without fuffer. ing the fmalleft uneafinefs; but the skin formed by the cicatrix is fomewhat irregularly elevated and hardened. Some flight vefications have at times rifen upon it, extending no deeper than the epidermis, and apparently fome remains of the eryfepelas which lately affected her. They have now nearly vanished.
The ulcer would in all probability have been healed fooner than it has been, if the finus had been laid open to its bottom; but I was unwilling to allow it to be touched by a knife, left more might have been attributed to it than its due; and the experiment was not neceffary in the progreffive ftate of amendment of the fore.
She was discharged on the 30th of September, with orders to return twice a day for fome time to have freth gas applied, as the best defence of the newly-formed fkin from any external injury'.
Of the second cafe, the fymptoms were the moft dreadful that can be imagined, and the patient appears to have been reduced nearly to the laft extremity. She was fenfible of almost an immediate abatement of pain on the application of the air. In two days, the breaft was quite eafy; fhe enjoyed a better night than for fome months; and fhe could foon move the arm of the affected fide with more eafe than formerly. The difcharge, we are told, was gradually amended, and the ulcerated furface diminifhed.
How far,' fays the author, her recovery may proceed, I do not prefume to conjecture. But it is no fmall recommendation of what has been applied, that it has kept a perfon in eafe and comfort for two months, who for fo great a length of time before had known only agony and torture; and who in the fame interval has to a most furprifing degree recovered her general health.'
To his narrative Dr. Ewart has annexed some observations tending to establish the nature of the affection in these two cases; he also mentions fome former attempts to relieve or cure various kinds of ulcers by carbonic acid air; he then adds queries concerning its mode of operation; and he concludes with a recital of furgical cafes to which the fame practice may be applicable. There seems reafon to expect that effential relief, in the most excruciating and deftructive furgical diforders, will be derived from carbonic acid air, and perhaps from other elastic fluids. Whether they will perform permanent cures time only can decide. We have been informed that fome doubts were started soon after the appearance of this pamphlet, as to the permanency or completeness of the cure in the firft of the two cafes: but we do not understand
understand that the pleafing account, given by Dr. Ewart, of perfect relief from pain and progreffive amendment, was at all queftioned. The affair was too important to neglect opportunities of perfonal inquiry; and in December last we were credibly informed that there was no ulcer on the breast of the first patient; and that is above two months pofterior to the laft date in the reports before us.-The efficacy of the treatment will certainly not be fuffered to reft on two cafes. We should nevertheless be glad to receive a continuation of Dr. Ewart's hiftory.
The method of applying the air is diftinctly represented in an engraving. It is exceedingly remarkable that another philofopher followed the fame method of keeping the fame air in constant contact with a carcinomatous ulcer, with the fame fuccefs: yet his contrivance feems to have been as foon forgotten, or as little known, in this country, as if it had not exifted. The philofopher to whom we allude is Mr. Magellan; and his method appears to have been well known to Foureroy, Morveau, and the French chemifts. It confifted "in cutting away the bottom of a bladder fo that it might furround the breaft, and in fixing the edge to the skin by adhesive plaifter applied round the bladder." He is faid alfo to have cured an ulcerated cancer of the breaft by keeping fixed air conftantly applied in this manner.
ART. XIV. An Addrefs to the Prime Minister of the King of Corfica, on the Subject of its late Union with the British Crown, developing the real Planners of the Meafure, and demonftrating-that the Conftitution, which was fo gracioufly ratified in June last, to his Majefty's Corfican Subjects, contains, in Principle, that very Syftem of Reprefentation, which has been fo long and fo unfuccessfully fought to be obtained by the People of Great Britain and Ireland, from a Parliamentary Reform. By a Barrister. 8vo. pp. 61. Is. 6d. Stewart. 1795.
HE general purport of this pamphlet is fo clearly marked in the title, that we need only examine the merits of the execution, and make fome obfervations on fuch paffages as strike us either as praife-worthy or objectionable. In a work compofed for the purpofe of fhewing that the conftitution given to Corfica is precifely that which is thought too democratic or too dangerous to the British conftitution, to be allowed in this country, the reader will expect fevere attacks on Mr. Pitt; the minifter who, while he refifts all plans of reform at home, yet, in concurrence with other ftatefmen, has advised his fovereign to accede to a conftitution for the Corficans, in the adminiftration of which an infinitely greater fhare is given to thofe new fubjects, than the people of England and Ireland poffefs in the adminiftration of the conftitution of their respective countries. The author marks, in ftrong terms, the poli
tical apoftacy of the man who, when out of place, would prefs, the country to call for, and the legiflature to countenance, plans of reform which he, when in place, pronounces to be pregnant with ruin to the conftitution. On this head, the author writes with great and juft feverity: but there are some points in which he does not appear to have a very correct idea either of the reform which he would have adopted in England, or of the principle of reprefentation which has received the royal fanction in Corfica. In both cafes it would seem as if a full and free reprefentation were the object: but a wide difference appears to occur between the means to be used in the attainment of the end. Some reformers call for an equal representation, and fome for the right of univerfal fuffrage: thefe terms are not fynonymous; for, though every man in England should have a vote for a representative in parliament, yet every man could not be faid to be equally reprefented, as long as (for inftance,) the little county of Rutland fhould return as many members as Yorkshire. Equality of reprefentation has been established in Corfica, in as much as that the country is divided into pieves, or diftricts, as nearly as poffible of equal extent and population, and each pieve fends two members to parliament; towns, alfo, containing 3000 inhabitants, have the fame privilege: but it is by no means true, that the principle of univerfal fuffrage has been admitted in Corfica. In Sir Gilbert Elliot's dispatch of the 21ft of June, to Mr. Dundas, we indeed find these words: " every man, almoft without exception, has voted:" but the words, almoft without exception, had we no other evidence, might be perhaps fufficient to fhew that the elections were not conducted on the principle of univerfal fuffrage. Sir Gilbert, however, is not filent on this head, for he tells us that it was property alone that gave the right of voting; nay, more, that it was property in lands: at the fame time, he informs us that this kind of property was fo generally divided, or, to use his own words, "the ftate of property being fuch, that although none but landholders were electors, every man, almost without exception, has voted." Hence it is clear that Mr. Pitt has not given into the idea of universal suffrage, as it is evident that the qualification for a vote in Corfica, (we muft except, we prefume, the towns,) can be acquired only by a tenure of land: but whether it is as proprietor or occupier that the voter becomes qualified, we cannot decide. Our author is therefore far from being correct when he fays (p. 45):
Thus from the noble Text of his MAJESTY, and the faithful obedience of his Plenipo to have it executed in the general manner just quoted, we may almost venture to conclude, Sir, that the Royal Mafter, and the approved good fervant, were zealous friends, in the
prefent inftance, at leaft, of Corfican-Representation, to UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE.'
None, we fee, can be either electors or elected, who do not poffefs property in land; to which must be fuperadded refidence for a year in the place for which they are voters or candidates.
Whenever the bufinefs of reform is feriously taken up in England, we presume that it will not be thought fufficient to ascertain to whom the right of voting shall be extended, but that it will be deemed neceffary to declare that the number of reprefentatives, to be chofen for any particular district, shall be proportioned to its population; or, in other words, that for fo many hundred or thousand electors, there shall be so many members elected. Thus the prefent unaccountable disproportion will vanish; and, until this be done, though the right of univerfal fuffrage should obtain, we cannot be faid to have an equal reprefentation. Our author has set this matter in a very clear point of view:
The injuftice as well as abfurdity of this difproportion of Delegates to the proportion of Electors, cannot more glaringly be exhibited or more forcibly expofed, even to the comprehenfion and conviction of the most humble capacity, than by the following table:
The difproportion that ftrikes the eye in the above table would become infinitely greater, if every housekeeper in the above places poffeffed the right of voting.
The author feems to have overlooked one circumftance in the Corfican representation, which, had he duly attended to it, might perhaps have a little weakened his partiality to that
fyftem. It ftruck us very forcibly when we read the following article in the new Conftitution of Corfica:
"That no person shall be elected a member of Parliament, unless he poffeffes at least 6,000 livres (about 300l.) per ann. in land in the Pieve which he is to reprefent, and pays taxes in proportion to this poffeffion, and unlefs born of a Corfican father, and bona fide an inhabitant, having kept house for five years in the faid Pieve, and until he has arrived at the age of twenty-five."
Such an article as this, in a fyftem of representation for England, would not alarm us, because the number of perfons, not connected with the aristocracy, yet poffeffing 300l. a-year, is very great; and confequently the electors could not be limited to a fmall circle for the choice of reprefentatives :-but in Corfica, 300l. a year is a very large revenue; the whole ifland is not more than 110 miles in length, and 50 in breadth; its population is confiderably under 200,000 inhabitants; and it has little or no trade: fo that those who possess 300l. a-year in lands, must be very few in number, and persons of old or noble families. Hence it follows that, let the electors be who they may, the elected can be taken only from the body of the ariftocracy; and no doubt many individuals, if this fyftem fhould continue, will, though elected biennially, poffefs in reality an bereditary feat in the Corfican parliament.
The author prides himself not a little on having ftarted a new reflection, by obferving that in England and Ireland the conftituents and reprefentatives ftand not on even ground with respect to profecution and punishment for mutual misconduct : the inequality of their fituations is thus expreffed by him:
The fact is, that the great measure of a Reform in the Reprefentative Body of the nation is not attainable, however juft and neceffary, through the medium or force of any exifting laws. It depends entirely, in the immediate inftance, on the mere grace of the Legislature. Hence it is not unworthy of remark, that the PEOPLE and the LECISLATURE do not ftand, in this effential bufinefs, on equally fair ground.This is manifeft from the confideration, that the former are fubject to indictment and punishment, at the profecution of the Executive Power, fhould they attempt, by illegal modes, a Reform or recovery of their conftitutional rights: whereas the Legislature, or more pertinently speaking to our prefent point, the Reprefentatives of the Nation, are not profecutable, by any law, at the fuit of the People, fhould they betray the truft repofed in them by their conftituents, or act ever fo unjustly in with-holding from them the neceffary Reformation they folicit.
One of the great boafts of what is termed the moft GLORIOUS CONSTITUTION in the world is-that it affords law for the beggar as well as the KING:-but in the cafe, at prefent under confideration, 'tis palpably clear, that there are laws for punishing illegal proceedings of Conftituents towards their Reprefentatives, but none tor