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Art. 26. An Addrefs to the Independent Liverymen of London, on the Subject of their late Petition to Parliament for a Peace. With a few Obfervations on the Apoftacy of certain MEMBERS, and Advice to the Citizens of London refpecting the Conduct they ought to adopt at the next General Election, 8vo. 15. Crofby. 1795An injudicious declamation against the war, and against its abettors and advocates. We, too, difapprove the prefent unavailing contest with the rulers of the French nation; yet we must condemn a performance which, however well-meant, can only lead by its violence, unguarded affertions, and intemperate language, to hurt the cause which its author has espoused.

Art. 27. Confiderations on the principal Objections against Overtures for a Peace with France. 8vo. IS. Stockdale. 1795.

The principal objections on this head, which have been commonly urged both in the fenate and in the coffee-houfe, are, 1. "That to make peace with France, at this time, would be only affording her a refpite from the diftreffes of war, and thus enabling her, in that interval, to recruit her force, and to qualify herself to execute her defire of resuming hoftilities with more energy, and under circumstances more advantageous than those under which the is now able to conduct them." II. "That there is, at prefent, no government in France with whom we could treat, who are of efficacy and ftability fufficient to pledge the nation to the obfervance of a treaty."

The prefent author, difcovering little weight in either of thefe objections, undertakes to obviate them, to the full and clear fatisfaction of every impartial reader; and placing ourfelves in that number, [an egregious minority, no doubt!] we honeftly avow our complete conviction. We therefore heartily wish and hope that our patriotic Confiderer's earneft pleading for immediate PEACE, but not on dishonorable terms, will duly contribute towards giving that happy turn to the public mind, which is the laudable defign of his well-written publication.

Art. 28. The Subftance of a Speech intended to have been delivered in the House of Commons on Mr. Grey's first Motion for Peace, Jan. 26, 1795. By Sir Richard Hill, Bart. Member for the County of Salop. To which is added his Speech on the First Day of the Seffion. 8vo. IS. Stockdale.

Very confiftently with his religious principles and humane difpofition, Sir R. H. is a ferious and ardent advocate for peace; and accordingly he pleads for a speedy negociation with France, with that zeal and energy which cannot but reflect honour on his understanding and conduct.

Art. 29. An Abstract of the Habeas Corpus At; with Remarks. Also an Abstract of the Sufpenfion Act; fhewing how much of that great Bulwark of English Liberty has been fufpended. Together with the Substance of the Arguments ufed in both Houses of Parlia ment, for and against the Sufpenfion A&t. 8vo. 1s. Allen and Co. 1795.

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Those who are not already well informed as to the nature and importance of the Habeas Corpus act, and of the reasons affigned for the recent fufpenfion of a very material part of that highly patriotic ftatute, will here meet with a fatisfactory expofition of the fubject; together with an abridgment of the principal arguments that were advanced in parliament for and against the fufpenfion. This tract may not improperly be regarded as fraught with useful materials for a review of à confiderable part of the Political Hiftory of England, during the year 1795.

Art. 30. A Letter, not in Anfwer to, but induced by a late Publication of Thomas Holcroft, on the Subject of Political Intemperance; endeavouring to illuftrate its dangerous Effects, &c. By a Friend of a Manufacturer. 8vo. 15. Bew.

This letter-writer profeffes not to answer Mr. H.'s publication, (Letter to Mr. Windham : fee Rev. for last month, p. 204.) but he does the fame thing -he animadverts on many paffages in that gentleman's address to the Right Hon. Member for Norwich; and, with a mixture of seriousness and levity, he endeavours to expofe Mr. H. alternately to cenfure or to ridicule. In one or two paffages, he feems to have taken good aim, and to have come pretty near the mark; particularly where he attacks Mr. H.'s fentiments on the subject of national bonour. He fays little in defence of Mr. W. with refpect to the charge of intemperance; although he contends that the heartrending" term acquitted felon is not fo wanton, illiberal, and abfurd, as fome have deemed it;' and he likewife affures Mr. H. that he may depend on it, that to fuppofe himself equal to the task of tarnishing the merit of a whole life, will not, in the eyes of those whom Mr. H. may wish to court, appear lefs offenfive than ridiculous.'-As we cannot enter into many particulars occurring in a perfonal controverfy, like the prefent, we fhall clofe the pages before us with the general remark that they are not written by a contemptible hand. We think, however, that the author fhould have followed Mr. H.'s example of openness and fairnefs, by affixing his name to his publication. When a combatant enters the field in a mask, it may be allowable for a mask to measure weapons with him: the champions fhould be equally equipped in regard both to arms and armour.

MEDICAL, CHEMICAL, &c. Art. 31. An Efay upon fingle Vifion with two Eyes; together with Experiments and Obfervations on feveral Subjects in Optics. By William Charles Wells, M.D. 8vo. PP. 144. 35. Boards.

Cadell jun. and Davies. 1792.

An earlier notice was due to this masterly difquifition: but accident and the prodigious influx of political publications have diverted our attention fo long, that we may fairly fuppofe the work to be now in the hands of almost all who are interested in the fubje&t. Should it have efcaped any optical philofopher, we take this opportunity of recommending it earnestly to his attention, as the production of an author who is ingenious in devifing experiments, and mature in the habit of reflection. Since Berkeley's New Theory of Vifion, we recollect nothing equal to the prefent essay.

We obferve that Dr. Wells has had occafion to publish a detached paper in reply to Dr. Darwin; and we hope in good time to fee another edition of this tract, enlarged by the new experiments contained in that paper, and by farther researches.-Should fuch an edition appear at a period of lefs agitation, we shall endeavour to compenfate for the generality of these obfervations, by a complete fummary of the facts with which Dr. Wells has enriched an interefting but too much neglected science.

Art. 32. A Summary of the pneumato-chemical Theory, with a Table of its Nomenclature, intended as an Analyfis of the New London Pharmacopoeia. By Robert White, M. D. 12mo. Is. Cadell jun. and Davies.

The publication of this appendix, we think, is judicious; and we doubt not that the purchasers of the Analyfis will coincide with us. Art. 33. Rules for recovering Perfons recently drowned, in a Letter to

the Rev. Geo. Rogers, A. M. 8vo. 6d. Longman.

These rules are laid down in a letter figned R. Hamilton. They feem to be chiefly taken from Mr. Coleman; and of course they depend on the conclufivenefs of Mr. C.'s reafonings. What is here faid of the inflation of the lungs is not fufficient, in our opinion, to direct unprofeffional people on this important point. Exceptions, too, may be taken to paffages in Dr. H.'s rationale: particularly to his unfavourable fentiments concerning bronchotomy. This operation would afford the most certain means of inflating the lungs; and its inexpedience has by no means been demonstrated.

Art. 34. A brief View of the Anatomical Arguments for the Doctrine of Materialism, occafioned by Dr. Ferriar's Arguments against it, by W. Tatterfall, M. D. 8vo. Is. Johnfon,

Some of our readers will perhaps remember our obfervation on Dr. Ferriar's arguments *. It is quoted and corroborated by the prefent writer. Dr. T. retorts fome of his adversary's introductory remarks with great addrefs: but we object to the following imputation as unjuftifiably fevere; fome of the introductory obfervations look like artifices ufed with an interested or incompetent jury, in order to befpeak a favourable verdict.'

The impreffion made on us by Dr. F.'s manner was, that he had' determined to try what could be deduced from a certain feries of facts, and that he would not pertinaciously adhere to his inference, when the fallacy was fairly expofed. The fequel may fhew whether our furmife was well-founded or otherwife. Meanwhile, we must confider Dr. Tatterfall as having the better part of the controverfy; and we think that readers interested in the subject will find fatisfaction in the perufal of his effay.


Art. 35. A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocefe of London,
at the Vifitation of that Diocefe in the Year 1794. By Beilby
Lord Bishop of London. 8vo. Is. Rivingtons. 1794.
The good fenfe, the candid spirit, and the well-tempered zeal for

* Monthly Review, New Se.ies, vol. xiii. p. 182.
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the interefts of religion and virtue, which have marked the Bishop of London's former publications, as well as the lefs important merit of chafte and manly eloquence by which they have always been diftinguifhed, will be found, without any abatement, in the prefent excellent charge. With every appearance of unaffected folicitude for the credit and utility of the church in which his Lordship holds fo distinguished a ftation, the addrefs opens with seasonable and judicious advice relating to Sunday fchools, the augmentation of the falaries of affiftant curates, and refidence on benefices. Having ftated a few particulars on each of these topics, his Lordship proceeds to a fubject of more general importance, the prefent ftate of religion in foreign countries; the influence which it may have on the principles and morals of this land; and the new duties and obligations which this novel fituation of the Chriftian world brings along with it refpecting the clergy.

This worthy prelate is too enlightened not to fee, and too wife not to acknowledge, the danger which hangs over the prefent religious eftablishment from the spirit of infidelity which is gone abroad in the world. He ftates to his Clergy, without difguife, the important fact that a fet of men, under the title of philofophers, having for nearly half a century affailed the gospel with all the powers of wit, genius, eloquence, ridicule, calumny, and invective, have at length rifen to fuch confequence, as to eftablish a regular fyftem and fchool of infidelity on the continent; have avowed their grand object to be the extirpation of Christianity from the earth, and the fubftitution of philofophy in its room; and, to the astonishmment of all the world, have actually found means in one part of Europe to carry this moft fingular project (to a certain degree) into execution. For the particulars of the doctrines of this new fect, the clergy are referred to the writings of those great leaders, Helvetius, Voltaire, d'Alembert, d'Argens, and Raynal; and above all, to that recent, most curious, and most authentic publication, the pofthumous works of the late illuftrious King of Pruffia. This latter work his Lordfhip confiders as the grand code, the opus magnum of infidelity; and he refers the reader to it, from a perfect conviction that there can hardly be a more effectual antidote to modern philofophy, than a perufal of the wretched fophiftry, the opprobrious ridicule, and the fhameful profligacy of this very book. The denial of a Providence, of the exiftence of a foul diftinct from the body, and of a state of retribution, is ftated as the leading feature of this philofophy. Even the Deifm of these philofophers is faid to differ little from atheism; their Deity being nothing more than the intelligent principle that animates all nature, the fource of life and motion, the fenforium of the univerfe: but in other refpects totally unconnected with this earth and its inhabitants, having no kind of direction or fuperintendance over them, and as little difturbed (these are their own words) at what may happen to them, as with what may happen to an ant-hill which the foot of the traveller may crush, unperceived by himself,

The Bishop of London entertains no apprehenfions of the introduction of atheism into this country: but he is aware that the public rejection of Chriftianity, by the governing part, at leaft, of a country fo near to our own, may be attended with fome danger left our people fhould catch the contagion of infidelity from their neighbours.

• When we hear them (as we did repeatedly under their first rulers) representing our religion as a grofs and palpable impofture; loading it with the most opprobrious appellations; treating it with every poffible mark of ignoming and infult; and holding up its divine Author, his laws, his ordinances, his inftitutions, his minifters, and his altars, to univerfal abhorrence and contempt; when we know that these bitter invectives against revelation have been circulated in the publications of the day, through every town and every village in this island, can we fuppofe it poffble that all this fhould have made no unfavourable impreffions on the minds of the people, especially of the illiterate, the ignorant, and the uninformed; that it should not have corrupted the religious principles of fome, who were before untainted; that it should not have confirmed the infidelity of others that were wavering and irrefolute; and that it should not have lessened in ftill more, that refpect, that reverence, that veneration for their Maker, their Redeemer, their religion, and every thing connected with it, which they had be fore been accustomed to entertain ?'

In order to prevent the progrefs of infidelity, this judicious and liberal prelate neither calls for thunder from Heaven, nor for the fword of the civil magiftrate, but exhorts the clergy to pay more than ordinary attention to their inftruction of the people in the great fundamental truths of religion; and, from those excellent treatises in defence of revelation with which our language abounds, to draw out the principal and moft ftriking arguments, and to caft them into a more popular form, adapted to the understandings of the common people. If these were thrown into a regular courfe of fermons, or lectures, his Lordship is of opinion that nothing, in these philofophical times, would render a more effential service to religion, nor tend more to preferve the principles of the people uncorrupted and unfhaken by those most pernicious and dangerous publications, which there is too much reafon to apprehend will very foon be diffeminated, with dreadful induftry and activity, through every quarter of this ifland.

We much admire the general fpirit of this charge, and only regret that his Lordship's zeal against modern philofophers has led him to adopt a kind of language which may be eafily miftaken for, what he certainly never intended, an invective against philofophy itfelf. When the Bishop fpeaks of Chriflianity and philofophy as parties fairly at iffue together, and boasts of the triumph of religion over philofophy in the prefent ftate of this country compared with that of France, he can only refer to that fyftem of which he speaks in the former part of his charge under the appellation the thing called philofophy,' and not to that true philofophy which has been fo juftly an object of admiration among wife men in every age--and of which Cicero fo truly as well as eloquently fays: O vita philofophia dux, o virtutis indagatrix, expultrixque vitiorum, quid non modo nos, fed omnino vita hominum fine te effe potuiffet?

Art. 36. A Letter to James White Efq. of Exeter, on the late Correfpondence between him and Mr. Toulmin, relative to the Society of Unitarian Chriftians, established in the Weft of England. By John Kentish. 8vo. 1s. Johnfon. 1794.

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