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obferve that Dr. Shaw, in his defcription of the wolf, in No. 1. feems to condemn the opinion of the late Mr. Hunter, that the wolf and the dog are of the fame species.
With refpect to the plates with which this fplendid publication is decorated, they are in general executed with much tafte and elegance, and are vifibly coloured in a ftyle lefs glaring than in most productions relating to natural hiftory. This is often confidered as conftituting a confiderable degree of merit in a work of this nature; yet we know not whether, in fome inftances, it may not have been carried almost to an extreme.
Among the most curious as well as interefting plates, may be numbered the Simia Mormon, or variegated Baboon, pl. 9. Simia longimana, pl. 13. Pfittacus auguftus, or Hyacinthine Maccaw, pl. 14. Vultur Magellanicus, or the Condor, pl. 1. Coracias militaris, or the crimson Roller, pl. 15. Trogon Leverianus, or Leverian Trogon, pl. 43. Phafianus curviroftris, or Impeyan Pheasant, pl. 25. Pfittacus terreftris, or ground Parrot, pl. 53. Columba chalcoptera, or bronze-winged Pigeon, pl. 55. Lanus Leverianus, or Leverian Shrike, pl. 59, &c.
Art. XII. Tranfactions of the Society inftituted at London, for the En couragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce; with the Premiums offered in the Year 1794. Vol. XII. Svo. 5s. Boards. DodЛley, Becket, &c.
WE E have fo frequently acknowleged the utility of this public-fpirited inftitution, with the general importance of its publications, that any repetition of fuch remarks would be mere waste of time and words,-which we can ill afford.
In the prefent volume we have 27 articles, viz. On Planting, eleven; on the Improvement of Orchards, one; on Agriculture, (proper) five; on Chemistry, three; on Polite Arts, one; on Mechanics, three; on Colonies and Trade, one; and on Mifcellaneous Subjects, two. Some of these are entitled to particular notice.
We are happy to find that the fociety's premiums have been claimed for plantations of the Larch, a tree to which we look up with pleasure, as the most likely fupply of fhip-timber for the British navy in future times.
Mr. Bucknal acquaints the fociety that he has continued his experiments on pruning orchards: fee the 11th vol. of the Tranfactions, or our Rev. vol. xiv. N. S. p. 55. He expreffes his entire fatisfaction with regard to the use of his medicated tar *; and he has added fome ufeful hints on planting. We
The author's recipe for this preparation was copied in our Review,
cited as above.
think, with Mr. More, the Editor, that this is a matter of great importance; and we agree with him in advifing thofe, who make trials of the methods here recommended, to transmit to the fociety accurate accounts of their fuccefs.
Mr. Moore, of Appleby, in Leicestershire, gives an account of extraordinary improvements, by under-draining boggy and fpringy grounds: but we find nothing new nor peculiarly excellent in his method of performing this important operation.
Mr. Corbet, of Merionethfhire, has made a profitable embankment; by which he fecures 144 acres of marsh lands from the overflowing of the tide.
Mr. Henry Browne, of Derby, has been rewarded with the gold medal, for his ingenious evaporator, for the ufe of chemifts, &c. particularly in the preparation of falts. To feed the fire with a current of air paffing over the boiler, and thus to burn the steam, (as it is called,) is not a new idea: but to conduct the heated air from the fire, through paffages formed on every fide of the vacuity above the boiler, fo as to promote evaporation by a heated atmofphere, is a method which we have not before seen. We copy Mr. Browne's own account of this valuable invention:
I herewith fend you a plan and model of a Furnace I ufe for Evaporation, and have found more ferviceable for that purpose than any copper or boiler I ever faw; and I am of opinion it might be advantageously applied to the drying malt, as the heat is more equally difperfed, and the vapour carried off much quicker than by the mode now practifed. I have not obferved the exact quantity of moisture which may be exhaled in a given time by a given quantity of fuel; but I can with fafety fay that at least one half of the fuel, and a great deal of trouble, is faved by this contrivance; as it does not require near the attendance that boilers in general do, in supplying it with liquor or fuel, which needs only be done twice in twenty-four hours; for the fire, being confined in the firft inftance to the bottom, and the evaporation being regular, a certain quantity either of fuel or liquor may be put in at certain times: but the greatest advantage this Furnace poffeffes, and the only part I flatter myfelf may be called new, is, the atmosphere being rendered of an equal heat with the liquor; by which means more moisture is carried away by the current of hot air, than by any other means I am acquainted with.
The utility of this Evaporator, therefore, is in my opinion twofold: firft, the evaporation is much quicker, with a lefs quantity of fuel, than in the generality of the boilers now in ufe; fecondly, the operator, as well as the whole neighbourhood, cannot in the leaft be affected or annoyed, let the vapour or fteam be ever so pernicious. That evaporation is much greater by this mode, will appear very plain, when the courfe of the heat is pointed out it is firft carried under the veffel, then reverted back on the fides, and finally it is carried over the furface; by which means the air, that is in contact, with the liquos, is fo heated and highly rarified, that the fluid is raifed into 5 vapour
vapour or fteam, much quicker, and with lefs fuel, than if the atmosphere was cold; and, as the air neceffary to keep the fuel in combuftion paffes over the furface of the liquor, every pernicious vapour is carried with it into the fire, where it is decompofed, or at least fo changed as to be no longer pernicious.
As the diminution of labour in all operations is fo much to be wished, I think it necessary to add, that by this contrivance one man can do more work than three can in the usual method, the fire-place being fo contrived, that as much fuel may be put on at one time as will ferve twelve, or even twenty-four hours; and the fame may be faid of the supplying the vessel with fresh liquor.'
A model of the apparatus is lodged in the fociety's valuable repofitory.
For the paper under the class of Polite Arts, we are indebted to Mr. George Blackman, of Hemming's-Row; it discloses (with unusual liberality) his method of making oil-colour cakes, for the use of artists; to be rubbed down in oil, as water-colour cakes are in water. Mr. Cofway and Mr. Stothard bear teftimony in their favour. The former is of opinion that the manner in which they are compofed is a new and ufeful discovery and the great advantage they poffefs of drying without a skin on the furface, is a very effential improvement on the ufual mode of oil-painting, particularly for small works."
George Butler, Efq. of Kent, has invented an improvement of the well- bucket; which, we think, might be adopted for wells of every depth; though it feems to be efpecially applicable to deep wells, and the horfe wheel, to which Mr. Butler has adapted it. The thought is fimple as it is useful: inftead of filling the bucket by dipping or overturning it in the water, a valve is fitted in the bottom of it, to admit the water as foon as the valve preffes on its furface; and the valve being made water-tight, it prevents the efcape of the water when the bucket is raised. On its arrival at the top of the well, a fhoot is placed under it, and the valve is lifted to let out the water. Under an ingenious idea of making it empty itself, Mr. B. has added a complicated apparatus; liable to be out of order, and not at all neceffary. In a machine of this nature,-to be worked by the lowest order of ruftics,-fimplicity, lightness, and durability should be particularly attempted.
We must not pass unnoticed the worthy Secretary's effay on weights and measures; which, as he obferves, is intended to fhew an eafy and practicable method of forming and preferving fandards deducible from each other, and which, it is prefumed, if carried into full execution, will put an effectual ftop to all future difputes on that subject.'-The thought of using pieces of agate for ftandard weights, as a fubftance less likely than metals
metals to decay, or to lofs by corrofion, &c. is novel, and feems worthy of attention.
Captain Bligh's account of the tranfportation of the breadfruit tree, and other plants, now remains to be mentioned. We can only fpare room for the refult of the undertaking; which appears in the following table:
An Account of the Refult of CAPTAIN BLIGH's Voyage to procure PLANTS in the SOUTH SEA.
The total number of Plants delivered at St. Helena, St. Vincent's, and Jamaica, amounts to one thousand two hundred and feventeen; and feven hundred plants of various kinds were landed in the River Thames, for his Majesty's Garden at Kew.'
We have not room to particularize the other communications, which do not feem to fuggeft any thing remarkably worthy of attention from the general reader; and the volume itfelf will doubtlefs be confulted by thofe who are more peculiarly concerned in its contents.
Art. XIII. Philofophical Tranfactions of the Royal Society of London, for the Year 1794. Part I. 4to. 8s. fewed. Elmfley.
"HE firft article belonging to this clafs is a fhort letter from Mifs Caroline Herfchel, announcing the difcovery of a