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Diurnal Lepidoptera. Mr. Osbert Salvia and Dr. P. L. Sclater have named for me my collection of birds; and for much entomological information I am indebted to Professor Westwood, Mr. F. Smith, and Dr. D. Sharp; whilst, in botany, Professor D. Oliver, of Kew, has kindly named for me some of the plants. Through the assistance of these eminent authorities, I trust that the scientific names scattered throughout the book may be depended upon as correct.

Nijni Novgorod,

October 9th, 1873.



The Lake of Nicaragua—Ometepec—Becalmed on the Lake—"White

Cygnets—Reach San TJbaldo—Ride across the Plains—Vegetation

of the Plains—Armadillo Savannahs—Jicara Trees—Jicara Bowls

—•Origin of Gourd-shaped Pottery—-Coyotes—Mule-breeding

—Eeach Acoyapo—Festa—Cross High Range—Esquipula—The

Rio Mico—Supposed Statues on its Banks—Pital—Cultivation of

Maize—Its use from the earliest times in America—Separation of

the Maize-eating from the Mandioca-eating Indigenes of America

—Tortillas—Sugar-making—Enter the Forest of the Atlantic

Slope—Vegetation of the Forest—Muddy Roads—Arrive at Santo

Domingo 43 «


Geographical position of Santo Domingo—Physical Geography—The

Inhabitants—Mixed Races—Negroes and Indians compared—

Women—Establishment of the Chontales Gold Mining Company

—My House and Garden—Fruits—Plantains and Bananas: pro-

bably not indigenous to America: propagated from Shoots: do

not generally mature their Seeds—Fig-trees—Granadillas and

Papaws—Vegetables—Dependence of Flowers on Insects for their

Fertilization—Insect Plagues—Leaf-cutting Ants: their method

of defoliating Trees: their Nests—Some Trees are not touched

by the Ants—Foreign Trees are very subject to their attack—

Method of Destroying the Ants—Migration of the Ants from a

Nest attacked—Corrosive Sublimate causes a sort of Madness

amongst them—Indian plan of preventing their ascending young

Trees—Leaf-cutting Ants are fungus-growers and eaters—

Sagacity of the Ants 61

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