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system cannot be better described than in the eloquent terms used by Mr. Canning, on the last occasion on which that highly gifted statesman spoke in public, on the 13th June 1827 :
“ I believe there is no example in the history of the world, on the one hand, of the existence of an im
perial corporation, or on the other of the concur“. rence of two co-ordinate authorities, for so long a “ series of years, in conducting without shock or con“ flict the administration of the wonderful, I had “ almost said the tremendous empire, over which the “ East-India Company and the Crown jointly preside.
“ The construction and maintenance of that vast
empire are, indeed, as fearful as extraordinary. It “ is a disproof of the common adage, that little wis“ dom is required for governing mankind, to consider “ how such a machine has been gradually formed; “ how a varied population of nearly 100,000,000 of ~ souls is kept together under a government so ano“ malous, and distant thousands of miles, with so “ much comparative happiness, and so little of inter“ nal confusion. But the greatness of the concern “ to be administered has had its natural effect; it “ has produced a race of men adequate to its admi“nistration. I venture to say, that there cannot be
found in Europe any monarchy which within a
given time has produced so many men of the first “ talents in civil and military life, as India has, within “ the same period, first reared for her own use, and “ then given to their native country.”
It has been the endeavour to shew, by the foregoing observations,—that where a want of investigation is alleged,—the most minute and extended inquiry has taken place ;—that where the government of the
Company is stated to have been carried on, on “ paltry, peddling principles,” it is proved to have been conducted on a system unquestionably beneficial, “ shielding under the safeguard of equal law every “ class of the people from the oppressions of power, “ and communicating to them that sense of protection, “ and assurance of justice, which is the spring of all
public prosperity and happiness ;"—that where the Company have been charged with a desire of conquest and aggrandizement, their orders have been little short of a peremptory prohibition against their government engaging in hostilities;—that where the greatest benefits are anticipated from an unlimited resort to India of Europeans, serious evils from a limited resort have already been experienced ;--and that where judgment has been passed on the economy of the Company's Home management, the nature of the establishment, the duties discharged by it, and the system under which it is conducted, are almost wholly unknown. These observations, apply principally to the subjects connected with the four periods alluded to, viz, 1773, 1784, 1793, and 1813. Whenever the question shall again be brought forward, there is no doubt that the East-India Company will be enabled to shew, that they have discharged the great trust reposed in them with advantage to the interests of the state, and have promoted the welfare and happiness of the immense population placed under their rule.
It is deemed expedient to state, that the contents of the Analysis and this Supplement, until they had passed through the press, were unknown to any person but the individual who has thus laid them before the public, and to whom the statements which they contain are to be solely attributed.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH
RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE BRITISH POWER
In consequence of the non-ratification by the Burmese of the treaty entered into on the 3d January 1826, at Patanogah, hostilities were recommenced, and on the 19th measures were taken by Sir Archibald Campbell for the attack of Melloon, which important post, after a gallant defence by the enemy, was carried by assault. Its position, although not so well chosen as some others which had been met with, had been rendered more formidable by labour and art, affording the enemy a presumptive security in their possession of it.
The intelligence of the fall of Melloon created the greatest consternation at the capital of Ava. Mr. Price, a member of the American mission, and Mr. Sandford, surgeon of the Royals, a prisoner at Ummerapoora, were sent down for the purpose of treating with the British authorities. They reached head-quarters on the 31st January, and were informed that the terms proposed at Melloon were still open to the court of Ava. The army continued its progress from Patanogah towards the capital, and on the 4th February reached Pakan Yay, an advance of eighty-five miles, and from thence
to Pagahm Mew, where the enemy had been concentrating himself, and by a reconnaissance effected on the evening of the 8th, was discovered in force of not less than 16,000 men, strongly posted about five miles in advance of the village of Yesseah : part of the fugitives from Melloon having been rallied at that point, and there reinforced by fresh levies from Ava. On the 9th February Sir Archibald Campbell determined to attack the enemy, who after a severe struggle was entirely defeated, and the British obtained possession of Pagahm Mew.
Operations were at the same time carried on in Pegu under Col. Pepper. The force of that officer was intended to act simply on the defensive, but the frequent acts of devastation and pillage induced him to move from Pegu towards Shoegeen on the 230 December, which post he occupied without resistance. A severe reverse was however experienced on the 7th January 1826, by a detachment sent under Lieut.-Colonel Conry, for the reduction of Setaung, a stockade on the eastern bank of the river ; in the attack that officer was killed, and the party repulsed. The reduction was subsequently effected by a force under Colonel Pepper in person, after surmounting obstacles of no common kind, every man having been up to his neck in water whilst crossing the creek to the attack.
The provinces of Arracan and Assam continued in undisturbed possession of the British authorities. Cachar was freed from a foreign force, and Munnypoor was finally cleared of the enemy.
Sir Archibald Campbell, after halting a day or two at Pagahm Mew, continued his advance towards the capital. On his route,' and when within four days of
Ummerapoora Mr. Price again made his appearance, bringing with him the treaty ratified by the king.
By the treaty, which was dated at Yandaboo, the 24th February 1826, the King of Ava renounced all claim to, and is to abstain from all interference with Assam and its dependencies, and also with the petty states of Cachar and Jynteea. Ghumbeer Singh was to be recognized as Rajah of Munnypoor, should he desire to return thither. The four provinces of Arracan, Ramree, Cheduba, and Sandoway, as divided from Ava by the Arracan mountains, together with the conquered provinces of Yeh, Tavoy, Mergui, and Tenasserim, were ceded to the British government, who were also to receive from the state of Ava one crore of rupees, as part indemnification to the British government for the expenses of the war. It was also agreed that a commercial treaty, upon principles of reciprocal advantage, should be entered into between the contracting parties.
Sir Archibald Campbell, with Mr. Robertson of the Bengal service, civil commissioner in Ava, and Mr. Mangles, arrived at Calcutta in the Enterprize steam vessel on the 5th April.
Throughout the whole of the protracted war, the troops, both European and native, evinced a patient endurance of fatigue and privations and sickness, to which they were unavoidably exposed in a hostile country, and in an inclement season. The Madras Sepoys manifested an alacrity in volunteering for foreign service, which afforded an unequivocal proof of their fidelity and attachment to government. It would be superfluous to mention the important and effectual aid afforded by his Majesty's squadron under the late Sir James Brisbane, throughout the operations.