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Ants, destructive to insect-specimens, Barbets, 297

Bark, varieties in tropical forests, 243
and vegetation, special relation Barometer, range of, at Batavia, 234
between, 284

Barrington, Hon. Daines, on song of
A pathus, 70

birds, 104
Apatura and Heterochroa, resemblance on danger of song and gay plum-
of species of, 384

age to female birds, 138
Apes, 306

Batavia, meteorology of, 219
Apparent exceptions to law of colour and London, diagram of mean
and nidification, 133

temperatures, 220
Aquatic birds, why abundant, 25

greatest rainfall at, 235
Aqueous vapour of atmosphere, its range of barometer at, 234
influence on temperature, 223 Bates, Mr., first adopted the word
quantity at Batavia and Clifton, * mimicry,” 54

his observations on Leptalis and
Archæopteryx, 165

Heliconida, 59
Archegosaurus, 165

his paper explaining the theory
Architecture of most nations deriva-

of mimicry, 59
tive, 113

objections to his theory, 76
Grecian, false in principle, 114 on recent immigration of Ama-
Arctic animals, white colour of, 37, 38 zonian Indians, 100
plants, large leaves of, 407

on climate at the equator, 235
flowers and fruits brightly on scarcity of forest-flowers on
coloured, 407

Amazon, 264
Areca palm, 252

on animal life in Amazon valley,
Arenga saccharifera, 250

Argus-pheasant, wonderful plumage on abundance of butterflies at Ega,
of, 374

Argyll, Duke of, on colours of wood. on importance of study of butter-
cock, 39

flies, 277
on mind in nature, 141

on leaf-cutting ants, 282
criticism Darwin's works, on blind ants, 284

on bird-catching spider, 291
on humming-birds, 153

on use of Toucan's bill, 298
on creation by birth, 156

on large serpents, 304
Arums, 254

on the habits of humming-birds,
Asilus, 69

Aspects of nature as influencing man's Bats, 307
development, 176

Bayma, Mr., “ Molecular Me-
Assai of the Amazon, 250

chanics,” 208
Auckland isles, handsome flowers of, Beagle, Darwin's voyage in, 455

Beauty in nature, 153
Audubon, on the ruby humming- not universal, 155
birds, 317, 322

of flowers useful to them, 155
Azara, on food of humming-birds, 320 not given for its own sake, 156

Beetles, 288
BALANCE in nature, 32

abundance of, in new forest clear-
Bamboos, 257

ings, 290
uses of, 258-262

probable use of horns of, 372
Banana, 254

Belt, Mr., on virgin forests of Nicar-
Bananas, wild, 254
Barber, Mrs., on colour changes of on aspects of tropical vegetation,
pupa of Papilio nireus, 345




agua, 265

Belt, Mr., on leaf-cutting ants, 283 Bryophila glandifera and B. perla pro-

on an Acacia inhabited by ants, tectively coloured, 46

Bucerotidæ, sexual colouring and
on uses of ants to the trees they nidification of, 125
live on, 285

Bucconidæ, sexual colouring and
on a leaf-like locust, 288

nidification of, 125
on tree-frogs, 305

Buff - tip moth, resembles a broken
on the habits of humming-birds, stick, 45

Buildings of various races do not
on uneatable bright-coloured frog, change, 99

Bullock on food of humming-birds,
on use of light of glow-worm, 374 320
Berthoud, on stone implements in Buprestidæ, resembling bird's dung,

tertiary deposits in America, 448 42
Betel-nut, 252

similar colours in two sexes, 80
Bill of humming-birds, 315

in tropical forests, 289
Birds, possible rapid increase of, 23 Burchell, Dr., on the “stone mesem-

numbers that die annually, 24 bryanthemum,” 396
mimicry among, 73

Butterflies, abundance of, in tropical
dull colour of females, 80

forests, 272
nidification as affecting colour of conspicuousness in tropical forests,
females, 81

refusing the gooseberry cater- colours and form of, 273
pillar, 84

peculiar habits of tropical, 275
why peculiar nest built by each tropical and temperate compared
species, 101, 103

as to colour, 342
build more perfect nests as they females do not choose their part-
grow older, 108

ners, 370
on instincts of newly-hatched, 109 with gaily coloured females, 373
alter and improve their nests, 114 influence of locality on colours of,
sexual differences of colour in, 123

tropical orders of, 292

Buttressed trees, 241
how many known, 312
influence of locality on colours Cacia anthriboides, 67
of, 382

Cælogynes, 257
cases of local variation of colour | Calamus, 249

Calaveras skull found in auriferous
Bombus hortorum, 64

gravel, 447
Bombycilla garrula, colours and California, auriferous gravels of, 442
nidification of, 134

Callithea, imitated by species of Cata-
Bombylius, 69

gramma and Agrias, 383
Bonelli, Mr., on the Sappho comet Callithea markii, 274
humming-bird, 318

Callizona acesta, protective colouring
Brain of the savage but slightly less
than that of civilised man, 188 Calornis, 123
size of, an important element of Campylopterus hemileucurus pug.
mental power, 188

nacious and ornamental, 380
of savage races larger than their Capitonidæ, sexual colouring and
needs require, 190, 193

nidification of, 125
of man and of anthropoid apes Capnolymma stygium, 67
compared, 190

Carabidæ, special protection among,
Broca, Professor Paul, on the fine
crania of the cave men, 189

similar colouring of two sexes, 80

among, 387

of, 43


son, 34

on, 84

on, 85

of, 36

Cassidæ, resemble dew-drops, 42 Classification, form of true, 6
Caterpillars, mimicking a poisonous circular, inadmissible, 7
snake, 70

quinarian and circular, of Swain-
gaudy colours of, 82
various modes of protection of, argument from, against Mr. Dar-

win, 162
gooseberry caterpillar, 84 Climacteris, sexual colouring and
Mr. Jenner Weir's observations nidification of, 126

Climate of Equator, general features
Mr. A. G. Butler's observations of, 229

Climates of Timor, Angola, and Scot-
Cattleyas, 257

land compared, 227
Cecropias, trees inhabited by ants, 285 Climbing plants of tropical forests,
Celebes, large and peculiarly formed 246
butterflies of, 385

uses of, 247
white-marked birds of, 388 Coccinellidæ, how protected, 52
Centipedes, 291

similar colouring of sexes, 80
Centropus, sexual colouring and nidific Cockatoos, 293
cation of, 125

Cocos islands visited by Darwin, 456
Cephalodonta spinipes, 66

Collyrodes lacordairei, 67
Ceroxylus laceratus, imitates a moss-Coloration of tropical birds, 300
covered stick, 47

Colour, in animals, popular theories
Certhiola, sexual colouring and nidifi-
cation of, 127

frequent variations of, in domes-
Cetoniadæ, how protected, 53

ticated animals, 36
similar colours of two sexes, 80 influenced by need of conceal-
Chaffinch, curious nest built by, in ment, 37
New Zealand, 111

in deserts, 37
Chameleon, cause of changes of its in arctic regions, 37, 38
colour, 347

nocturnal, 38
Chameleons, 303

tropical, 38
Charis melipona, 68

special modifications of, 39
Chematobia, wintry colours of this different distribution of, in butter-

flies and moths, 43
Chemical action changes colours, 357 of autumnal and winter moths, 45
Chili, humming-birds of, 324

white, generally dangerous and
Chiroptera, 307

therefore eliminated, 48
Chlamys pilula, resembles dung of why it exists so abundantly
caterpillars, 42

although often injurious, 50
Chrysididæ, how protected, 52

influenced by need of protection,
Chrysobactron Rossii, 408

Chrysomelidæ, similar colouring of of female birds, 80
two sexes, 80

in relation to nidification of birds,
Cicindela, adaptive colour of various 81
species of, 42

gaudy colours of many cater-
Cilix compressa, resembles bird's

pillars, 82
dung, 46

in nature, general causes of, 88
Cladobates, mimicking squirrels, 76 sexual differences of, in birds, 123
Claparède, M., criticism on Mr. in female birds, how connected

Wallace's views as to origin of man, with their nidification, 124, 128
205 (note)

more variable than structure or
Clark, Rev. Hamlet, on leaf-cutting habits, and therefore
ants, 282

easily modified, 130

genus, 45


Colour of flowers, as explained by Mr. Colours, theory of sexual, 364
Darwin, 139

theory of normal, 381
often correlated with disease, 175 of fruits, attractive, 397
cause of change of, in humming- protective, 398
birds, 327

which first perceived, 411
in nature, problems of, 339 Colours and ornaments of humming.
how far constant, 340

birds, 314
as affected by heat and light, 341 Cometes sparganurus, very pugnacious,
of tropical birds, 342

of tropical butterflies, 342 Compsognathus, 165
of temperate and tropical flowers, Condylodera tricondyloides, 69

Consciousness, origin of, 206
changes of, in animals produced Professor Tyndall on, 206
by coloured light, 345

not a product of complex organi-
voluntary change of, in animals, sation, 209

an advance on mere vegetative
not usually influenced by coloured life, 209 (note)
light, 348

Copridæ, 289
the nature of, 354

probable use of horns of, 372
how produced, 357

Coral-reefs and cirripedia, Darwin's
changed by heat, 357

works on, 473
a normal product of organisation, Correlation of growth, 172

Corynomalus sp., 66
as a means of recognition, 367 Cotingidæ, sexual colouring and nidifi.
proportionate to integumentary cation of, 127
development, 368

Cratosomus, a hard weevil, 67
not caused by female selection, i Crematogaster, gems of ants, 280

Crickets mimicking sand wasps, 70
absent in wind-fertilised flowers, Cross - fertilisation of flowers, use of,

same theory of, in animals and complex arrangements for, 401
plants, 405

Crossing and inheritance studied by
of flowers and their distribution, Darwin, 462

Cryptodontia, 164
nomenclature of, formerly im- Cuckoos, 296
perfect, 414

Cucullia verbasci, 84
Colour-development as illustrated in Curculionidæ, often protected by hard
humming-birds, 379

covering, 51
local causes of, 382

similar colours of two sexes, 80
Colour-perception, supposed recent Cuviera squamata, 136
growth of, 412

Cyclopeplus batesii, 66
Colour-sense, origin of the, 410
need for, 411

DANAIDÆ, the subjects of mimicry,
not of recent origin, 414

61, 62
not wholly explicable, 415

warning colours of, 350
Colours, classification of organic, 348 Danainæ, Acræinæ, and Heliconiinæ,
protective, 349

local resemblances of, 383
warning, 350

Danais archippus, 63
sexual, 352

chrysippus, 79
normal, 354

Daphne pontica, 402
of animals, how produced, 357 Darwin, Mr., extract from letter from,
theory of protective, 360

theory of warning, 361

his principle of utility, 35

Darwin, Mr., on colours of caterpillars, Diagram of rainfall at London and

Batavia, 228
on cause of colour in flowers, 89, Dianthus alpinus, D. glacialis, 404

Diaphora mendica, 64
on sexual coloration, 138

Dicnyodontia, 164
his metaphors liable to miscon- Dicrourus, 133
ception, 144

Diloba cæruleocephala, 84
criticism of, in North British Dinosauria, 164
Review, 159

Diptera mimicking wasps and bees,
on mode of cross-fertilisation and 69
its use, 400

Distribution of humming-birds, 322
debt of science to, 450

Disuse, effects of, studied by Darwin,
his voyage in the Beagle, 455 461
on dust collected 300 miles from Dixon, Mr. Charles, on nest of a
land, 456

chaffinch in New Zealand, 111
on productions of Cocos and Doliops curculionides, 67
Galapagos islands, 456

Domesticated animals, their essential
the origin of species, 458

difference from wild ones, 30, 31
animals and plants under do- Dotterell, 132
mestication, 459

Dragons or flying-lizards, 303
observations on variability, 460 Drugs from equatorial forest-trees, 245
observations on use and disuse, Duke of York island, pale coloured

insects of, 385
the fertilisation of orchids, 463 islands, reniarkable white plum-
on crossing and hybridity, 463

aged birds of, 388
on cowslip and primrose, 464 Dyes from equatorial forest-trees, 245
on Lythrum salicaria, 465 Dynastidæ, 289
on enemies of seedling plants, 467 probable use of horns of, 372
on oceanic and continental islands,

EARTH-WORKS, North American, 425
on vitality of seeds, 469

Earth-worms, Darwin's work on, 472
on seeds in mud, 470

Easter island, sculptures on, 424
The descent of man, 471

Eciton, genus of foraging ants, 283
Expression of the emotions, 472 Egyptian architecture, introduced, 113
Climbing and Insectivorous Elaps fulvius, E. corallinus, E. lemnis.
plants, 472

catus, E. mipartitus, E. hemi.
on coral reefs and cirripedia,

prichii, 72

Elateridæ, luminous species, perhaps
revolution in thought effected by mimetic, 374
him, 473

Emperor-moth, protective coloration
summary of his work, 473

of, 350
Desert animals, colours of, 37

Ennomos, autumnal colours of this
Deserts on line of tropics, 239
Desmoncus, 249

Epicalia, sexes of, differently coloured,
De Vry, Mr., on the sugar-palm, 251 353
Dews, cause of heavy tropical, 224 Epilobium angustifolium, E. parvi.
Diadema, species of, mimic Danaidæ, florum, 404
61, 62

Epimachinæ, 332
female with male coloration, 79 Equator, cause of uniform high temper-
D, misippus, 79

ature near, 221
D. anomala, 80

short twilight at, 232
Diagram of mean temperature at Bat- Equatorial climate, general features of,
avia and London, 220


genus, 45

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