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T. R. J.-The green variety of Fluor-spar is seldom it ever found in Derbyshire. It is met with in fine, large cubic crystals (truncated) in and about Alston Moor, Cumberland. The miners there generally have a collection of it.
R. D.-Climbing plants do not necessarily all turn the same way-so as "to face the sun.” Lapageria is not an exceptional instance of plants "turning the same way as the sun,” alihough most climbing plants are right-handed, such as scarlet runners and convolvuluses ; others, like the hop, are left-handed.
0. C.-It is not uncommon to find wild snowdrops in the state of those you sent.
E. W. S., AND OTHERS.-You can procure Verrill's “List of British Diptera,” by addressing the author at Newmarket.
We have received No. 107 of Messrs. Wesley & Son's “ Natural History and Scientific Book Circular," Part 2, devoted to botany. We shall esteem it a favour if our correspondents will write with ink instead of lead-pencil.
J. E. Nowers.- Send the paper you mention, and we will do our best with it.
M. B. Davies.- If you will forward the specimen of amber to the publishers of Science-Gossip, we will endeavour to find the kind of insect imbedded in it.
J. H. Ellis.-Get the "Saturday Afternoon Holiday Guide near London," price 6d. It will give you localities for fossils, &c.
* Zoology," Lloyd Morga:'s ditto, Bower's “Botany," Parts ? and 2, Huxley's “Biology," &c., in exchange for good standard works on geology, or a good labelled collection of minerals, rocks, &c., to illustrate lectures on physiography. Offers to-A. E. Salter, Royal Masonic Schools, Wood Green, N.
SCIENCE-Gossip (unbound), 1889 and 1890, complete, 8 num. bers for 1880, and 10 odd numbers, for exchange. Wanted, tran parent molluscan micro-slides, or offers.-J. B. Beckett, 11 Lancaster Road, Great Yarmouth.
Offered, Pholas candida (perfect living shells). Wanted, the rarer species of British land and freshwater shells, also good marine species.-P. R. Shaw, 48 Bidston Road, Oxton, Birkenhead.
"Ibis," bound half-call, for 1881, "Supernatural in Nature" (Reynolds), perfectly clean and good as new, in exchange for eggs, or natural history works especially relating to Derbyshire.- Miskin, Steam Brewery, Bedford.
Spirula Peronii, Waldheimia flavescens, Trigonia Lamarckii, lanthina exigua, and other good shells. Wanted, good foreign or British land and freshwater shells.-Robert Cairns, 159 Queen Street, Hurst, Ashton-under-Lyne.
“Vegetable Substances,” 3 vols. “Lib. Ent. Knowledge," in exchange for text-book on Practical Botany. Also wanted modern work on marine algæ. J. F. Neeve, 68 High Street, Deal.
OFFERED, Cypræa hclvola, C. annulus, C. lynx, Oliva ispidula, 0. tremulina, 0. reticularis. Wanted, Nassa immersa, N. gemmulata, N. papillosa.-W. Jones, jun., 27 Mayton Street, Holloway, London, N.
"Popular Science Review," 1887 and 1888, in 1 vol., "Geo. logical Survey, Canada, Report for 1853-1856," 1 vol. Offers wanted.-J. A. Floyd, 5 Hospital Road, Bury St. Edmunds.
FOREIGN stamps wanted. Will give British shells in return. -T. E. Sclater, Bauk Street, Teignmouth.
OFFERED, birds' and animals' skins, birds' eggs, shells, photographic camera and apparatus, &c., in exchange for foreign stamps.-H. Knights, Beaconsfield Road, Great Yarmouth.
Lima hians, L. Loscomdii, L. Sarsii, L. elliptica, Modiolaria costulata, Crenella rhombea, Arca obliqua, Arinus croulinensis, Ampidesma castaneum, Tellina balaustina, Panopea plicata, Teredo Norvegica, 7. pedicillata, Trochus amabilis, T. Dumingii, T. occidentalis, Rissoa Yeti reysii, Jeffreysia diaphana, Cerithiopsis meta xa, Eulinia steno. stoma, Odostomia decussata, O. conspicua, and Stylifer turtontwanted. Other rare British shells given in exchange.A. J. R. Sclater, 23 Bank Street, Teignmouth, South Devon.
PHOTOGRAPHIC sets. One 4-plate set, one slide, lens and tripod complete: a t-plate set by Lancaster, two double slides, &c., all complete, in real good order. I will exchange for appliances or books on microscopy, biology, brewing, &c.Apply-Horton, Brayford, Lincoln.
EXCHANGES. WANTED, correctly-named hymenoptera and diptera. Good return in land and freshwater shells.-J. W. Williams, 57 Corinne Road, Tufnell Park, N.
Valvata cristata and Ancylus lacustris wanted. Also ex: changes with those who have good collections of the band variations of H. nemoralis and H. hortensis.-Rev. J. W. Horsley, Woolwich.
OFFERED, Xylophaga dorsalis, and pholas with siphons. Wanted, Pecten tigrinus, Striatus testæ and septemradiatus, Lima elliptica, subauriculata and loscombii, Modiolaria nigra and marmorata, Crenella decussata, Lepton nitidum, Lucina spirifera, Isocardia cor., Axinus ferruginosa, Astarte triangularis, Psamobia tellinella and costulata, Lyonsia Norvegica, Panopea plicata, Buccinum Humphreysianum, &c.-J. Smith, Monkredding, Kilwinning.
WANTED, L. C., 8th ed. : 11, 114, 848, 855-858, 861, 862, 867, 870, 983, 1253 and var., 1350, 15966, 15986, 1604, 1808, &c., in good specimens (British only). Will give in exchange 76c, 116, 1470, 1926, 4216, 423, 915 fol., 5396, 5416, 5410, 546, 549, 572, 924, 1310, 1666, 1675, &c.-A. E. Lomax, 56 Vauxhall Road, Liverpool.
Nos. 47-63 (January, 1869, to March, 1870), and Nos. 180253 (December, 1880, to January, 1886) of ŚCIENCE-Gossip in exchange for micro apparatus. Side reflector wanted.-A. Johnston, 184 Slatefield Street, Glasgow.
AUSTRALIAN eocene fossils. A tine collection offered for other fossils.-J. T. Mulder, Moorabool Hotel, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Will any geologist having a knowledge of any accessible fossiliferous geological sections near London, kindly communicate with J. H. Ellis, 1 Pomona Place, Fulham, S.W.?
Named and unnamed fossils (good assortment) given in exchange for foreign stamps. Old issues required.-A. Tarver, 34 Croydon Grove, Croydon.
WANTED, Smith's “Diatoms,” and Lindsay's “British Lichens.” State requirements to-J. Larder, Mercer Row, Louth, Lincs.
WANTED, British land and freshwater shells, or any fossils from any formation not in collection, with names and where found, in exchange for Pholas candida, or pressed British flowers. Address—R. D. Laurie, 19 Willow Bank Road, Birkenhead.
Fifty foreign postage stamps, all different, in exchange for eight different foreign coins.--Stampus, 24 Sidney Grove, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
WANTED, someone who would be kind enough to name a collection of shells (gratis) if sent few at a time. Would be welcome to duplicates.-Edward Buckell, Romsey:
SCIENCE-Gossip for 1887-89, unbound. Wanted, old collection of postage stamps for whole or portion.-D. Thomson, 81 Kyverdale Road, Stoke Newington, London.
New Zealand shells wanted to exchange for shells of other countries, Correspondence invited. Address-G. W. Wright, Karanaghope Road, Auckland, New Zealand.
WANTED, foreign shells and good unmounted micro material. Exchange British shells and choice micro slides of every description. Foreign correspondence invited.
R. Suter, 5 High week Road, Tottenham, London.
British reptiles and batrachians. Wanted, perfect adult living or spirit specimens, in exchange for correctly.named foreign species, or other objects.-G. E. M., 5 Warwick Place West, London, S.W.
"Royal Microscopical Journal” for 1887 and 1888, 2 vols., bound, and four parts, February to August, 1889; also “ The Microscope.” by H. Baker (1769). What offers ?--F. C., 53 Brooke Road, Stoke Newington, N. Davis's “ Biology," Gibson's ditto, Marshall and Hurst's
BOOKS, ETC., RECEIVED FOR NOTICE. "An Introduction to the Study of Botany,” by Dr. E. Aveling (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.).- "Mineral' Resources of the United States," vol. for 1888.-“Monograph of the U. S. Geol. Survey-Lake Bonneville," by G. K. Gilbert.-" Ninth Annual Report of the U. S. Survey for 188788.”—“ Bulletins of the U.S. Geol. Survey,” Nos. 58-60 (all published at Government Printing Office, Washington).-'A Class Book on Light,” by R. E. Steel (London: Methuen & Co.).—"The Foundations of Chemistry,” by E. T. Dixon (London: Geo. Bell & Sons).--"Insect Life," vol. iii. No. 5, by C. V. Riley and L. 0. Howard (Washington: Government Printing Office).--"Report of Wellington College Nat. Science Society, 1890."-"Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society,” February.—"Nature Notes.”—“British Cage Birds," Part 11. -"Le Diatomiste,” No. 4.-" Journal and Proceedings Royal Society of New South Wales.”—“The Medical Annual, 1891." - American Microscopical Journal.”—“The Microscope. "American Naturalist."-"Canadian Entomologist."-" The Naturalist."'_“The Botanical Gazette.”—“The Gentleman's Magazine."-"The Midland Naturalist."-"The Garner,”"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes," &c., &c.
COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 13TH ULT. FROM: J. W. S.-W. J. S.-H. A. M.-T. A. L.-M. P.-H. E. G. -S. A. B.-W. E. C.-J. E. W.-C. 0.-W. J. B.-A. J. J.H. H. M.-C. B. M.-F. L.-E. B.-J. S.-C. P. G.J. W. W.-H. W. B.-W. D. R.-O. H.-M. W.-W. H.A. J.-E. B.-J. S.-F. W. F.-W. F.-J. B. B.-P. R. S. R. C.-J. T. N.-W. J.-J. A. F.-H. K.-S. T. B.-T. S.G. E. S.-J. W. B.-A. G. T.-V. A. L.-G. A. H.A. J. R. S.-J. A.-W. A. G.-F. C.-G. E. M.-R. S. D. 1.-J. W. W.-G. W. W.-A. E. S.-0. C.-G. W. N.E. A. N.-R. D. L.-R. H. J.-R. T.-A. E. L.-J. S.J. T. M.-W. A. G.-J. L.-J.W. S.-A. T.-A. J.-J. A. E. -W. A. T.-Dr. P. Q. K.-J. E. L.-W. E. Č.-T. S.J. W. H.-J. E. N.-M. B. D.-A. A.-H. P. G.-&c., &c.
OW that the happy their lovely purple-headed stems, the sundews sent
time for all bo up numberless bunches of their little white flowers,
I set up a minia embellished my marsh with its small trails of yellow ture marsh thus : flowers and red buds. Then a small green flower I took off with a surprised me one morning by making its appearance trowel, so as not in the centre of a patch of spear-shaped leaves that I to disturb
had supposed to be some sort of grass, a small deep roots, som
me cup-shaped blossom, its corolla five-cleft with a patches of the bog stamen in the curved centre of each division, and a surface, containing shining moist spot in the heart of the cup instead of
plants of the pin a pistil. The number of small mosses was most guicula, others with clusters of different sorts of interesting, some of them of exquisite beauty; they drosera, patches with masses of the tiny bog cam came and went in a constant succession during the panula, also some young plants of the bog asphodel. early spring—March and April—but there was always I packed my patches of bog tightly in a shallow seed some curious plant or other quite unknown to me
and added to them Parnassia palustris sent to me during the whole summer. from Scotland and filling up all the interstices with After a few months the water between the pans growing bits of moss. I then placed my pan in one became the home of numerous small water insects, sufficiently large to allow of two inches between the and two sorts of water snails made their appearance. inner and outer pans on all sides. The holes of the For their benefit and shelter I put a plant of waterouter pan were carefully plugged and filled with water cress in one corner of the water, which speedily threw which oozed naturally up through the holes in the out roots and flourished, making a shelter for the bottom of the inside pan, and placed the whole upon insects. a sunny window-sill. The water drawn up by the I kept the outer pan filled to about an inch under sun kept the contents not only soft and wet, but kept the rim of the inner one, in hot weather it evaporated a warm soft atmosphere about the plants, such as very quickly, and I was careful to keep the water they had in their native habitat. If any of your even with the mark. readers ever put their face down close to a bog to If any of your readers think of setting up a marsh look closely at its exquisite vegetation on a warm for themselves I am sure they will find it a source of sunny day, they will understand the soft warm breath endless interest and pleasure. the plants rejoice in.
NOTE.—The campanula mentioned above I was The little marsh garden succeeded beyond my most unable to identify; it was like C. hederacea, but sanguine expectation, the plants never felt they had smaller, and the blossoms upright instead of been taken from their native land, but grew apace drooping. and blossomed well, the pinguiculas threw up
1. G. No. 317.-MAY 1891.
brata. THE STRUCTURE OF INSECTS IN RE
The relationship between the nervous
system in the vertebrates and the arthropods led him LATION TO THE ORIGIN OF VERTE.
to adopt Dr. Gaskell's hypothesis, inasmuch as it BRATES.
harmonised many things which had formerly ROFESSOR B. T. LOWNE, F.R.C.S., puzzled biologists. For many years it had never
recently delivered at the Royal College of occurred to him to compare any parts of the arthroSurgeons three lectures on the Structure and pods with the functional corresponding parts in the Development of the Skeleton of the Head, the vertebrata. As soon as Dr. Gaskell showed that Nervous System, and Sensory Organs of Insects in there were strong reasons for believing that the relation to Recent Views on the Origin of Vertebrates, central canal of the spinal cord corresponds with the giving the results of work in which he has been primary intestinal canal, the difficulty considerably engaged for at least fifteen or twenty years. His diminished, and many parts of the insect were found views are that the vertebrate and the arthropod to correspond so closely to parts of the vertebrate, stand in a genetic connection with each other. He that it was no longer possible to ignore the corressaid: “If we seek for links uniting these two great pondences between the structures, both in developsub-kingdoms, we must look for them amongst the ment and in relation to their anatomical parts. most generalised groups in each : in the vertebrata
Having given a description of the insect brain, amongst the amphibia, and especially the perenni Professor Lowne referred to the idea that the branchiate forms; in the arthropods, and in the king antennæ of insects were homologues of the ventral crab “Limulus,” which hold 2 zoological position appendages. The evidence against that idea was between the arachnids and the crustacea.” The becoming stronger and stronger every day. They lecturer compared the embryos of the axolotl, as were not lateral appendages, in the usual sense--a figured by Professor Parker with arthropod embryos, fact long since recognised by Professor Balfour,-but and showed many points of similarity. He then
olfactory organs, corresponding point by point, more adverted to the fact that both Drs. Gaskell and
especially in relation to the nerve ganglia, to the Patten had independently arrived at the conclu
olfactory organs of the vertebrata. Neither did the sion that the king crab stands in a genetic relation eyes of the insect represent ventral appendages; they to the vertebrata.
bore no relation whatever to them. The existence of a notochord in the chordata has The lecturer entered at great length into the been looked upon as of primary import in the details of the structure and development of the question of the descent of vertebrates from an in- arthropod brain, and showed that it possesses many vertebrate type. Adopting, however, Gaskell's
points of similarity with the cephalic nerve centres of views, and holding that the central canal of the vertebrates ; that it is developed from three vesicles ; spinal cord represents the arthropod alimentary canal, and that median pineal eyes are developed in the the lecturer sh at some length that the procto wall of the middle vesicle. That there is actually a deum of the insect embryo corresponds with the third ventricle from which the nerve of the median mesenteron of the vertebrata ; and he held that a
eyes, ocelli, arises. notochord should rather be regarded as a secondary The lecturer finally dealt with the development of character, resulting from an invagination of the
The sensory organs of arthropods were epiblast, than as a structure of a high morphological usually developed by the process of invagination of significance; and he showed that a rod of cartilage, the epiblast, just in the same way as the sense similar to a notochord, is actually developed on the capsules of vertebrates were developed. The eyes dorsal surface of the invaginated head capsule of the first appeared as a single layer of cells in a kind of Llowfly larva, whilst those structures in invertebrates cup-shaped cavity, divided into at least two layers ; which have been supposed to represent a notochord from the surface layer a series of lenses was developed have a similar origin. He pointed out that the about 4000 to 6000 in number, instead of one great structure which supported the nerve centres in lens. In some insects there were as many as 24,000 Limulus, is composed of cartilage very like the to 30,000 separate lenses. These form the compound cartilage of the vertebrata, and it could only, with
The lenses were very remarkable in their great difficulty, be distinguished from it. Professor structure, and appeared to consist of a stroma very Ray Lankester was the first who made out this much like the stroma of the red blood-corpuscle of a peculiar form of cartilage, which he said was developed vertebrate, and a substance which has a very highly from the mesoblast ; while the lecturer, judging from refractive power, and which is fluid and soluble in the relation the structure bears to the same parts in ether. This substance gradually passes out through insects, believed it to be an epiblastic structure. the stroma after the insect dies, and impregnates the This led him to accept the view put forward by Dr. other tissues, but in a living insect the cornea has the Patten in America and by Dr. Gaskell in this country, same kind of brilliancy as in the vertebrate ; but as that the ventral surface of the anterior somites of the soon as the insect dies the brilliancy rapidly fades, arthropods represents the basis cranii of the verte and in a quarter of an hour it has become quite dull.
which is quite incapable of explaining vision in an insect which has perhaps only fifteen or twenty lenticles of the eye, some only having five or six, although others have as many as 24,000 to 30,000. Even in those which have the largest number, the acuity of vision is not sufficiently explained by Müller's theory.
The stroma consists of proteid substances, but as development progresses the albuminous material gives place to this highly refractive, probably oily material, and then the lenticular portion of the cornea becomes reticular aster having been treated with such reagents as will dissolve out this interfibrillar substance. About twelve years ago, when examining the lateral portions of the compound eye of the lobster, he continually found thickenings beneath the rod-like bodies which united the corneal portion of the eye with the nerve centres beneath, and he became convinced that no nerve structure passed through this membrane, and then it struck him that, in trying to make out that this structure was retinal, he was doing very much the same thing as examining the minute structure of the crystalline lens of the vertebrata, and coming to the conclusion that the rod-like fibres of that lens were in themselves not merely a portion of the refractive structure, but were actually the terminals of the optic nerve. He regards the whole of the structure developed from the superficial epi. blast as a refracting organ, and with that view he had termed it the dioptron, or the refractive portion of the compound eye. In some insects which do not undergo metamorphosis the great compound eye is at first small, and consists only of a few facets, but a new portion of the eye is developed at each shedding of the integument. The nerve also gradually passes to the surface, encircles the old nerve, and forms a new retina. This goes on until at the last the optic nerve is found very much spread out. During the last shedding of the skin the whole of the retina undergoes degeneration, and a new one)! takes its place; so that new sets of facets are developed at each skin shedding, and a new retina is developed from the nerve centres beneath the dioptron.
In expounding the various theories of insect vision, the lecturer explained that Müller's theory of “ mosaic vision” was not in itself tenable, because, in the first place, the images produced would be blurred, and surfaces of eight or ten inches square, would only be visible as points at very moderate distances-say, ten
or twenty feet.
The theory which the lecturer propounded was that an inverted sub-corneal image was formed beneath each corneal facet, and the great rods of the dioptron produced a magnified erect image of that portion of the subcorneal image which lies in the axis of each. The integration of these images produces the retinal image upon what he had described as the “neuron.” This image had actually been demonstrated by Sigismund Exner of Vienna, who first showed it at the Cologne Congress of Naturalists. The “mosaic view,” or Müller's theory announced about 1826, assumed that the tubes of the dioptron only permitted axial light to pass through them ; so that each tube of the dioptron produces one distinct stimulation of the nerve, and there could only be as many separate sensations of light as there are tubes to the dioptron, a supposition
[Continued from p. 88.) THE upper reaches of our lane are much fre
quented by that lovely and docile bird the goldfinch (Carduelis elegans), for here the thistleheads afford him many a dainty meal ; his headquarters are, however, in my garden hedge, where, secure from harm, he builds, and delights us with his soft and cheerful strain. As sweet, though less varied, is the song of the beautiful plumaged chaffinch (Fringilla cælebs), he, too, is a frequenter of our lane, and throughout the early spring and summer months pours out the gladness of his little heart from daybreak till night casts her dark mantle on all around. Nor must I forget my sober-coated protégémost innocent of all the feathered tribethe hedge-warbler (Accentor modularis). Use him very gently, dear reader, he is a most lovable bird ; soft and low, his plaintive song correctly indicates his innocent nature. Drop for him the tiny crumb. I love his presence, and glad am I to think he is influenced by no migratory impulse. Need it be said that that harmless bird whose trustful nature leads him to seek man's companionship-his little, bright-eyed friend, sweet robin red-breast (Erythaca rubecula) attends us in our garden-strolls, and claims his daily share of crumbs ; carolling his bright song by way of thanks. To him, as it is to others, our garden is a sanctuary, and well he seems to love it. The yellow-ammer (Emberiza citrinella), too, he loves the hedges and pastures of our lane ; but he, too, in our garden hedges and ivy builds, nor do his oft-repeated notes pall on my ear. His favourite perch is the vane of a weather-cock upon the top of my summer-house, from whence, hour after hour, he trills his little varied song ; this, too, when the songs of other birds have long been hushed. I always welcome the advent of that tiny bird the chiff-chaff (Sylvia hippolais), together with that of the whitethroat (Curruca cinerea). Not much have they to boast of in the way of song, but their sweet accompaniment to the richer melodies of other feathered choristers make up the sum of a glorious concert ; whilst high above the much-besoiled earth, the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the woodlark (A. arborea) pour out at “Heaven's gate” their joyous hymns of praise.
Adjoining my garden is an arable field, and beyond, and yet beyond are others, and here the former loves
to nest, and through the live-long day sings in the very numerous --a pair of the former nest in the ivy. cloudless, or sparsely.clouded sky. Well hath a writer clothed branches of a sycamore in my orchard-hedge, designated song the joy of birds-a happy definition, hard by the house. for surely 'tis the expression of their happiness.
A host of rarer visitants must needs be unmentioned. But linger I must not o'er a subject so fraught with Enough has been told to inform the naturalist that pleasant associations, and scarcely dare I venture to the avifauna of our lane is not a limited one. Nor enumerate birds so common in our lane, and skirting is animal life restricted to two-footed things. The fields and orchards as the linnet (Linota cannabina), nimble rabbit, scared by my footstep may oft be seen wren (Troglodytes Europæus), willow-wren (Sylvia tro scampering up the lane-the agile squirrel ventures to chilus), pied wag-tail (Motacilla Yarrellii), greenfinch leave his woods in search of hazel-nuts-and the (Coccothraustes chloris), bullfinch (Pyrrhula vulgaris), freshly-raised hillocks of loam in the pastures, plainly spotted fly-catcher (Muscicapa grisola), redstart indicate the presence of a silent worker—the sleek(Phænicura ruticilla), grasshopper warbler (Salicaria coated mole (Talpe Europeus). Those much locustella), and such well-known birds as the siskin, persecuted creatures, the hedgehogs, abound in the wood-pigeon, ringdove, starling, meadow pipit, meadows; and into our orchard, the past summer, I
cuckoo, the ubiquitous sparrow, swallow, martin, and swift. Those restless and beautiful-plumaged birds the greater and the blue titmice swarm in my garden, and put my friendship to a severe test when my peas and pears are in season ; whilst the cole titmouse (Parus ater) ever finds a welcome. Not seldom the screech-owl pours out his doleful plaint from trees hard by, * and the jay (Garrulus glandarius) visits my windows to gather the berries of the cotoneaster. The nuthatch (Sitta Europæa), too, is one of our most familiar birds, and his frequent tap, tap, tap, assures us of his presence even when his cry of “chu-whit” cannot be heard. Magpies, rooks and hawks are
have good reason to believe, ventured a badger, or badgers, courageous enough to face an armed host of wasps ; excavating large cavities, and tearing to fragments the nests—presumably to devour the grubs. No smaller animal could have excavated so large a quantity of earth in a single night. I have not, however, seen one, but learn that a sporting friend has several skins of these animals, all of which he has shot in this neighbourhood. The long-tailed fieldmouse (Mus Sylvaticus), the short-tailed field-mouse (Arvicola arvensis), and shrews are wonderfully numerous--and that tiniest of four-footed creatures the elegant harvest mouse (Micromys minutus), is common in the fields adjoining my garden. A mere atom of four-footed animality is it, and a stranger to fear, for on the several occasions that I have come
* Her nest is in a yew tree some few yards from the bottom of my garden.