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Comparisons of the quality of gas are also made by the jet photometer, an apparatus which depends on the principle that gas of uniform quality burned at invariable pressure, through a small orifice, yields a flame of uniform height. If the flame is to be maintained at a uniform height the pressure in the pipes must increase as the quality of the gas decreases. The jet photometer forms a ready and convenient means of ascertaining any variations in the quality of gas supply; but it is not available for purposes of comparison.

septic, is the basis of many valuable dyes; autaracens forms the source of the now most important dye, artificial alizarin; and most of the substances have other applications of minor importance.

The relative position and value of the various products of the gas manufacture is exhibited by the following condensed statement of the position and operations of the various London gas companies during the year 1875Total capital of the companies Capital called up. Total gas rental. Cost of coal..

for tar

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for ammonia.

Analysis of gas does not yield so satisfactory evidence of its illuminating value as photometric comparisons, but various methods of ascertaining the proportion of lumini Receipts for coke and breeze. ferous olefines contained in any gas are occasionally practised. The absorption of the heavy hydrocarbons by chlorine or by bromine, and Dr Fyfe's durability test. are of theoretical rather than practical importance

Residual Products.-Under this term are embraced coke, ammoniacal liquor, and gas-tar, all of which are sources of income in the gas manufacture. Indeed the value of these products has increased so rapidly of late years, and they now form the basis of manufactures of such consequence, that the residual products can scarcely be regarded as of secondary importance, and they will certainly play no small part in determining the future maintenance of gas-lighting in the face of other competing systems. The change in the valuation of ammonia and tar liquors is well illustrated by the circumstance that, during the year 1878, the corporation of Bradford was offered £10,000 per annum for these products, which about eight years previously had been disposed of for a yearly payment of £800.

Coke is a substance which varies much in value, according to local circumstances, and the nature of the coal distilled. When shale is used, there remains in the retorts an ashy residue which is absolutely worthless; and the coke of cannel coal is also comparatively of little value, owing to the amount of ash it yields. Indeed, in Scotch works where ashy cannel alone is distilled, the retorts have to be partly fired with common coal. The coke obtained from the distillation of caking coal, on the other hand, is of high value, and after a supply is set aside for heating the retorts there generally remains from 65 to 85 per cent. of the whole amount to be disposed of by sale.

Ammoniacal liquor is more abundantly produced by the distillation of cannel than by common coal, from 18 to 22 b of ammonia, as sulphate, being obtained from each ton of cannel distilled, as against about 16 b derived from ordinary coal. Gas liquor is now almost the sole source of ammonia, which, among other purposes, is very largely employed as an agricultural fertilizer.

Tar liquor yields by destructive distillation a wide range of products possessing a great and increasing industrial value. The cannel coals, and other varieties rich in volatile matter, are also the kinds which yield the largest proportion of tar. In the distillation of coal-tar, after some ammoniacal and watery vapours have been given off, there is distilled over a proportion of highly volatile fluid hydrocarbons which consist principally of benzol; and afterwards a large amount of a light oil, known as coal naphtha (also a mixture of various hydrocarbons), is obtained. At this point the residue in the retort is called artificial asphalt, and as such is a commercial article; but if the heat is forced, and the distillation continued, a large amount of "heavy" or "dead oils" is obtained, and the mass left in the still is "hard pitch." The heavy oils are a mixture of naphthalin, phenol (carbolic acid), cresol (cresylic acid), and anthracene,


The benzol obtained in the first stage of the distillation is the basis of aniline and its various dyes; naphtha is used as a solvent, and for lighting and other purposes; carbolic acid, in addition to its employment as an anti

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Gas produced
Gas sold

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.14,888,133 thousand feet.
..13,622,639 19
1,505,000 tons.
1,417,654 chaldrons.

Coal carbonized (4 per cent. cannel)
Coke produced, 84 bushels per ton ........
Coke used as fuel in retorts, 31 per cent.,
Coke sold, 69 per cent.

Average yield of gas per ton of coal

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9,892 cubic feet.

GAS FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN COAL. Petroleum-Gas.-Petroleum being a substance obtained in great abundance, notably in America, is used, not only directly as an illuminating agent, but also for the production of gas; and as an enricher of common coal-gas it is applied at several works in New York and Brooklyn. Its preparation is effected by distilling it first at a low temperature into a rich vapour, which, when passed into highly heated retorts, is converted into permanent gas of an illuminating power about five times greater than common gas, and which is, moreover, absolutely free from ammonia, sulphur compounds, and carbonic acid. On account of its great richness, petroleum-gas must be consumed in special burners of very fine aperture, at a rate varying from 5 to 2 feet per hour.

Oil-Gas. In the early stages of gas manufacture many attempts were made to substitute gas distilled from inferior oils for coal-gas. The oil was distilled by allowing it to percolate into highly heated retorts, in which a quantity of coke or a like porous solid was placed, and the distillate was a richly luminiferous gas free from hurtful impurities. Although oil in this form yields a convenient and powerful illuminant, its direct combustion is much more economical; and as all oils and fats are highly valuable for many purposes besides illumination, they cannot compete with gas coal as a source of gas. Nevertheless the New York Gas Light Company manufactured oil-gas exclusively from 1824 till 1828, and sold their product at $10 per 1000 feet. The distillation of suint from wool washing, and of recovered spent soap, are examples of. the application of oleaginous substances for gas-making.

Resin-Gas.-In its treatment and results resin, as a source of gas, is very similar to oil. It yields a pure gas of great illuminating power, and for twenty years (1828-48) it was supplied in New York at $7 per 1000 feet. Previous to the civil war of 1861-65 it was a good deal used on the European continent.

Wood-Gas.-The original experiments of Lebon, it will be remembered, were made with wood-gas, but he failed to obtain from his product an illuminating power that would compare with that of coal-gas. Lebon's failure was in later years shown to arise from distilling at a temperature which gave off chiefly carbonic acid with non-luminous carbonic oxide and light carburetted hydrogen, leaving in the retort a tar which the application of a higher heat would have resolved into highly luminiferous gases and vapours. Pettenkofer, who pointed out the fact, devised a system of wood gas making in which the products of the low-heat

distillation were volatilized by passing through a range of red-hot pipes; but now it is found that ordinary retorts, properly heated and fed with small charges, auswer perfectly well for the operation. Wood-gas, owing to its high specific gravity and the proportion of carbonic oxide it contains, must be burned at considerable pressure, in specially constructed burners with a large orifice. It is largely used in Germany, Switzerland, and Russia, where wood is more easily obtained than coal. It was used at Philadelphia gasworks in 1856, where it was affirmed to be cheaper and of greater luminosity than coal-gas.

Peat-Gas is evolved under circumstances the same as occur in connexion with the wood-gas manufacture, but the amount of moisture contained in peat is a serious obstacle to its successful use in this as in most other directions. Earnest and persistent efforts have been made to use peat as a source of gas, but these have met but little commercial success. To a limited extent it is used in various German factories which happen to be situated in the immediate neighbourhood of extensive peat deposits.

Carburetted Gas.-Under this head may be embraced all the methods for impregnating gaseous bodies with vapours of fluid or solid hydrocarbons. The objects aimed at in the carburetting processes are-(1) to increase the illuminating power of ordinary coal-gas; (2) to render non-luminous combustible gases, such as water-gas, luminiferous; and (3) so to load non-combustible gases with hydrocarbon vapour as to make the combination at once luminiferous and & supporter of combustion. The plans which have been proposed, and the patents which have been secured for processes of carburetting, coming under one or other of these heads, have been almost endless; and while the greater part of them have failed to obtain commercial success, they are sufficient to indicate that there is still a possibility of doing much to increase the effect and cheapen the cost of production of gas. Further, although for extensive use none of the gas-making plans can compete with coal-gas manufacture, some of them are of much value for private establishments, country houses, factories, and similar places, where connexion with coal-gas works cannot be obtained.

The carburetting of common coal-gas with the vapour of benzol obtained by the distillation of gas-tar was originally suggested by Lowe as early as 1832, and subsequently by the late Charles Mansfield, who showed that by passing gas over sponge saturated with benzol a very great addition was made to the illuminating power; and he introduced an apparatus by which common gas could thus be benzolized at a point very near the burner. The facts, however, that benzol is a highly inflammable liquid, that the benzolized gas varied in richness owing to the gas taking up much more benzol when the carburetter was newly charged than it did afterwards, and consequently that it often produced a smoky flame, and that sulphur compounds accumulated in the carburetter, as well as the trouble connected with charging the apparatus, all combined to prevent the extensive introduction of the process. In later times the value of benzol for aniline manufacture and other purposes would have been a serious bar to its use. Mr Bowditch introduced the use of a heavier hydrocarbon-a mixture of naphthalin with cymol-which he called carbolin, and which possesses the advantage of giving off no inflammable vapour at ordinary temperatures, and is, moreover, a substance for which no commercial demand exists. The carburetting appliance had to be placed in immediate proximity to the burners, and either heated by them direct, or by a small subsidiary jet, as the vapour of naphthalin solidifies on a very small fall of temperature and chokes up pipes. Carburetting by means of a solid block of naphthalin introduced into a gas-tight box. and partly volatilized by a strip of copper passing from

the burner flame into the box, has recently been proposed, and is now being carried into effect with every prospect of great increase of illuminating power, and consequent economy, by the Albo-Carbon Light Company.

The efforts to introduce carburetted water-gas have been numerous and persistent; and the sanguine statements of the various inventors have led to the loss of much capital through experiments undertaken on a great scale which have always resulted unfavourably. The whole of the proposed processes depended on the decomposition of water by passing it over highly-heated surfaces in presence of glowing charcoal, whereby free hydrogen, carbonic oxide, and carbonic acid gases are produced, the carbonic acid being eliminated by a subsequent process of purification. The combustible gas so obtained was in earlier experiments charged with luminiferous hydrocarbons by being passed into a retort in which coal, resin, or oil was being distilled, as in Selligue's and other processes; or, as in White's hydrocarbon process, both steam and coal were treated together in a special form of retort. Since the introduction of American petroleum, however, most methods of carburetting water-gas have been by impregnat. ing it with the vapour of gasolin, the highly volatile portion of petroleum which comes over first in its distillation for the preparation of "kerosene" lamp oil. Water-gas has been proposed, not only as an illuminating agent, but at least as much as a source of heat; but the heat expended in the decomposition of water is much greater than can in practice be given out by the resulting gases.

Several of the processes introduced for rendering ordinary atmospheric air at once combustible and luminiferous, by saturating it with the vapour of gasolin, have been so satisfactory that this air-gas is now largely used both in America and Europe for lighting mansions, churches, factories, and small rural districts. The general principle of the airmachines will be understood from the following. description of the "sun auto-pneumatic" apparatus (Hearson's patent), which is in extensive use throughout Great Britain. Hearson's machine is cylindrical in form (fig. 23), and is

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the elevator mechanism are set in operation by being mounted on a spindle which passes through and outside the cylinder, and is turned either by a weight attached to a length of steel wire or, where convenient, by hydraulic power. The turrets contain (1) a gas-holder which supplies gas while the machine is being wound up, should any light be then burning, and (2) a governor to regulate the pressure of the issuing gas. The apparatus works only when gas is being burned, and moves in proportion to the demand on it up to its limit of production. There is therefore no necessity for storing, as indeed would be inpracticable with this form of carburetted gas. The function of the blower is not only, by its revolution, to press forward the gas into the supply pipes, but also to carburet the air by exposing continually renewed thin films of the liquids to its influence on the moist metallic surfaces. The revolution of the blower, moreover, maintains an unceasing agitation in the gasolin, vaporizes the liquid in an equal and uniform manner, and keeps the entire volume at the same temperature throughout. The quantity of gasolin operated on being comparatively large, the temperature of the liquid decreases only slowly, and is in ordinary conditions sufficiently recouped from the external air to keep it in good working order throughout any length of time.

M. Tessie du Motay, who for many years advocated a modified system of lime-light, latterly abandoned that system in favour of a form of carburetted gas. His system necessitates two sets of pipes and a special form of burner,— one pipe supplying ordinary coal-gas or highly carburetted hydrogen, and the other leading in a supply of oxygen, whereby a powerful, steady, white light is maintained at the burner. Philipps of Cologne has also utilized oxygen in a comparatively pure state for burning in a lamp with a wick a mixture of heavy hydrocarbons, which in common air would burn with a very smoky flame.

Other sources of gas, such as tar, and even fæcal matters, have been proposed; and many modified forms of gaseous illumination have been brought forward which, even to name here, would occupy space out of proportion to their importance.


The processes involved in the preparation, distribution, and consumption of coal-gas still remain essentially the same as when the system was first elaborated; but in all details of the industry numerous improvements have been introduced, resulting in marked economy and efficiency of the system. In the meantime new applications of importance have becu found for coal-gas in connexion with heating and cooking, and as a motive power in gas-engines. Further, collateral industries have been superadded to the gas manufacture, which in themselves are of such value and importance that, were the distillation of coal as a source of artificial light to cease, it would certainly continue to be practised as a source of the raw materials of the coal-tar colours, and of carbolic acid, &c. Were coal-gas to cease to be made primarily and principally for artificial illumina tion, and to become more a heating and cooking agent, or were it to fall into the position of being a mere collateral product of the manufacture of tar, it is certain that the manufacturing processes would be very materially modified. Costly cannel-gas, with its high illuminating power, is no better suited for a gas engine than common gas; and for heating purposes a much greater yield of gas might be obtained, which, in burning, would evolve more heat than is sought in making illuminating gas. But as inatters now stand, the fact that illumination, heat, motive power, and dye-stuffs are all obtained by means of the manufacture as

at present conducted is a consideration of much weight in dealing with rival systems of artificial lighting.

Throughout the whole experience of gas manufacture the efforts of inventors have be. n directed, not only to improve the manufacture of coal-gas, but also to supersede its ordinary processes, and to supplant it by gas yielded by other raw materials or by new systems of illumination. The persistent efforts which have been made to improve coal-gas, and the success which many of the plans exhibit in their experimental stage, warrant the conclusion that the processes and results of the manufacture are still susceptible of much improvement. When it is considered how exceedingly small is the total proportion of illuminants in coal-gas to the bulk of the materials dealt with, it is not difficult to imagine that modifications of processes may be devised whereby a great increase of lighting effect might be practically available, and at the same time a greater percentage of the total heat-giving power of the coal secured for domestic and manufacturing purposes. Notwithstanding the confessed imperfections of the system of coal gas-making,-the evil odours which attach to the works, the yet more offensive exhalations given off from streets through which the main-pipes are led, the destructive accidents which occasionally occur from gas explosions, and the heat and sulphurous fumes evolved during its combustion,-not one of the numerous substitutes which have been proposed has been able to stand in competition against it in any large town or city where coal is a marketable commodity. As against the system of electric lighting, which is now being brought into competition with it, the ultimate fate of gas may be different. It may be regarded as already demonstrated that for busy thoroughfares-almost, it may be said, for open-air lighting generally-and for large halls and enclosed spaces, electric lighting will, in the near future, supersede gas. The advantages of the electric light for such positions in brilliancy, penetration, and purity are so manifest that its use must ultimately prevail, irrespective of the question of comparative cost, and of the fact that municipalities and wealthy corporations have an enormous pecuniary stake in gasproperty. That the electric light will be equally available for domestic illumination is, however, not yet so certain; and until it is demonstrated that a current may be subdivided practically without limit, that the supply can adapt itself to the demand with the same ease that the pressure of gas is regulated, and that the lights can be raised and lowered equally with gas-lights-till these and other conditions are satisfied, the disuse of gas-lighting is still out of sight. Should these conditions, however, be satisfied, there can be little doubt that gas-lighting will enter on a period of severe competition and struggle for existence; and in the end the material which at one time was regarded as a most troublesome and annoying wastethe gas-tar-will, in all probability, exercise a decisive influence on the continuance of the gas manufacture.

Bibliography.-Clegg, A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal-Gas, new edition, London, 1869; Hughes, A Treatise on Gas- Works a Manufacturing Coal-Gas, 5th edition by Richards, London, 18.; Richards, A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal-Gas, London, 1877; Accum, Practical Treatise on Gas-Light, 4th ed., 1818; Journal for GasLighting, London; Bowditch, The Analysis, Technical Valuat and Purification of Coal-Gas, London, 1867; Banister, Gas Manipulation, new ed. by Sugg, London, 1867; Servier, Traité pratique de la fabrication et de la distribution du gaz d'éclairage, Paris, 1868; Schilling, Handbuch der Steinkohlen-Gas-Beleuchtung, Munich, 1860; Payen, Précis, de Chemie industrielle, 6th edition, Paris, 1877; Diehl and Illgen, Gasbeleuchtung und Gasverbrauch, Iserlohn, 1872; Ilgen, Die Gasindustrie der Gegenwart, Leipsic, 1874; Bolley, Technologie, vol. i., Brunswick, 1862; Wagner's Jahresbericht der chemischen Technologie, Leipsic; Journal für Gasbeleuchtung und verwandte Beleuchtungsart, Munich; Reissig, Handbuch der Holz und Torf Gas-Fabrikation, Munich, 1863. (J. PA.)

GASCOIGNE, GEORGE (c. 1535–1577), one of the great pioneers of Elizabethan poetry, was born about 1535-as is believed, in Westmoreland. He was the son and heir of Sir John Gascoigne. He studied at Cambridge, and was admitted to Gray's Inn in 1555. His youth was unsteady, and his father disinherited him. In 1565 he had written his tragi. comedy of The Glass of Government, not printed until 1576. In 1566 his first published verses were prefixed to a book called The French Littleton, and he brought out on the stage of Gray's Inn two very remarkable dramas, Supposes, the earliest existing English play in prose, and Jocasta, the first attempt to naturalize the Greek tragedy. Of the latter only the second, third, and fourth acts were from his hand. Soon after this he married. In 1572 there was published A Hundred sundry Flowers bound up in one small Posy, a pirated collection of Gascoigne's lyrics, he having started in March of that year to serve as a volunteer under the Frince of Orange. He was wrecked on the coast of Holland and nearly lost his life, but obtained a captain's commission, and acquired considerable military reputation. An intrigue, however, with a lady in the Hague, nearly cost him his life. He regained his position, and fought well at the siege of Middleburg, but was captured under the walls of Leyden, and sent back to England after an imprisonment of four months. In 1575 he issued an authoritative edition of his poems under the name of Posies. In the summer of the same year he devised a poetical entertainment for Queen Elizabeth, then visiting Kenilworth; this series of masques was printed in 1576 as The Princely Pleasures. Later on in 1575 he greeted the queen at Woodstock with his Tale of Hemetes, and presented her on next New Year's day with the MS. of the same poem, which is now in the British Museum. He completed in 1576 his two most important works, The Complaint of Philomene, and The Steel Glass, the first of which had occupied him since 1562; they were printed in a single volume. Later on in the same year he published A delicate Diet for dainty-mouthed Drunkards. He fell into a decline and died at Stamford on the 7th of October 1577. We are indebted for many particulars of his life to a rare poem published in the same year by George Whetstone, and entitled A Remembrance of the Wellemployed Life and Godly End of George Gascoigne, Esquire. In his poem of The Steel Glass, in blank verse, Gascoigne introduced the Italian style of satire into our literature. He was a great innovator in point of metrical art, and he prefixed to the work in question a prose essay on poetry, which contains some very valuable suggestions. His great claim to remembrance was well summed up in the next generation by Thomas Nash, who remarked in his preface to Greene's Menaphon, that "Master Gascoigne is not to be abridged of his deserved esteem, who first beat the path to that perfection which our best poets aspired to since his departure, whereto he did ascend by comparing the Italian with the English." The works of Gascoigne were collected n 1587, and partly republished in 1810 and 1821. The best modern edition of the principal poems is that edited, with full bibliographical notes, by E. Arber in 1868.

GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM, was chief-justice of England in the reign of Henry IV. Both history and tradition testify to the fact that he was one of the great lawyers who in times of doubt and danger have asserted the principle that the head of the state is subject to law, and that the traditional practice of public officers, or the expressed voice of the nation in parliament, and not the will of the monarch or any part of, the legislature, must guide the tribunals of the country. The judge was a descendant of an ancient Yorkshire family. The date of his birth is uncertain, but it appears from the Year Books that he practised as an advocate in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II. On the banishment of Henry of

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Lancaster, Gascoigne was appointed one of his attorneys, and soon after Henry's accession to the throne was made chief-justice of the Court of King's Bench. After the suppression of the rising in the north in 1405, Henry eagerly pressed the judge to pronounce sentence upon Scrope, the archbishop of York, and the earl marshal Thomas Mowbray, who had been implicated in the revolt. The judge absolutely refused to do so, asserting the right of the prisoners to be tried by their peers. Although both were afterwards executed, the chief-justice had no part in the transaction. The often told tale of his committing the Prince of Wales to prison has of course been doubted by modern critics, but it is both picturesque and characteristic. The judge had directed the punishment of one of the prince's riotous companions, and the prince who was present and enraged at the sentence struck or grossly insulted the judge. Gascoigne immediately committed him to prison, using firm and forcible language, which brought him to a more reasonable mood, and secured his voluntary obedience to the sentence. The king is said to have approved of the act, but there appears to be good ground for the supposition that Gascoigne was removed from his post or resigned soon after the accession of Henry V. He died in 1419, and was buried in the parish church of Harewood in Yorkshire. Some biographies of the judge have stated that he died in 1412, but this is clearly disproved by Foss in his Lives of the Judges; and although it is clear that Gascoigne did not hold office long under Henry V., it is not absolutely impossible that the scene in the fifth act of the second part of Shakespeare's Henry IV. has some historical basis, and that the judge's resignation was voluntary.

GASCONY, an old province in the S.W. of France, nearly identical with the Novempopulania or Aquitania Tertia of the Romans. Its original boundaries cannot be stated with perfect accuracy, but it included what are now the departments of Landes, Gers, and Hautes-Pyrénées, and parts of those of Haute-Garonne and Ariége. Its capital was Auch. About the middle of the 6th century there was an incursion into this region of Vascons or Vasques from Spain, but whether of a hostile kind or not is uncertain; but as the original inhabitants, in common with those of the rest of Aquitaine were also Vasques, it is probable that the province owes its name Gascony less to this new incursion than to the fact that its inhabitants continued so long to maintain their independence. In 602 they suffered defeat from the Franks and were compelled to pay tribute, but they continued to be governed by their own hereditary dukes, and gradually extended the limits of their dominions to the Garonne. The province was overrun by Charlemagne but never completely subdued, and in 872 it formally renounced the authority of the French kings; but through the extinction of the male line of hereditary dukes of Gascony in 1054 it came into the possession of the dukes of Guienne (or Aquitaine), with which province its history was from that time identified (see AQUITANIA and GUIENNE).

GASKELL, ELIZABETH CLEGHORN (1810-1865), one of the most distinguished of England's women-novelists, was born at Cheyne Row, Chelsea, September 29, 1810. She was the second child of William Stevenson, of whom an account is given in the Annual Biography and Obituary for 1830. Mr Stevensou, who began life as classical tutor in the Manchester Academy, and preached also at Doblane, near that town, afterwards relinquished his ministry and became a farmer in East Lothian; and later, on the failure of his farming enterprises, he kept a boarding-house for students in Drummond Street, Edinburgh, where he also became editor of the Scots Magazine, and contributed largely to the Edinburgh Review. At the time of his daughter's birth Mr Stevenson had been appointed Keeper

of the Records to the Treasury, and was living in Chelsea, still a diligent contributor to various periodicals of the day. Mrs Stevenson, Mrs Gaskell's mother, was a Miss Holland, of Sandlebridge in Cheshire, an aunt of the late Sir Henry Holland. She died at the birth of her daughter, who was in a manner adopted, when she was only a month old, by her mother's sister, Mrs Lumb. This lady had married a wealthy Yorkshire gentleman, but a few months after her marriage, and before the birth of her child, discovered that her husband was insane, and fled from him to her old home in the little market town, of Knutsford, in Cheshire. Mrs Lumb's own daughter having died, she transferred all her affection to the little Elizabeth, between whom and her there existed through life the strongest bond of affection. During Elizabeth's childhood at Knutsford she was visited now and then by her sailor-brother; but while she was still a girl he went to India, where he somewhat mysteriously, and without any apparent motive, disappeared, and all further trace of him was lost. She was afterwards sent for about two years to a school kept by a Miss Byerley at Stratford-on-Avon, and on leaving school went for a time to live with her father, who had married again. Under his guidance she continued her studies, reading with him in history and literature, and working, chiefly by herself at Latin, Italian, and French, in all of which she was in later life proficient. Having tenderly nursed her father in his last illness, she returned to her aunt at his death in 1829; and, with the exception of one or two visits to Newcastle, London, and Edinburgh, she continued to live at Knutsford till her marriage. She had at this time a reputation for great beauty; and even in later life her exquisitely-shaped soft eyes retained their light, and her smile its wonderful sweetness. Her marriage to the Rev. William Gaskell, M.A., of Cross Street Chapel, Manchester, took place August 30, 1832, at Knutsford church; and during the earlier years of her married life Mrs Gaskell lived very quietly in Manchester, surrounded by a few intimate and cultured friends, and devoting all her time and abilities to the cares of a necessarily frugal household. Among these friendships, that with Miss Catherine Winkworth and her sisters was perhaps the longest and most cherished. From the first, although she never visited the poor as a member of any organized society, she sought by all means in her power to relieve the misery which, in a town like Manchester, she was constantly witnessing. She gave the most devoted help and tender sympathy to such cases of individual distress as came under her notice. She assisted Mr Travers Madge in his missionary work amongst the poor, and was the friend and helper of Thomas Wright, the prison philanthropist. She also made several individual friendships among poor people, and knew personally one or two types of the Chartist working-man. She was specially interested in the young working-women of Manchester, and for some years held a weekly evening class at her own house for talking with them and teaching them. Of Mrs Gaskell's seven children, two were still-born, and another, her only son, born between the third and fourth of her four living daughters, died at the age of ten mouths. The death of this baby is said to have been the cause of Mrs Gaskell's beginning to write, when she was urged by her husband to do so, in order to turn her thoughts from her own grief. She began by writing a short paper called "An Account of Clopton Hall," for William Howitt's Visits to Remarkable Places. This was followed by one or two short stories, such as the "Sexton's Hero," for the People's Journal; and then she wrote Mary Barton, a Tale of Manchester Life. On its completion, she sent it to one publisher in London who rejected it unread, and then to Messrs Chapman and Hall, who, after keeping the manuscript for a year without acknowledgment; wrote to her accepting the novel for

publication, and offering the authoress £100 for the copyright. The appearance of Mary Barton in 1848 caused great excitement in Manchester, and a strong partisanship was felt for and against its anonymous author. After its publication Mrs Gaskell paid several visits in London, where she made many friends, among whom we may mention Dickens, Forster, Mrs Jameson, Lord Houghton, Mrs Stowe, Ruskin, and Florence Nightingala Her friendship with Charlotte Bronte also dates from about this time, when the two authoresses met at the house of Sir James and Lady Kay Shuttleworth, near Bowness, in Westmoreland, and Mrs Gaskell received her first impressions of the shy "little lady in a black silk gown," who afterwards became personally her dear friend,—although, from a literary point of view, they could hardly help being rivals,-and the story of whose life, when it was ended, Mrs Gaskell was destined to write with such consummate care and tender appreciation. But Mary Barton was to prove only the first of a series of scarcely less popular publications, which appeared either independently or in periodicals such as Household Words. It was followed in 1850 by The Moorland Cottage. Cranford and Ruth appeared in 1853; North and South, in 1855; The Life of Charlotte Bronte, in 1857; Round the Sofa, in 1859; Right at Last, in 1860; Sylvia's Lovers, in 1863; and Cousin Phillis and Wives and Daughters, in 1865.

During these years-years of increasing worldly prosperity and literary distinction-Mrs Gaskell often went abroad, chiefly to Paris and Rome, but once for a long visit to Heidelberg, and once also to Brussels, to collect information about Charlotte Bronte's school-days. In Paris her genius was warmly appreciated; and, while she was a guest among them, Guizot, Montalembert, and Odillon Barrot vied in doing her honour. Of her visits in England some of the pleasantest were to Oxford, where she counted among her friends Mr Jowett and Mr Stanley (dean of Westminster). At other times, when she was busy writing one of her novels, she would leave home with one or two of her children, and carry her manuscript to some quiet country place, where she could write undisturbed. When she was at home, although she was enthusiastically interested in the political questions of the day, and her warm, impulsive nature made her ready at any time to give personal help and sympathy where it seemed to be needed, Mrs Gaskell refrained from taking active part in public movements or social reforms, if we except, indeed, the great sewing-school movement in Manchester at the time of the cotton famine in 1862. Her life was thoroughly literary and domestic. She read much: Goldsmith, Pope, Cowper, and Scott were the favourite authors of her girlhood; in later life she admired Ruskin and Macaulay extremely, and delighted in many old French memoirs of the time of Madame de Sévigné, whose life she often planned to write. It is remembered of her that one day, when she was reading George Eliot's first and anonymous story Amos Barton, she looked up and said, "I prophesy that the writer of this will be a great writer some day." The prospect of the awful cotton famine in Manchester in 1862 set Mrs Gaskell anxiously thinking what could be done to relieve the coming distress, and she decided, "without any suggestions from others, on a plan of giving relief and employment together to the women mill-hands, which was an exact prototype of the great system of relief afterwards publicly adopted, namely, the sewing-schools." When these were formed, Mrs Gaskell "merged her private scheme in the public one, and worked most laboriously in the sewing-school nearest her home." This was but three years before her death, Still busy writing her novel Wires and Daughters, she was staying with her children at Holybourne, Alton, in Hampshire, a house which she had just purchased as a surprise and

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