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ty; and should the beast rejoin the herd, The third species is the Levinarius or th's dog would fix unerringly on the fame. Lorarius; the Leviner or Lyemmer : the This species is now lon, or at least un first name is derived from the lightness of known to us.

the kind, the other from the old word It must be observed that the Agafeus of Lyenme, a thong; this fpecies being used Dr. Caius, is a very different species from to be led in a thong, and flipped at the the Agasseus of Oppian, for which it migit game. Our author fays, that this dog was be mistaken from the fimilitude of names; a kind that hunted both by scent and light; this he describes as a small kind of dog, and in the form of its body observed a peculiar to Great-Britain; and then goes medium between the hound and the gre. on with these words;

hound. This probably is the kind now

known to us by the name of the Irish Γυρόν, άσαρκότατον, λασιότριχον, όμμασι gre-hound, a dog now extremely scarce bés,

in that kingdom, the late king of Poland Curvum, macilentum, hispidum, oculis pigrum. having procured from them as many as what he adds afterwards. All marks the poilible. I have seen two or three in the difference more strongly;

whole island: they were of the kind called

by M. de Buffon Le grand Dancis, and Ρίνεσι δ' αύτε μάλιςα τανέξς κος είν probably imported there by the Danes, who αγασσεις. ,

long poflefied that kingdom. Their use

seems originally to have been for the chase Naribus autem lungè præftantissimuses a afleus.

of wolves, with which Ireland swarmed till From Oppian's whole description, it is the latter end of the last century. As soon plain he meant our Beagle.

as those animals were extirpated, the num. The nexe kind is the Leporarius, or bers of the dogs decreased; for from that Grey-hound. Dr. Caius informs us, that period they were kept only for state. it takes its name quod precipui gradus fit The Vertigus, or Tumbler, is a smooth inter canes, the first in rank among dogs: species; which took its prey by mere subthat it was formerly esteemed so, appears tilty, depending neither on the sagacity of from the forest laws of king Canute; who its nose, nor its swiftness: if it came into enacted, that no one under the degree of a warren, it neither barked, nor ran on the a gentleman should presume to keep a rabbets; but by a seeming neglect of them, gre-hound; and till inore strongly from or attention to something else, deceived an old Welsh saying; Wrth ei l alch, ei the obje&t till it got within reach, so as to Farch, a'i Filgi, yr adwaenir Bonheddig: take it by a sudden spring. This dog was which fignifies, that you may know a gen- less than the hound; more scraggy, and leman by his hawk, his horse, and his gre. had prickt-up ears; and by Dr. Caius's hound.

detcription seems to answer to the modern Froissart relates a fact not much to the lurcher. credit of the fidelity of this species; when The third division of the more generous that unhappy prince, Richard the Second, dogs, comprehends those which were used was taken in Flint castle, his favourite in fowling; first the Hispaniolus, or spagre-hound immediately deserted him, and niel: from the name it may be suppoled fawned on his rival Bolingbroke; as if he that we were indebted to Spain for this understood and foresaw the misfortunes of breed : there were two varieties of this the former,

kind, the first used in hawking, to spring The variety called the Highland gre. the game, which are the same with our hound, and now become very scarce, is of tarters. a very great size, ftrong, deep-chested, The other variety was used only for the and covered with long and rough hair. net, and was calied Index, or the fetter; a This kind was much esteemed in former kind well known at present. This kingdom days, and used in great numbers by the has long been remarkable for producing powerful chieftains in their magnificent dogs of this fort, particular care having hunting matches. It had as sagacious nofs been taken to preserve the breed in the trils as the Blood-hound, and was as fierce. utmost purity. They are still distinguished This seems to be the kind Boethius styles by the name of English spaniels; so that genus venaticum cum celerrimum tum auta- . notwithstanding the derivation of the name, ciffimum : nec modo in feras, fed in hoftes etiam it is probable they are natives of Greatlatronesque : præfertim fi dominum ductoremve Britain. We may strengthen our fufpicion injuriam afici cernat aut in bos concitetur. by saying, that the first who bsube a dog


to the net was an English nobleman of a Gratius fpeaks in high terms of the exmoft diftinguished character, the great Ro- cellency of the British dogs: bert Dudley, duke of Northumberland. The Pointer, which is a dog of a foreign O quarta eft merces et quantum impendia fazza'

Atque ipfos libeat penetrare Britannas? extraction, was unknown to our ancestors. Si non ad fpeciem mentiturosque decores

The Aquaticus, or Fynder, was another Protinus: hæc una eft catulis jactura Britannis. fpecies used in towling; was the same as At magnum cum venit opus, promendaque v.stus. our water spaniel; and was used to find or

Et vocat extremno præceps diferimine Mavors.

Non tunc egregios tantum admirere Mclotios. recover the game that was thot.

The Melitæus, or Fotor; the spaniel If Britain's distant coast we dare explore, genile or comforter of Dr. Caius (the mo

How much bevond the cost the valued store;

If shape and beauty not alone we prize, u rn lap dog) was the last of this divifioa. Which nature to the Britih hound denies: The Maltese little dogs were as much el. But when the mighty toil the huntsman warms, teemed by the fine ladies of part times, as

And all the soul is rous'd by fierce alarms, thole of Bologna are among the modern. When Mars calls furious to th ensanguin'd field,

Even bold Moloffians then to thefe moft yield. Old Hollingshed is ridiculo fly severe on tje fair of his days, for their excessive Strabo tells us, that the mastiffs of Bripaffion for these little animals ; which is tain were trained for war, and were used fufficient to prove it was in his time a no- by the Gauls in their battles: and it is velty.

certain a well trained mastiff might be of The second grand division of dogs com- considerable use in distretling fuch halfprehends the Rutici; or those that were armed and irregular combatants as the ad. ured in the country.

verfaries of the Gauls feem generally to The first fpecies is the Pastoralis, or have been before the Romans conquered Ah-pherd's dog; which is the same that is them. uled at present, either in goarding our

The laft division is that of the Degefiocks, or in driving herds of cattle. This neres, or Curs. The firft of these was the kind is so well trained for those purposes, Wappe, a name derived from its note: its as to attend to every part of the herd be only use was to alarm the fainily by barkit ever so large; confine them to the road, ing, if any perion approached the house, and force in cvery ftraggler without doing of this class was the Versator, or turnipit; is the least injury.

and laftly the Salvator, or dancing dog, or The next is the Villaticus, or Catena- such as was taught variety of tricks, and rius; the maltiff or band dog; a species of carried about by idle people as a hew. grat size and strength, and a very loud Those Degeneres were of no certain shape, barker. Manhood lays, it derives its name being mongrels or mixtures of all kinds of from mase thefes, being supposed to fright- dogs en away robbers by its tremendous voice.

We should now, according to our plan, Caius tells us that three of these were after enumerating the several varieties of reckoned a match for a bear; and four for British dogs, give its general natural hifa lion: but from an experiment made in tory; but fince Linnæus has already perthe tower by James the lirit, that noble formed it to our hand, we shall adopt his quadruped was found an unequal match sense, translating his very words (wherever to only three. Two of the dogs were dif- we may) with literal exa&tness. abled in the combat, but the third forced “ The dog eats Resh, and farinaceous the lion to seek for safety by flight. The vegetables, but not greens : its stomach English bull dog seems to belong to this “ digests bones : it uses the tops of grass fpecies: and probably is the dog our au- « as a vomit. It voids its excrements on thor mentions under the title of Laniarius. « a stone: the album græcum is one of the Great Britain was so noted for its maftiffs, “ greatest encouragers of putrefa&ise. It that the Roman emperors appointed an v laps up its drink with its tongue : it officer in this island with the title of Pro- “ voids its urine fideways, by lifting ap crator Cynegii, whose fole bufiness was to ** one of its hind legs; and is molt diuretic breed, and craolinit from hence to the am- « in the company of a strange dog. Odophitheatre, such as would prove equal to

« rat anum alterius : its scent is most er. the combats of that place.

is quifite, when its nose is moit: it trends

lightly on its toes; scarce ever fweats ; Magnaque taurorum fracturi colla Britanni. * but when hot lolls out its tongue. It And British dogs fubdue the Atouteft bulls. “ generally walks frequently round the

* plasz

• place it intends to lie down on : its sense enemy. Wild cats were formerly reckon“ of hearing is very quick when aileep: ed among the beasts of chace; as appears “ it dreams. Procis rixant bus crudelis : by the charter of Richard the Second, to cat ulit cum variis : mordet illa illos: ccheret the abbot of Peterborough, giving him

copula jundus: it goes with young fixty- kave to hunt the hare, fox, and wild cat. “ three days; and commonly brings from The use of the fur was in lining of robes; “ four to eight at a time : the male pup- but it was esteemed noe of the most luxu“ pies resemble the dog, the female the rious kind; for it was ordained that no « bitch. It is the moit faithful of all ani • abbess or nun should use more costly ap“ mals; is very docible: hates ftrange · parel than such as is made of lainbs or

dogs: will {nap at a stone thrown at it: cats skins.' In much earlier times it “ will lowl at certain musical notes: all was aiso the object of the sportsman's di" (except the South American kind) will verfion. “ bark at strangers: dogs are rejected by

Felemque minacem 16 the Mahometans.”

Arboris in trunco longis prærgere telis.

Nemifani Cynegeticon, L. 55. $ 5. The Wild Cat. This animal does not differ fpecifically

$ 6. The DOMESTIC CAT. from the tame cat; the latter being origi This animal is so well known as to make nally of the same kind, but altered in co- a defcription of it unnecessary. It is an lour, and in some other trilling accidents, useful, but deceitful domestic; active, neat, as are common to animals reclaimed from sedate, intent on its prey. When pleased the woods and domesticated.

purrs and moves its tail: when angry The cat in its favage state is three or ipits, hisses, and strikes with its foot. Wlien four times as large as the house-cat; the walking, it draws in its claws: it drinks lithead larger, and the face flatter. The tle: is fond of fiih: it washes its face with teeth and claws tremendous : its muscles its fore-foot, (Linnæus says at the approach very Itrong, as being formed for rapine: of a storm :) the female is remarkably sathe tail is of a moderate length, but very lacious; a piteous, fqualling, jarring lover. thick, marked with alternate bars of black Its eyes Mine in the night: its hair when and white, the end always black: the hips rubbed in the dark emits tire; it is even and hind part of the lower joints of the proverbially tenacious of life: alway, lights leg, are always black, the fur is very soft on its feet: is fond of perfumes, marum, and fine. The general colour of these ani- cat-mini, valerian, &c. mals is of a yellowish white, mixed with a Our ancestors seem to have had a high deep grey: these colours, though they ap- sense of the utility of this animal. Thae pear at first fight confusedly blended toge. excellent prince Hcel dda, or Howel the ther, yet on close inspection will be found Good, did not think it beneath him (a. to be disposed like the itreaks on the skin mong his laws relating to the prices, &c. of the tiger, pointing from the back down. of animals) to include that of the cat; wards, rising from a black list that runs and to describe the qualities it ought to from the head along the middle of the have. The price of a kitling before it could back to the tail.

see, was to be a penny; till it caught a This animal may be called the British mouse two-pence; when it commenced tiger : it is the fiercest, and most deftruc. mouser four pence. It was required betive beast we have; making dreadful ha- fides, that it hould be perfect in its senses vock among our poultry, lambs, and kids. of hearing and seeing, be a good mouser. It inhabits the most mountainous and woody have the claws whole, and be a good nurse : parts of these islands, living mostly in trees, but if it failed in any of these qualities, the and feeding only by night. It multiplies seller was to forfeit to the buyer the third as fast as our common cats; and often the part of its value. If any one stole or killed females of the latter will quit their domef- the eat that guarded the prince's granary, tic mates, and return home pregnant by he was to forfeit a milch ewe, its Aeece the former.

and lamb; or as much wheat as when They are taken either in traps, or by poured on the cat suspended by its tail fhooting : in the latter case it is very dan. (the head touching the foor) would form gerous only to wound them, for they will a heap high enough to cover the tip of attack the person who injured them, and the former. This last quotation is not have strength enough to be no despicable only curious, as being an evidence of the 4


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fimplicity of ancient manners, but it al. der the high value of specie at that time) molt proves to a demonftration that cats and the great care taken of the improveare not aborigines of these islands; or ment and breed of an animal that multiplies known to the earliest inhabitants. The fo faft, are almost certain proofs of their large price fet on them, (if we confi- being little known at that period.


3. Lorum

Alula fpuria

7. EXPLANATION of fome TECHNICAL TERMS in ORNITHOLOGY. Fig. Cere. Cera The naked skin that covers the base of the bill in the Hau

kind. 2. Capijtrum

A word used by Linnæus to express the short feathers on the forehead just above the bill. In Crows these fall forwards over the noftrils.

The space between the bill and the eye, generally covered with feathers, but in some birds naked, as in the black and

white Grebe. 4. Orbits. Orbita The skin that surrounds the eye, which is generally bare,

particularly in the Heron and Parrot. 5. Emarginatum A bill is called rostrum emarginatum when there is a small

notch near the end : this is conspicuous in that of Butcberbirás

and Thrufbes. 6. Vibril

Vibrila pectinatæ, fliff hairs that grow on each fide the mouth, formed like a double comb, to be seen in the Goat

fucker, Flycatcher, &c. 7. Baffard wing. A small joint rising at the end of the middle part of the wing,

or the cubitus; on which are three or five feathers. 8. Leser coverts of the The small feathers that lie in several rows on the bones of

wings. Tecirices the wings. The under coverts are those that line the infide of prime

the wings. 9. Greater coverts. The feathers that lie immediately over the quill-feathers and

Teftrices fecundæ secondary feathers. 10. Qüill-feathers. The largest feathers of the wings, or those that rise from the

Primores first bone. 11. Secondary feathers. Those that rise from the second.

Secondaria 12. Coverts of the tail. Those that cover the base of the tail.

Uropygium 13. Vent featbers Those that lie from the vent to the tail. Crifjum Linzai.

Arices The tail. Reetrices 15. Scapular feathers That rise from the shoulders, and cover the sides of the

back. 16. Nucba

The hind part of the head. 17. Roftrum fubulatum A term Linnæus uses for a strait and slender bill. 18.

To Mew the itructure of the feet of the King fisher. 19. Pes scansorius The foot of the Woodpecker formed for climbing. Climb

ing feet. Finned foot. Pes Such as those of the Grebes, &c. Such as are indented. lobatus, pinnatus are called scalloped; such are those of Coets and scallop-toed

Sandpipers. Pes tridaEtylus Such as want the back toe. 23. Semi-palmatud. Pes

When the webs only reach half way of the toes. semi-palmatus 24, Ungue poftico felili

When the hind claw adheres to the leg without any toe, as

in the Petrels. 25. Digitis 4 omnibus

All the four toes connected by webs, as in the Corvorants. dalmatis.


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Ruftrum cultratum

Unguiculatum Lingua ciliata Integra Lumbriciformis

EXPLANATION of other Linn.EAN Terms.

When the edges of the bill are very sharp, such as in that of the Crow.

A bill with the nail at the end, as those of the Goofanders and Ducks.

When the tongue is edged with fine bristles, as in Ducks.
When quite plain or even.

When the tongue is long, round, and Nender, like a worm, as that of the Woodpecker.

When the legs are placed so far behind as to make the bird walk with difficulty, or as if in fetters; as is the case with the Acks, Grebes, and Divers,

When the nostrils are very narrow, as in Sea Gulls.
With a rim round the nostrils, as in the Stare.

Pedes compedes

Nares Lineares

§ 8. The Pigeon.

Multitudes of these birds are observed The tame pigeon, and all its beautiful to migrate into the south of England ; and varieties, derive their origin from one spe. while the beech woods were luffered to cies, the Stock Dove: the English name cover large tracts of ground, they used to implying its being the ftock or stem from haunt them in myriads, reaching in Itrings whence the other domestic kinds sprung. of a mile in length, as they went out in These birds, as Varro observes, take their the morning to feed. They visit us the (Latin) name, Columba, from their voice latest of any bird of passage, not appearor cooing; and had he known it, he might ing till November; and retire in the have added the British, &c. for K'lommen, spring. I imagine that the summer haunts Kylobman, Kilm, and Kolm, fignify the same of these are in Sweden, for Mr. Eckmark bird. They were and fill are, in most makes their retreat thence coincide with parts of our island, in a state of nature ; their arrival here. But many breed here, but probably the Romans taught us the as I have observed, on the cliffs of the coast method of making them domestic, and of Wales, and of the Hebrides. conitructing pigeon-houses. Its characters The varieties produced from the doin the state nearest that of its origin, is a meftic pigeon are very numerous, and exdeep bluith all colour; the brealt dashed tremely elegant; these are distinguished by with a fine changeable green and purple; names expressive of their several properthe sides of the neck with thining copper ties, such as Tumblers, Carriers, Jacobines, colour; its wings marked with two black Croppers, Powters, Runts, Turbits, Owls, bars, one on the coverts of the wings, Nuns, &c. The most celebrated of these the other on the quill-feathers. The back is the Carrier, which, from the superior white, and the tail barred near the end with attachment that pigeon Thews to its native black. The weight fourteen ounces. place, is employed in many countries as

In the wild state it breeds in holes of the most expeditious courier : the letters rocks, and hollows of trees, for which rea are tied under its wing, it is let loose, and son soine writers file it columba cavernalis, in a very short space returns to the home in opposition to the Ring Dove, which it was brought from, with its advices. makes its nest on the boughs of trees. Na. This practice was much in vogue in the ture ever preserves some agreement in the East : and at Scanderoon, till late years, manners, characters, and colours of birds used on the arrival of a ship, to give the reclaimed from their wild itate. This spe- merchants at Aleppo a more expeditious cies of pigeon soon takes to build in arti- notice than could be done by any other ficial cavities, and from the temptations of means. In our own country, these aërial a ready provision becomes easily domefti- messengers have been employed for a very cated. The drakes of the tame duck, singular purpose, being let loofe at Tyburn however they may vary in colour, ever at the moment the fatal cart is drawn away, retain the mark of their origin from our to notify to distant friends the departure of English mallard, by the curled feathers of the unhappy criminal. the tail: and the tame goose betrays its In the East, the use of these birds seems descent from the wild kind, by the invari- to have been improved greatly, by having, able whiteness of its rump, which they if we may use the expression, relays of them always retain in both tates.

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