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$ 25. The Pike or Jack. the surface (as is frequently the case) the The pike is common in most of the lakes lefser fish are often observed to swim around of Europe, but the largest are those taken it in vast numbers, and in great anxiety. in England, which, according to Schäffer, Pike are often haltered in a noole, and are sometimes eight feet long. They are mken while they lie thus asleep, as they are taken there in great abundance, dried, and often found in the ditches near the Thames, exposed for sale. The largest fish of this in the month of May. kind which we ever heard of in England, In the fhallow water of the Lincolnshire weighed thirty-five pounds.

fens they are frequently taken in a manner According to the common saying, these peculiar, we believe, to that country, and the fith were introduced into England in the ille of Ceylon. The fishermen make use reign of Henry VIII. in 1537. They were of what is called a crown-net, which is no so rare, that a pike was fold for double the more than a hemispherical basket, open at price of a house-lamb in February, and a top and bottom. He stands at the end of pickerel for more than a fat capon. one of the little fenboats, and frequently

All writers who treat of this species bring puts his bafket down to the bottom of the instances of its vast voraciousness. We have water, then poking a stick into it, discovers known one that was choaked by attempt. whether he has any booty by the itriking of ing to swallow one of its own species that the fih: and vast numbers of pike are taken proved too large a morsel. Yet its jaws in this manner. are very loosely connected ; and have on The longevity of this filh is very remarkeach fide an additional bone like the jaw able, if we may credit the accounts given of a viper, which renders them capable of of it. Rzazcynski tells us of one that was greater diftention when it swallows its prey. ninety years old; but Gesner relates that It does not confine itself to feed on tish and in the year 1497, a pike was taken near frogs; it will devour the water rat, and draw Haiibrun, in Suabia, with a brazen ring down the young ducks as they are swim- affixed to it, on which were these words in ming about. In a manuscript note which Greek characters : I am the fils which was we found, p. 244, of our copy of Plott's first of all put into this lake by i he hands of the History of Staffordshire, is the following governor of the universe, Frederick, the second, extraordinary fact : “ At Lord Gower's the 5th of October, 1230: so that the for. “i canal at Trentham, a pike seized the mer must have been an infant to this Me. “ head of a swan as she was feeding under thusalem of a fish.

water, and gorged so much of it as kil- Pikes spawn in March or April, accord. " them both. The servants perceiving ing to the coldness or warmth of the weaç the swan with its head under water for ther. When they are in high season their

a longer time than usual, took the boat, colours are very fine, being green, spotted “ and found both swan and pike dead *” with bright yellow; and the gills are of a

But there are instances of its fierceness most vivid and full red. When out of season, ftill more surprising, and which indeed bor- the green changes to grey, and the yellow der a little on the marvellous. Gesner { fpots turn pale. relates, that a familhed pike in the Rhone The head is very fat; the upper ja w feized on the lips of a mule that was brought broad, and is shorter than the lower ; the to water, and that the beast drew the fish under jaw turns up a little at the end, and out before it could disengage itse!f. That is marked with minute punctures. people have been bit by these voracious The teeth are very Iharp, disposed only creatures while they were washing their in the front of the upper jaw, but in both legs, and that they will even contend with sides of the lower, in the roof of the mouth, the otter for its prey, and endeavour to and often the tongue, The ilit of the mouth, force it out of its mouth.



very wide ; the eyes small. Small nih shew the same uneasiness and The dorsal fin is placed very low on the deteftation at the presence of this tyrant, as

back, and consists of twenty-one rays; the the little birds do at the fight of the hawk pectoral of fifteen ; the ventral of eleven ; or owl. When the pike lies dormant near

the anal of eighteen.

The tail is bifurcated. This note we afterwards discovered was wrote

$26. The CarP. by Mr. Plott, of Oxford, who assured me he sido leited it on good authority,

This is one of the naturalized fish of our t Geiner pisc. 503.

country, having been introduced here by


or the

Leonard Maschal, about the year 1514*, The carp is a prodigious breeder: its to whom we were also indebted for that quantity of roe has been sometimes found excellent apple the pepin. The many good fo great, that when taken out and weighed things that our island wanted before that against the fish itself, the former has been period, are enumerated in this old dillich: found to preponderate. From the spawn

of this fith caviare is made for the Jews, Turkies, carps, hops, pickerel, and beer, Came into England all in one year.

who hold this sturgeon in abhorrence.

These filh are extremely cunning, and As to the two last articles we have some on that account are by some styled the ridoubts, the others we believe to be true. ver fox. They will sometimes leap over Ruslia wants these filh at this day; Sweden the nets, and escape that way; at others, has them only in the ponds of the people will immerse themselves so deep in the mud, of fathion : Polish Pruffia is the chief seat of as to let the net pass over them. They are the carp; they abound in the rivers and also very shy of taking a bait; yet at the lakes of that country, particularly in the spawning time they are fo fimple, as to Frich and Curisch-haff, where they are fuffer themselves to be tickled, handled, taken of a valt fize. They are there a great and caught by any body that will attempt article of commerce, and sent in well-boats it. to Sweden and Russia. The merchants pur- This filh is apt to mix its milt with the chase them out of the waters of the noblelle roe of other fish, from which is produced a of the country, who draw a good revenue spurious breed: we have seen the offspring from this article. Neither are there wants of the carp and tench, which bore the ing among our gentry, inttances of some greatest resemblance to the first: have also who make good profit of their ponds. heard of the same mixture between the carp

The ancients do not separate the carp and bream. from the sea fish. We are credibly informed The carp is of a thick Mape: the scales that they are sometimes found in the har- very large, and when in beit season of a fine bour of Dantzick, between the town and gilded hue. a small placed called Hela.

The jaws are of equal length; there are Carp are very long lived. Gesner brings two teeth in the jaws, or on the tongue ; an initance of one that was an hundred years but at the entrance of the gullet, above old. They also grow to a very great fize. and below, are certain bones that act on On our own knowledge we can speak of each other, and comminute the food before none that exceeded twenty pounds in weight; it passes down. bue Jovius says, that they were sometimes On each side of the mouth is a single taken in the Lacus Larius (the Lago di beard; above thole on each side another, Como) of two hundred pounds weight; and but Morter: the dorsal fin extends far toRzaczynski mentions others taken in the wards the tail, which is a little bifurcated; Dniester that were five feet in length. the third ray of the dorsal fin is very trong,

They are also extremely tenacious of life, and armed with sharp teeth, pointing downand will live for a most remarkable time wards; the third ray of the anal fin is conout of water. An experiment has been structed in the same manner. made by placing a carp in a net, well wrapped up in wet moss, the mouth only re

$ 27. The BAREFL. maining out, and then hung up in a cellar,

This fish was so extremely coarse, as to or some cool place: the filh is frequently be overlooked by the ancients till the time fed with white bread and milk, and is be- of Aufonius, and what he says is no panefides often, plunged into water. Carp, thus gyric on it; for he lets us know it loves managed have been known, not only to deep waters, and that when it grows old it have lived above a fortnight, but to grow

was not absolutely bad. exceedingly fat, and far superior in taite to those that are immediately killed from

Laxos exerces BARRE natatus,

Tu melior pejore ævo, tibi contigit uni the pond to

Spirantum ex numero non inlaudata senectus. Fuller's British Worthies, Sussex, 113.

It frequents the still and deep parts of + This was told me by a gentleman of the ut- rivers, and lives in society, rooting like molt veracity, who had twice made the experiment. swine with their noses in the soft banks. It The same fact is related by that pious philosopher Doctor Derham, in his Physico-Tiseology, edit.gth. is so tame as to suffer itself to be taken with 1737. ch. i. p. 7. 8.6.

the hand; and people have been known to 4 A 4


take numbers by diving for them. In vouch for, but its flesh is a wholesome and summer they move about during night in delicious food to those of the earth. The search of food, but towards autumn, and Germans are of a different opinion. By during winter, confine themselves to the way of contempt, they call it Shoemaker. deepest holes.

Gesner even says, that it is ingipid and They are the worst and coarsest of fresh unwholesome. water fish, and seldom eat but by the poorer It does not commonly exceed four or sort of people, who sometimes boil them five pounds in weight, but we have beard with a bit of bacon to give them a relish. of one that weighed ten pounds; Salvianes The roe is very noxious, affecting those speaks of some that arrived at twenty who unwarily eat of it with a nausea, vo- pounds. miting, purging, and a slight swelling. They love ftill waters, and are rarely

It is sometimes found of the length of found in rivers : they are very foolish, three feet, and eighteen pounds in weight: and easily caught. it is of a long and rounded form: the scales The tench is thick and fort in propornot large.

tion to its length: the scales are very small, Its head is smooth: the noftrils placed and covered with sime. near the eyes: the mouth is placed below: The irides are red: there is sometimes, on each corner is a fingle beard, and an- but not always, a small beard at each corother on each side the nose.

ner of the mouth. The dorsal fin is armed with a remark- The colour of the back is dusky; the able frong spine, sharply serrated, with dorsal and ventral fins of the same colour: which it can infliet a very severe wound the head, fides, and belly, of a greenith on the incautious handler, and even do caft, most beautifully mixed with gold, much damage to the nets.

which is in its greatest splender when the The pecoral fins are of a pale brown fith is in the highest season. colour; the ventral and anal tipped with The tail is quite even at the end, and yellow: the tail a little bifurcated, and very broad, of a deep purple: the fide line is ftrait.

The scales are of a pale gold colour, § 29. The GUDGEON. edged with black: the belly is white.

Ariftotle mentions the gudgeon in two $ 28. The TENCH.

places; once as a river filh, and again as The tench underwent the same fate with a species that was gregarious : in a third the barbel, in respect to the notice taken of place he describes it as a sea fish: we must it by the early writers; and even Ausonius, therefore consider the Kw@105 he mentions, who first mertions it, treats it with such lib. ix. c. 2. and lib. viii. c. 19. as the disrespect as evinces the great capriciouf. fame with our species. ness of taste; for that fish, which at pre

This filh is generally found in gentle fent is held in such good repute, was in streams, and is of a small fize : those few, his days the repaft only of the canaille.

however, that are caught in the Kennet,

and Cole, are three times the weight of Quis non et virides vulgi folatia Tincas those taken elsewhere. The largelt we Norit?

ever heard of was taken near Uxbridge, It has been by some called the Physician and weighed half a pound. of the fish, and that the slime is healing,

They bite eagerly, and are aflembled by that the wounded apply it as a ftyptic. The raking the bed of the river; to this spot ingenious Mr. Diaper, in his pifcatory they immediately crowd in Moals, expecteclogues, says, that even the voracious ing food from this disturbance. pike will spare the tench on account of its The shape of the body is thick and healing powers :

round: the irides tinged with red : the gill The Tench he spares a medicinal kind :

covered with green and flver: the lower For when by wounds diftreit, or sore disease,

jaw is horter than the upper: at each corHe courts the falutary fish for ease;

ner of the mouth is a single beard: the Close to his scales the kind physician glides, back olive, spotted with black: the side And sweats a healing balsam from his fides.

line strait; the fides beneath that filvery: Ecl. II.

the belly white. Whatever virtue its fime may have to The tail is forked; that, as well as the the inhabitants of the water, we will not dorsal fin, is spotted with black.

back is much elevated, and sharply ridged : § 30. The Bream.

the scales large, and fall off very easily. The bream is an inhabitant of lakes, or Side lines bend much in the middle towards the deep parts of ftill rivers. It is a fish the belly. that is very little esteemed, being extremely infipid.

$ 33. The Dace. It is extremely deep, and thin in propor. haunts the fame places, is a great breeder,

This, like the roach, is gregarious, tion to its length. The back riles very much, and is very sharp at the top. The very lively, and during summer is very head and mouth are small: on some we

fond of frolicking near the surface of the

water. This fith and the roach are coarse examined in the spring, were abundance of minute whitish tubercles; an accident

and insipid meat. which Pliny seems to have observed befals

Its head is small: the irides of a pale the fish of the Lago Maggiore, and Lago yellow: the body long and Nender: its di Como. The icales are very large: the length feldom above ten inches, though in fides flat and thin.

the above-mentioned litt is an account of The dorsal fin has eleven says, the se

one that weighed a pound and an half: the cond of which is the longest : that fin, as

scales smaller than those of the roach. well as all the rest, are of a dusky colour;

The back is varied with dulky, with a the back of the same hue: the sides yel. cast of a yellowish green: the sides and lowish.

belly filvery: the dorsal fin dufky: the The tail is very large, and of the form ventral, anal

, and caudal fins red, but less

so than those of the former: the tail is of a crescent.

very much forked. § 31. The CRUCIAN. This species is common in many of the

$ 34. The CHUB. fih ponds about London, and other parts

Salvianus imagines this fish to have been of the south of England; but I believe is the jqualus of the ancients, and grounds not a native filh.

his opinion on a supposed error in a certain It is very deep and thick: the back is passage in Columella and Varro, where he much arched: the dorsal fin confits of would substitute the word squalus initead nineteen rays; the two first strong and of fearus : Columella says no more than ferrated. The pectoral fins have (each) that the old Romans paid much attention thirteen rays; the ventral nine; the anal

to their stews, and kept even the sea-filh seven or eight: the lateral line parallel with in freth-water, paying as much respect to the belly: the tail almost even at the end.

the mullet and scarus, as those of his days The colour of the fish in general is a did to the murena and bass. deep yellow : the meat is coarse, and little

That the scarus was not our chub, is very cleemed.

evident; not only because the chub is en

tirely an inhabitant of fresh waters, but § 32. The Roach.

likewise it seems improbable that the Ro• Sound as a roach,' is a proverb that ap- mans would give themselves any trouble pears to be but indifferently founded, that about the worst of river filh, when they negfish being not more distinguished for its vi. lected the most delicious kinds; all their vacity than many others; yet it is used by attention was directed towards those of the the French as well as us, who compare sea: the difficulty of procuring them seems people of strong health to their gardon, to have been the criterion of their value, our roach.

as is ever the case with effere luxury. It is a common fish, found in many

The chub is a very coarse fish, and full our deep ftill rivers, affecting, like the of bones: it frequents the deep holes of others of this genius, quiet waters. It is rivers, and during summor commonly lies gregarious, keeping in large shoals. We on the surface, beneath the shade of some have never seen them very large. Old tree or bush. It is a very timid fish, finkWalton speaks of some that weighed two ing to the bottom on the least alarm, even pounds. In a list of fish sold in the Lon- at the passing of a shadow, but they will don markets, with the greatest weight of foon resume their fituation. It feeds on each, communicated to us by an intelligent worms, caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles, fithmonger, is mention of one whose weight and other coleopterous insects that happen

to fall into the water; and it will even feed The roach is deep but thin, and the on cray-fith. This fish will rise to a fly.


was five pounds.

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This fish takes its name from its head, fins pellucid: the scales fall off very eafly: not only in our own, but in other languages; the tail much forked. we call it chub, according to Skinner, from the old English, cop, a head; the French,

§ 36. The White Bals. tiffard; the Italians, cafirone.

During the month of July there appear It does not grow to a large size; we in the Thames, near Blackwall and Greenhave known fome that weighed above five wich, innumerable multitudes of sma!! pounds, but Salvianus speaks of others fish, which are known to the Londoners that were eight or nine pounds in weight. by the name of White Bait. They are

The body is oblong, rather round, and elteemed very delicious when fried with of a pretty equal thickness the greatest fine flour, and occasion, during the season, part of the way: the scales are large. a vait resort of the lower order of epi.

The irides silvery; the cheeks of the cures to the taverns contiguous to the fame colour: the head and back of a deep places they are taken at. dusky green ; the sides filvery, but in the There are various conjectures about this summer yellow: the belly white: the pec. species, but all terminate in a fuppofition teral fins of a pale yellow: the ventral and that they are the fry of fome fith, but fex anal fins red : the tail a little forked, of a agree to which kind they owe their origin. brownish hue, but tinged with blue at the Some attribute it to the shad, others to the end.

fprat, the smelt, and the bicak. That they $35. Tbe BLEAK.

neither belong to the shad, ror the íprar, is The talking of these, Ausonius lets us evident from the number of branchiotteknow, was the sport of children,

gous rays, which in those are eight, in

this only three. That they are not the ALBURNOS prædam puerilibus hamis.

young of smelts, is as clear, because they They are very common in many of our want the pinna adiposa, or rayleis fin; and rivers, and keep together in large shoals. that they are not the offspring of the bleak These fith seem at certain feasons to be in is extremely probable, fince we never great agonies; they tumble about near the heard of the white bait being found in surface of the water, and are incapable of any other river, notwithitanding the bleak swimming far from the place, bnt in about is very common in several of the British two hours recover, and disappear. Fith streams: but as the white bait bears a thus affected, the Thames fishermen call greater fimilarity to this fish than to 20 mad bleaks. They seem to be troubled with other we have mentioned, we give it a a species of gordius or hair-worm, of the place here as an appendage to the bleak, same kind with those which Ariilotle • says rather than form a distinct article of a fish that the balleras and tillo are infested with, which it is impossible to class with cerwhich torments them so that they rise to tainty. the surface of the water and then die. It is evident that it is of the carp or

Artificial pearls are made with the scales cyprinus genus; it has only three bran. of this filh, and we think of the dace. chiostegous rays, and only one dorsal fin; They are beat into a fine powder, then and in respect to the form of the body, is diluted with water, and introduced into a comprefied like that of the bleak. thin glass bubble, which is afterwards filled Its usual length is two inches: the under with wax. The French were the inventors jaw is the longest: the irides silvery, the of this art. Doétor Lifter + tells us, that pupil black : the dorsal fin is placed nearer when he was at Paris, a certain artist used to the head than to the tail, and consists of in ore winter thirty hampers full of fish in about fourteen rays: the side line is ftrait : this manufacture.

the tail forked, the tips black. The bleak seldom exceeds five or fix The head, fides, and belly, are filvery; inches in length: their body is slender, the back tinged with green. greatly comprcffed fideways, not unlike that of the fprat.

$37. The Minow. The eyes are large; the irides of a pale This beautiful fish is frequent in many yellow: the under jaw the longest : the of our small gravelly streams, where they late al line crooked: the gills filvery: the keep in fhoals. back green: the sides and belly filvery: the The body is flender and smooth, the • Hiit. an. lib. viii. c. 20.

Scales being extremely small. It feldom † Journey to Paris, 142. exceeds three inches in length.


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