« EelmineJätka »
servants (24 and 25 Vict. c. 100, $ 26; 38 and 39 Vict. pornicious policies permitted under the Friendly Societies c. 86, 86); and by the Poor Law Amendment Act, 1868, Acts
. By $ 23 (2) parents may be guilty of cruelty by parents were rendered summarily punishable who wilfully neglect if they fail to apply for poor relief for their neglected to provide adequate food, clothing, medical aid, children in the event of their inability otherwise to mainor lodging for their children under 14 in their custody, tain them. whereby the health of the child was or was likely to be This enactment overlaps the common law and the seriously injured. This enactment made no express ex- statutes already mentioned. Its real efficacy lies in the ception in favour of parents who had not sufficient means main in the provisions which facilitate the taking of to do their duty without resort to the poor law, and was evidence of young children, in permitting boards of construed as imposing criminal liability on parents whose guardians to prosecute at the expense of the rates, and in peculiar religious tenets caused them advisedly to refrain permitting a constable on arresting the offender to take from calling in a doctor to a sick child.
the child away from the accused, and the court of trial on But the chief gain in the direction of adequate protec- conviction to transfer the custody of the child from the tion of children prior to 1889 lay less in positive legal offender to some fit and willing person. The Act has enactment on the subject than in the institution of an been utilized with great zeal and on the whole with much effective system of police, whereby it became possible to discretion by various philanthropic societies, whose memdiscover and repress cruelty punishable under the ordinary bers make it their business to discover the ill-treated and law. It is quite inaccurate to say that children had very neglected children of all classes in society. few rights in England, or that animals were better pro- Besides the provisions above indicated directly dealing tected. But before the constitution of the present police with cruelty to children, there was during Queen Victoria's force, and in the absence of any proper system of public reign much legislation in the interests of children, requirprosecution, it is undeniable that numberless cases of ing their parents to procure their elementary education, neglect and ill-treatment went unpunished and were treated forbidding the employment of children under 10 in busias nobody's business. In 1889 a special statute was ness or trade for gain (except in the case of children passed to prevent cruelty to children, which was super- licensed by justices to perform in public), and restricting seded in 1894 by the Prevention of Cruelty to Children the employment of children of school age unless they have Act, which now regulates the matter and specifically deals attained a certain standard of proficiency, which in practice with the offence of “cruelty” to children. This offence prevents children under 13 from being put to work (the can only be committed by a person over 16 in respect of Elementary Education Act, 1876). The labour of boys a child under 16 of whom he has “custody,” “charge,” or under 12 underground in mines is forbidden. And where “care." The Act presumes that a child is in the custody children may legally be employed in factories or shops of its parents, step-parents, or a person cohabiting with limitations are imposed with respect to their hours of labour its parent, or of its guardians; that it is in the charge of and other matters. The special legislation against the ema person to whom the parent has committed such charge ployment of children in agricultural gangs and in sweep(e.g., a schoolmaster), and that it is in the care of a person ing chimneys is virtually obsolete, owing to changes in who has actual possession or control of it. Cruelty is the conditions of these occupations and the subsequent defined as consisting in assault, ill-treatment (falling short enactments above indicated. of actual assault), neglect, or abandonment of the child in The Act of 1894 also prohibits custodians, &c., of chila manner likely to cause unnecessary suffering or injury to dren from taking them, or letting them be, in the street health, including injury to or loss of sight, hearing, or to beg or receive alms, or to sing, play, perform, or sell in limb, or any organ of the body or any mental derange- the street or in public-houses between 9 P.M. and 6 A.M. ment; and the act or omission must be wilful, i.e., deliberate These provisions apply to boys under 14 and girls under and intentional, and not merely accidental or inadvertent. 16. There are further prohibitions (1) on allowing chilThough medical aid is not specified, it has been decided dren under 11 to perform, &c., for gain in public houses that for a member of the sect of Peculiar People not to or places of public amusement at any hour without a call in a doctor may amount to an offence under the Act. license from a justice, which is granted only as to children The offence may be punished either summarily or on over 7 and under stringent conditions ; (2) on allowing indictment, and the offender may be sent to penal servitude children under 16 to be trained as acrobats or for any if it is shown that he was pecuniarily interested in the dangerous performance except by their parents or legal death of the child, e.g., by having taken out one of these guardians.
(W. F. c.)
CHILE. Geography and Statistics.—Chile, or Chili, extends along was occupied by Chile in 1880, and was definitely rethe S.W. coast of South America, from the Peruvian linquished by Peru by agreement of 28th March 1884. frontier at 17° 57' S. lat. to Cape Horn at 55° 59' S. lat. ; Between the Camarones and the Sama rivers lies the total area about 266,460 square miles. After contro- province of Tacna, consisting of the departments of Tacna versies extending over many years, the boundaries have and Arica. Under the treaty of 20th October 1883 this
been within recent years settled by treaties province was to be held by Chile for ten years, after
concluded with Bolivia, Peru, and the Argen- which a popular vote was to decide whether it should tine Republic Of Northern Chile, the portion extending be definitely incorporated with Chile or should revert to from 23° s. lat. to the river Loa, comprising the province Peru, the country retaining it to pay a sum of 10,000,000 of Antofagasta, formerly belonged to Bolivia ; it was pesos to the other. In consequence of disagreement as to occupied by Chile in accordance with the truce agreement the manner of voting and the persons entitled to vote, no of 4th April 1884, and was definitely ceded by Bolivia action was taken at the end of the ten years' term; and by treaty of 1st May 1896. The province of Tarapacá, a convention, signed at Santiago on 16th April 1898, extending from the river Loa northwards to the river for the taking of the plebiscite was in 1900 rejected by Camarones, 19° 12 S. lat., was formerly Peruvian. It | the Chilian Congress.
The coast of Chile, especially towards the south, is | ment voted the sum of £46,300 to the assistance of immigration, broken by islands. Opposite the province of Atacama and in 1899 £38,680 to the same purpose. The result, however, is Easter or Pascua Island; facing the coast of Con
proved so unsatisfactory that the Government have discontinued
their direct subsidies for the encouragement of immigration. The cepcion is the small island of Quirquina ; farther south agricultural portion of Chile is in the south, where rain is almost are Santa Maria and Mocha; more important are the incessant, the forest growth dense, and the labour of clearing a few Chiloé archipelago, consisting of about 96 islands, the
acres out of all proportion the profits. Moreover, roads are Chonos archipelago with over 1000 islands, and, in the
wanting, and there is no adequate protection for life and property
against outlaws and other dangerous characters. The Government extreme south, the archipelago of which the most im- has therefore turned its attention to the improvement of existing portant islands are Tierra del Fuego, Desolation, Santa settlements, and for this purpose a sum of money is provided in Ines, Clarence, Dawson, and Diego Ramirez islands. The the budget of 1900. The enumerated population in 1895 consisted island of Juan Fernandez is 390 miles west of Valparaiso.
of 1,240,353 inhabitants of towns and 1,471,792 of rural districts.
The principal cities and towns, with the census population of 1895 Population. The population of Chile, according to census
and the estimated population on 31st December 1898, are :enumerations from 1875 to 1895, is given as follows :Population.
256,413 311,704 1875 . 2,075,971 256,748 Valparaiso
122,447 140,262 1885 2,527,320 451,319 Concepcion
51,781 1895 . 2,712,145 184,825 Talca
40,237 For the purpose of comparison these figures are of little value.
32,769 Prior to 1885 the provinces of Antofagasta, Tarapacá, and Tacna
30,000 were not included, and the returns for 1885 are imperfect. The
16,795 area of the provinces and their population, according to the census
14,325 of 1885 and of 1895, with the population per square mile in 1895,
14,284 cre given as follows :
The political constitution of 1833 is, with some amendments, in force.
The principal amendments were made
1890, 20th August 1890, 22nd December Magallanes Territory 75,270 2,085 5,170 0:06 1891, 7th July 1892. The Chamber of Chiloé
Deputies consists of members elected for three years Llanquihué
7,820 62, 809 78,315 10:01 Valdivia. 8,313 50,938 60,687 7:30
directly by the registered electors of each department—one Cautin 3,127 33, 291 78,221 25.01
deputy for 30,000 inhabitants. The republic is divided Malleco
2,856 59,492 98,032 34:29 into electoral districts and subdivided into sections of 150 Bio-Bio
4,157 101,768 88,749 21:35 inscriptions, the registers of which are kept by the muniArauco
4,216 73,658 59,237 13.95 Concepcion
cipal authorities. On the basis of the census returns of 3,534 182,459 188,190 53.25 Nuble 3,555 119,871 152,935 43.02
1885, the number of deputies was fixed at ninety-four. Maule
2,930 124,145 119,791 40.88 Senators are similarly elected, but for six years, and they Linares
3,488 110,652 101,858 29.20 are chosen, not in departments, but in the provinces—one Talca
3,677 133,472 128,961 35.07 Curicó 2,912 100,002
senator for every three deputies. For the Chamber of
103,242 35.45 Colchagua 3,794 155,687 157,566 41:53
Deputies and for the Senate there are triennial elections, O'Higgins
2,523 87,641 85,277 | 33.80 the Chamber being renewed entirely and the Senate to Santiago.
5,221 329,753 415,636 | 79.60 the extent of one-half every three years. For the Chamber Valparaiso
1,659 203,320 220,756 | 13:30 Aconcagua
and for the Senate the system of voting is cumulative. 6,225 144,125 113,165 18:18 Coquimbo 12,869 176,344 160,898
Senators and deputies are unpaid. Atacama. 28,371 76,566 59,713
2:10 At the head of the executive power is the President of Antofagasta 47,918 21,213 44,085
0.92 the Republic, chosen for five years indirectly by the nation, Tarapacá.
19,300 45,086 89,751 4.65 Tacna
the electors being specially chosen by the provinces—three 8,685 29,523 24,160
electors for each deputy. The election of the president Total.
266,458 2,527,320 2,712,145 10:18 takes place on 25th June of the last year of the presidenIt is estimated that in the enumeration of 1895, 10 per cent. of the September following.
tial term, and the new president is inaugurated on 18th population, or about 271,214, were omitted. The total population at the date of the census would therefore be 2,983,359. The popu
Local Government. — The Republic is divided into provinces, lation on 31st December 1898 was officially estimated at 3,082,178. departments, and 282 municipal districts. Each municipal disThe foreign population of Chile in 1885 was returned at 65,000; in trict has, by law of 22nd December 1891, a municipality or council 1895 at 72,812. Of the number in 1895, 42,105 were European,
at least nine members chosen by popular election. At the ses29,687 were American, 1020 were from Asiatic and other countries. sions of the municipalities or councils the intendentes, governors, Of the Europeans 8269 were Spanish, 7809 were French, 7587 Italian, or sub-governors of the national government preside. In the 7049 German, 6241 British, 1570 Swiss, 1490 Austro-Hungarian. municipal districts assemblies of electors are held under the pre
The marriages, births, and deaths registered in the 277 registra- sidency of the first mayor for the election of councillors, 'the tion circumscriptions in 1897 and 1898 were :
sanctioning of the local budget or of local loans (which are limited
in amount), and for other business. The total municipal revenues Marriages
1896 amounted to 8,767,780 pesos, and the expenditure to
9,010,730 pesos. If the peso is taken at ls. 6d., the revenues were Deaths
equivalent to £657,580 and the expenditure to £675,800 sterling;
The principal police force, the fiscal police, is maintained and The civil marriage law of 10th January 1884 and the civil registra- comnianded by the national government, but the municipal force tion law of 17th July 1884 came into force on 1st January 1885. is still under the control of the municipalities. In Tacna muniThe cost of registration is borne by the State. The registration of cipal administration is carried on conjointly by the political heads deaths is required before burial, so that it is fairly trustworthy ; of the departments and by councils (juntas) of three members but the registration both of marriages and births is stated to be appointed for three years by the president of the republic. There frequently eluded. The death-rate is high. In the cities of is a similar system in the territory of Magallanes. Santiago and Valparaiso it is stated to be little under 60 per 1000, Education.—Public education is free (at the cost of the State), the mortality among children being very great. With a view to but not compulsory. It is directed by a council, at the head of remedy this evil an Act was passed in February 1896 making drain which is the minister of public instruction. Higher and secondary age compulsory in the centres of population. Immigration goes on education are given in the university and the national institute at under the care of colonization agencies, which in 1896 introduced Santiago, and in the provincial colleges or liceos. In 1899 there 988 agricultural and 1114 industrial immigrants from Europe. In were 573 university degrees and diplomas conferred. Besides the 189 the total number introduced was 807. In 1898 the Govern- State university, there is a Catholic university giving instruction
in theology, in law, and in mathematical and physical science. In State lands, £2,500,000 ; Talcahuano dock, £450,000; movable 1899 the national institute had 1168 pupils. There are in Chile property, £80,000—total, £18,180,000. six clerical seminaries which receive a small government subvention. The value of the real property held in 1896 by corporations was Three colleges for girls are maintained by the State, and many returned at 55,875,021 pesos (£1,190,630), and that held by schools for girls receive subventions. There are, besides, normal, private persons at 1,436,125,688 pesos (£107,709,430) — total, agricultural, technical, and commercial schools. The estimates | 1,492,000, 709 pesos (£111,900,060). The mortgages on private for 1898 provided a sum of £150,000 for higher and secondary estates amounted to 200,236,400 pesos (£15,018,730). In 1899, education. In 1899 there were in Chile 1403 public primary schools however, the price of land had fallen 30 or 40 per cent., so that the (435 for boys, 276 for girls, and 692 mixed), with 2299 teachers value of real estate in private ownership did not exceed 950,000,000 (748 male and 1551 female); the enrolled pupils numbered 115,535 pesos (£71,250,000), while the (56,278 boys and 59,257 girls), and the average attendance 70,607 mortgages had risen to (33,746 boys and 36,861 girls). The cost of primary instruction 215,000,000
R.SK was £156,000. There were also, in 1899, 445 private elementary £16,125,000). The total value
e sucre schools (148 for boys, 50 for girls, and 247 mixed) with 26,294 of real property (exclusive of enrolled pupils (15,685 boys and' 10,409 girls). Private schools government property) in 1899
Iquique devoted solely to popular education are assisted by the State. The may
be put about German colonies of Valdivia and Llanquihué have excellent schools. 1,000,000,000 pesos (£75,000,000
Crime. — The penal establishments of Chile, 87 in number at par, or about £63,000,000 at (including the two penitentiaries at Santiago and Talca), have been the current rate of exchange). under direct government administration since 1891. On 1st Defence. —The army of Chile,
Antofagasta January 1900 they contained 7051 criminals (6219 men and 832 according to the law of 24th
Jujuy women). The total number of prisoners they received during the November 1897, must not exceed year 1899 was 34,429, of whom 28,037 were male and 6392 female. 9000 men. The strength for În 1899, 432 boys were sent to the two correctional schools.
1900 was fixed at 5885, with 913 Charity.-In Chile there are numerous charitable institutions officers. This force is organized
Сори supported by endowments, legacies, donations, subscriptions, and in 1 regiment (2 battalions) of government contributions. In 1897 State assistance was given to coast artillery, 5 regiments of 79 hospitals to the amount of £65,000 ; to two lunatic asylums to field artillery, 10 of infantry, 8
PROVINCES the amount of £18,400; and to other institutions, £17,015. In of cavalry, 1 corps of engineers Santiago in 1898 over £15,000 was spent in enlarging and improv- (4 companies), 2 corps of pen
Coq. Coquimbo ing the hospitals, but in many of the provinces the distress and sioners, and the whole is distri
A. Aconcagua poverty are very great, and the hospital accommodation is insuffi- buted among the four military cient.
zones into which Chile is divided.
V Valparaiso Finance.—The ordinary revenue and expenditure of Chile in 1892 For the last ten years German M'alparaiso Santiagos Santiago and in the last four years were as follows (1 peso=18d.) :
drill instructors have been em
O. O'Higgins ployed ; Mauser and Mannlicher
have Krupp guns of the newest
1896 the National Guard con-
sists of three branches — the
I. Ar. Ma
20 and 21 years of age ; the pas
sive, all over 21 years of age who The estimated revenue and expenditure for 1900 were as follows
have completed their service in (pesos at 18d.):
the active; the sedentary, all
from 30 to 40 years of age who
are married. The total number
LI. Llanquihue Ordinary£ Ordinary,
513,000, with 2400 officers. The Export duties 3,486,320 Interior
758,100 Territorial Guard, numbering Import duties 1,537,500 Finance
19,862, organized in 1896 to Railways 937,500 War, marine
1,150,870 defend the passes of the Andes, Posts, telegraphs 90,000 Railways
1,512,770 was disbanded in 1898. In Chile Various
333,750 Justice, instruction 793,960 there are three military schools,
a military museum, a cartridge Total 6,385,070
factory, and other military estabExtraordinary 1,525,830 Total
lishments. The navy in 1899 Extraordinary 1,125,000 consisted of 3 battleships, Grand total 7,910,900
launched respectively in 1890, Grand total 7,568,280 1874, and 1865 ; 2 armoured
cruisers ; 2 second-class and 2 The export duties are levied mainly on nitrate and iodine. third - class cruisers ; 11 gun
Desolation Tierra del Recent additions to the external debt of Chile have been incurred
vessels and gunboats ; 4 de
St.Ines IJODE mainly for the satisfaction of claims arising out of the occupation stroyers, launched at Birkenhead Magellan, Str. of Peru, for railway construction, and other public works, and for in 1896, and all of a speed of the payment of floating and municipal debts. The internal debt more than 30 knots ; 15 first
Cape Hori consists of municipal debts, annuities (“censos”), a 3 per cent.
Diego Ramirez ls
class and 4 second-class torpedodebt, and the debt arising from the issue of notes under the
B.V.DG 0.7.R.H boats. There are also training
Oxford 1901 law of 7th July 1898, amounting to 46,691,400 pesos. There is and school ships, and craft for SKETCH MAP OF CHILE. due also a balance on treasury bills discounted in London. The special service. In order to redebt outstanding on 31st December 1899, and the debt charge were
duce expenditure, several vessels were laid up in 1899. In 1898 as follows:
the navy had 368 commissioned and staff officers and 3794 warrant Description of Debt.
officers and men. Naval schools were founded in 1893. A number External debt £17,541,785 £965, 405
of steamers of the South American Steamboat Company are subvenInternal obligations
tioned and held at the disposal of the Government for transport Amount, 72, 892,118 pesos 5,466,908
service. Charge, 1,343,485
100, 261 Agriculture. — The region most favourable for agriculture extends Treasury bills, due in 1900
166,666 166, 666
from Santiago to Concepcion, where large quantities of wheat are Total
grown, and barley, maize, oats, and rye are also cultivated. Many
£23,175,359 £1,232,332 industrial plants prosper in this region, notably the sugar beet, To be set off against this debt is the value of government pro- flax, colza, sorghum, hops, and tobacco. The grapo thrives well, perty, which (exclusive of government buildings) was estimated in and nearly 15,000 acres are planted with vines. South of the 1897 to amount to 371, 290, 258 pesos or £27,846,800 sterling. A agricultural region the climate is rainy, but the forest growth is more recent estimate, based on actual prices, puts the value as luxuriant, and a great timber traflic is carried on. Stock-raising follows in sterling: Nitrate fields, £3,000,000 guano deposits,
has considerable importance in Chile, more especially the rearing £100,000; State railways, £12,000,000 ; State telegraphs, £50,000 ; 1 of sheep, vicuña, and hogs. The country is estimated to contain
about 3 million head of cattle and 3} million sheep, but there are The distribution of the industries and the number of hands no official statistics on the subject. About 1} millions of the employed in the several groups are shown thus :population are dependent on agriculture, and the country produces
Number of Localities.
Industries. annually some 281 million bushels of wheat and 81 million bushels
Workers. of other cereals, apart from fruits, vegetables, &c. Bee-keeping
55,000 has some importance in the south, the annual export of honey
North and Central Chile Mining
30,000 being about 2800 tons.
Central and South Chile Manufacturing 44,704 Nitrate Production.-By the acquisition of the provinces of
Agricultural 400,000 Tarapacá and Antofagasta (1880-84) and the occupation of the
Stock-raising 12,000 province of Tacna, Chile obtained a vast addition to its mineral
Commerce.—The annual value of the imports and exports, at The guano deposits lying on the coast of this region intervals of five years from 1886 and in the years 1897-99, is shown are nearly exhausted, but farther inland lies the nitrate zone, stretching, with a breadth of about three miles, from the Aza pa to and including 1896 at the rate of 38d. to the peso, for "1897-99
in the subjoined table. Conversions have been made for years up valley in the province of Tacna, through the province of Tarapacá at 18d. to the peso : and into the desert of Atacamá, a total length of about 250 miles. In the provinces of Tarapacá and Antofagasta there are many
£6,993,600 refineries for purifying the crude nitrate or caliche, the centre of
1891. the industry being at Iquique.
1896. The weight (metric tons) and value of nitrate of soda exported
1897. from 1879 onwards were as follows:
7,969,500 12,232,960 1879 59,348 £751,690 1889
921,380 £5,771,220 Of the imports in 1898, 71 per cent. in value, and of the exports 1880 226,090 2,290,710
1,026, 290' 5,950,470 56 per cent. in value were subject to duty. The import duties 1881 358,100 3,624,530
1891 891,720 5,174,500 amounted to £1,602,770 ; the export duties to £3,106,100. The 1882 489,310 4,543,900
1892 797,820 5,030,630 most important article of export is nitrate, the value of the ship1883 584,790 5,073,560
1893 947,020 6,208,650 ments of which amounted in 1886 to £3,044,760; in 1891, to 1884 559,610 3,984,140
1,081,330 7,018,680 £5,122,900 ; in 1896, to £6,955,900 ; in 1897, to £5,943,700 ; in 1885 429,660 3,191,040 1895 1,220,420 7,208,680 1898, to £6,800,650. The value of the iodine exported in 1891 1886 452,780 3,044,750 1896 1,111,750 6,955,850 was £671,342 ; in 1896, £326,790 ; in 1897, £384,647 ; in 1898, 1887 712, 760 4,456,070 1897 | 1,057,630 5,928, 290 to £270,720. Of metals, the most important exports are copper in 1888 784,240 5,361,730 1898 1,294,220 6,800,650 bars, amounting in 1886 to £1,296,183 ; in 1891, to £771,600; in
1896, to £815,100; in 1897, to £893,780 ; in 1898, to £1,248,396. The output for export in 1899 was estimated at 1,360,000 tons, Bar silver was exported in 1886 to the value of £1,039, 410; in worth about £9,375,000 at the prices quoted in October.
1891, £713,670 ; in 1896, £662,300 ; in 1897, £598,680 ; in 1898, From the saline waters iodine is extracted in large quantities.
to £523,986. Of agricultural produce the chief export is wheat, The quantity of iodine exported in 1897 was 535,430 lb, and in amounting in 1886 to the value of £773,360; in 1891, to £1,146,290; 1898, 517,460 lb.
in 1896, to £653,450 ; in 1897, to £111,400; in 1898, to £575,234. Other Minerals.-Copper is found in abundance, notably in the The chief imports and exports in 1899 were as follows (conversion provinces of Taracapá, Antofagasta, Atacamá, Coquimbo, Acon- for both being made at 18d. to the peso) :cagua, Santiago, and Maule.
In 1876 the quantity of bar copper exported reached 41,766 tons, and in 1878,40,894 tons; but since
Exports. then the output and the exportation have declined. During the
£1,327,250 Mineral eight years 1891-98 the export was as follows:
£10,322,800 Textiles 2,179,350 Agricultural
289,650 Watches, jewellery, &c. 156,850 Animals and animal Machinery, &c.
952,130 1891 17,464 1895 20,042
378,750 Domestic articles 426,460 Wines, &c.
24,946 1892 19,144 1896 20,592
220,000 1893 19,328 1897 19,011
Of the value of imports in 1899, 41 per cent. were from Great Copper is exported in other forms in small quantities. In 1898, Britain, 28 per cent. from Germany, 8 per cent. from the United 3078 tons of copper ingots, 419 tons of copper and silver ingots, and States. Of the exports, 67 per cent. in value went to Great Britain, 20,301 tons of copper ore were sent abroad. The production of 13 per cent. to Germany, 5 per cent. to France, 4 per cent. to the copper in 1899 was estimated at 25,000 tons.
United States. Of the imports in 1899, 63 per cent. in value was Gold and silver mining are carried on in various parts of Chile. landed at Valparaiso, 12 per cent. at Talcahuano, 10 per cent. at Gold mining prospers at Taltal in the north, at several places in Iquique. Of the exports in 1899, 43 per cent. in value was shipped the central region, in the Magallanes territory, and in Tierra del from Iquique, 11 per cent. from Valparaiso, 9 per cent. from Fuego. Rich alluvial deposits have been found at Lonquimai, in Pisagua. During 1899 trade was hampered by the depreciation of the province of Temuco, and the future output will probably show the currency and the fluctuation in the exchange value of the peso a large increase. The exact amount of silver produced is not easily consequent on the suspension of the conversion law. ascertained, as the official statement includes a quantity of Bolivian Shipping.-In 1898, 7691 vessels of a total tonnage of 10,152, 443 silver passing through Chilian ports as if it were Chilian. The entered, and 7671 of 10,032,661 tons cleared. Of the vessels entered, export of bar gold and silver from 1893 to 1898 was—
1923 of 3,167,579 tons, and of those cleared, 1831 of 2,944,209 Gold. Silver.
tons were engaged in foreign trade. British vessels numbering 1004, Ounces. Ounces.
with a total tonnage of 1,738,362, entered from, and 947 with 1893
a tonnage of 1,578,325 cleared for, ports outside of Chile. In the
coasting trade 2057 British vessels with a tonnage of 3,164,515 1895 38,082 4,782,210
entered, and 2081 of 2,246,230 tons cleared. In 1899, in the 1896
foreign and coasting trade, 7267 vessels of altogether 10,016,704 1897
tons entered and 7154 of 9,738,769 tons cleared at the ports of
Chile. At the end of 1899 the merchant marine of Chile consisted The value of gold exported in 1897 was £160,000, and of silver of 142 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 71,214 tons, including £540,000. Iron, manganese, lead, cobalt, nickel, zinc, bismuth 39 steamers with a total of 27,387 tons. Chile is in regular comare abundant in various provinces. The city of Coronel is the munication with other American countries and with Europe by centre of the coal industry ; in 1898 the coal output amounted to Chilian, English, German, and French lines of steamers. 282, 600 tons.
Communications.—Chile has about 43,500 miles of public highThe most important industries are connected with the mineral ways, with 25,000 miles of less important roads, and the length of output. There are about 55 nitrate refineries in the nitrate navigable rivers is put at 2800 miles. district, the chief being at Lagunas; and there are works for the The total extent of railway line within the republic in 1899 extraction of iodine. There are silver works at Playa Blanca ; reached 2886 miles, of which 1458 miles belonged to the State and copper works at Lota, in Concepcion, and other places ; sulphur the remainder to companies. The projected trans-continental works at Valparaiso, Santiago, and Concepcion. In Valdivia there railway has been constructed on the Chilian side as far as Salto del are iron-foundries for the manufacture of saws and other tools for Soldado, but 46 miles of line are still required to unite it with the forest work. Other industries are distilling from native produce, Argentine section. The capital invested in the State railways up brewing, flour-milling, and sugar-refining.
to the end of 1899 was approximately 85,907,165 pesos, which (at
18d. =1 peso) would be equivalent to £6,443,440. The gross | CHARLES. Chile, and the Chilians. Paris, 1888. VINCENT, revenue in 1899 amounted to 13,997,799 pesos (£1,049,840) and FRANK. Round and about South America. New York, 1890.the expenditure to 13,911,782 pesos (£1,043,280).
HERRMANN, ALBERTO. La Produccion de Oro, Plata i Cobre en Chile. At Santiago there are 65 miles of tramway in process of conver- Santiago, 1894.-MALDONADO, C. ROBERTO. Estudios Geograficos sion so as to be worked by electric traction. At Valparaiso the c Hidrograficos sobre Chiloe. Santiago, 1897.—Estadistica Comertramways are worked by horse-power.
cial de la Republica de Chile, 1899. Valparaiso, 1900–Sinopsis Post, Telegraph, and Telephone. In 1899 the Chilian post-office estadistica y jcografica de la Republica de Chile en 1899. Valpadespatched 13,033,608 letters and post-cards, and 18,907, 252 raiso, 1900.–British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports. printed and other packets; the gross postal revenue amounted to London.—United States Consular Reports. Washington. 1,023,377 pesos (£76,750), and the expenditure to 1,065,612 pesos
(w. W. R.; C. E. A.) (£79, 920). In the same year the State had 9970 miles of telegraph and telephone line, with 11,200 miles of wire, by which during the Political History since 1881. — At the opening of
- year 1,183,691 telegrams were sent and 17,831,234 conversations
1881 the war between Chile and Peru had reached a held, the total telegraph receipts having amounted to 613,003 pesos (£45,975). There were, besides, about 2610 miles of railway stage when the final struggle was close at hand. On 13th and private telegraph line. Telephonic communication has been January of that year the Chilian forces under command established in all the principal towns, and two companies, one of General Baquedano attacked the entrenched positions British, the other Chilian, furnish connexion between Santiago and
of the Peruvians at daybreak in the vicinity of Chorillos, Valparaiso, and between these cities and many smaller towns. Money and Credit.-In Chile there are 23 joint-stock banks of
a village some few miles from Lima and forming issue, with an aggregate registered capital of 40,689,665 pesos the outer line of defence for the capital. The (£3,051,720) and a note issue in July 1898 of 12,733,160 pesos (or, fight was a very severe at par, £954,990)., On 31st July 1898 the national government posted behind loop-holed mud walls, offering a
one—the defenders, Close of advanced to the banks notes amounting to 27,989,929 pesos
most stubborn resistance to the advance of the (£2,099,240) at 2 per cent. interest per annum—the total note issue for which the banks were responsible being thus raised to invading army. The day ended in victory for the 40,723,089 pesos (£3,054,230). In addition, the treasury put in attacking forces, but with a loss of 800 killed and 2500 circulation at the same date notes amounting to 17,693,890 pesos wounded; the Peruvian casualties were 5000 killed, 4000 (£1,327,040), and is also responsible for notes for 1,193,641 pesos
On (£89,520), issued before 1896. There are four banks not banks of wounded, and 2000 officers and men taken prisoners. issue, and also 15 mortgage banks. The latter issue bonds on the following day negotiations for peace were attempted real property for, professedly, not more than half its value, and by the representatives of the foreign powers in Lima, the these bonds are sold in open market. The value in circulation
object being to avoid, if possible, any further bloodshed. in 1899 was officially stated to amount to 155,827,119 pesos (£11,687,030); but as the price of land has recently fallen, several
This attempt to end the conflict proved, however, abortive, estates having been sold at 40 per cent. of their nominal value, and on 15th January at 2 P.M. hostilities recommenced in while large arrears of interest (probably not less than 3,000,000 the neighbourhood of Miraflores. After severe fighting for pesos, or £225,000) are due to the banks, the condition of landed
some four hours the Chilians again proved victorious, and property seems unsatisfactory.
drove the Peruvians from the second line of defence back Monetary System. The monetary unit of Chile is the uncoined gold peso. Under the law of 11th February 1895 the gold coins upon the city of Lima. In this battle the invaders lost are the condor of 20 pesos, the doblon of 10 pesos, and the escudo of 500 men killed and 1625 wounded, the Peruvians about
All gold coins are eleven-twelfths_fine. The doblon 3000 killed and wounded. Lima, the capital of Peru, weighs 5.99103 grammes or 92.4536 grains. The gold peso is of the value of 18d., or 13 pesos are equivalent to £1 sterling. The
was at the mercy of the Chilians after this last action, and peso is equivalent also to 361 United States cents. Under the on 17th January a division of 1000 men of all arms, under same law silver coins are •835 fine. The silver peso weighs 20 the command of General Cornelio Saavedra, was sent grammes or 308.64 grains, and the fractional coinage is of corre
forward to occupy the Peruvian capital and restore order sponding weight. By law of 10th January 1899, however, the coinage of fractional silver money only five-tenths fine to the
within the town limits. A portion of the Chilian forces amount of 5,000,000 pesos within two years was authorized. was shortly afterwards withdrawn from Peru, and the
Specie payments and the exchange of gold for silver by the mint army of occupation remaining in the conquered country resumed on 1st June 1895 were suspended by Act of 31st July 1898, which authorized the issue of 50,000,000 pesos in paper had been specially promoted for distinguished services
was in charge of Admiral Patricio Lynch, an officer who money with a forced circulation, and empowered the president to raise a loan of £4,000,000 sterling for the ultimate withdrawal of during the war. President Anibal Pinto of Chile now set the notes. The immediate result was the withdrawal of gold and about to find means to conclude a treaty of peace with silver from circulation and a rapid fall in the value of the notes, Peru, but his efforts in this direction were frustrated by which at the end of 1899 were still at a discount of 18 per cent.
the armed resistance offered in the country districts to the In 1901 the conversion scheme was postponed till October 1903.
Chilian authorities by the remainder of the Peruvian Weights and Measures. — The metric system of weights and forces under command of General Cáceres. So matters measures is the legal standard of Chile, but the old Spanish continued the Chilians administering on the seaboard methods are still widely used, especially in reference to mining and and in the principal towns, the Peruvians maintaining farm produce. Nitrate of soda, even in official reports, is almost invariably calculated by the quintal (101:40 English pounds). In
a guerilla warfare in the mountainous districts of the silver and copper mining the marc (8 ounces) is commonly used to interior. In September 1881 the term of office of express the richness of the metal. Farm produce is generally sold President Pinto expired, and he was succeeded in the post by the arroba or fanega, whilst the vara in lineal measurement,
of chief executive of Chile by President Domingo Santa and the cuadra for indicating the superficial area of land, are customary amongst the country people.
Maria. Ex-President Pinto died three years later in AUTHORITIES. —ASTA-BURUAGA, F. S. Diccionario Geografico Valparaiso, leaving a memory respected and admired by de la Republica de Chile. Leipzig, 1899.-ECHEVERRIA Y REYES, all political parties in his country. The name of Pinto ANIBAL. Geografia Politica de Chile. Santiago, 1888, 2 vols.
will always occupy a prominent place in the annals of CHILD, THEODORE. The Spanish-American Republics. London, 1891. ---ESPINOZA, ENRIQUE. Geografia Descriptiva de la Republica Chilian history, not only because the war with Peru took de Chile. Santiago, 1897.—IDEM. Geografia Descriptiva de la place during his term of office, but also on account of the Republica de Chile. Santiago, 1892.—FIGUEROA, P. P. Diccio- fact that it was largely due to the intelligent direction of nario biografico nacional, 1550-1891. Santiago, 1891.--FITZGERALD,
all details by the President during the struggle that the E. A. The Highest Andes. London, 1899. -FLORES-Ruiz, FRANCO J. Guia de Immigrante en la Republica de Chile. Santiago, 1890.
Chilian arms proved so absolutely successful by land and -HANCOCK, ANSON URIEL. A History of Chile. Chicago, 1893. -HERVEY, M. H. Dark Days in Chile. London, 1892.–KUNZ, Señor Domingo Santa Maria, who now acceded to the HUGO. Chile und die Deutschen Colonien.
, 1891. RUSSELL, WILLIAM HOWARD. A Visit to Chile ana Che Nitrate presidency of Chile, was a Liberal in politics, and had Fields of Tarapacá. London, 1890. — Smith, W. ANDERSON. previously held various important posts under the GovernTemperate Chile: A Progressive Spain. London, 1899.—WIENER,
ment. Under the rule of President Montt he had been