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Transactions. And the relation of Leo Africanus, who describes, as an eye witness, the making of tar on mount Atlas, agrees in substance, with the methods used by the Macedonians of old, and the people of New England at this day.

18. Jonstonus in his Dendrographia, is of opi. nion, that pitch was anciently made of cedar, as well as of the pine and fir grown old and oily. It should seem indeed that one and the same word was used by the ancients in a large fenfe, fo as to comprehend the juices issuing from all those trees. Tar and all sorts of exsudations from evergreens are, in a general acceptation, included under the name resin. Hard coarse resin or dry pitch is made from tar, by letting it blaze till the moisture is spent. Liquid resin is properly an oily viscid juice oozing from the bark of evergreen trees, either spontaneousy or by incision. It is thought to be the oil of the bark inspiffated by the sun. As it issues from the tree it is liquid, but becomes dry and hard being condensed by the sun or by fire.

19. According to Theophraftus, resin was ob. tained by stripping off the bark from pines, and by incisions made in the silver for and the pitch pine. The inhabitants of mount Ida, he tells us, ftripped the trunk of the pine on the sunny side two or three cubits from the ground. He observes that a good pine might be made to yield resin every year; and indifferent every other year; and the weaker trees once in three years; and that three runnings were as much as a tree could bear. It is remarked by the fame author, that a pine doth not at once produce fruit and resin, but the former only in its youth, the latter in its old age.

20. Turpentine is a fine resin. Four kinds of this are in use. The curpentine of Chios or Cy.


prus which flows from the turpentine tree; the Venice turpentine which is got by piercing the Larch tree; the Strasburgh Turpentine which Mr. Ray informs us is procured from the knots of the silver fir; it is fragrant and grows yellow with 'age: The fourth kind is common turpentine, neither transparent, nor so liquid as the former; and this Mr. Riy taketh to flow from the mountain pine. All these curpentines are useful in the same intentions. Theophrastus faith the best resim or curpentine is got from the Terebinthus growing in Syria and some of the Greek inands.' The next best from the Qlver for and pitch pine.

21. Turpentine is on all hands allowed to have great medicinal virtues. Tar and it's infusion contain those virtues. Tar. water is extremely pectoral and restorative, and, if I may judge from what experience I have had, ic pofleffech the most valuable qualities ascribed to the several balsams of Peru, of Tolu, of Capivi, and even to the balm of Gilead; such is it's virtue in asthmas and pleurílies, in obstructions and ulcerous erosions of the inward parts. Baisams, as hath been already observed, are apt to offend the stomach. But tar-water may be taken without offending the stomach: For the strengthening whereof it is the best medicine I have ever tried.

22. The folly of man rateth things by their scarceness, but Providence hath made the most use. ful things most common. Among those liquid oily extracts from trees and shrubs which are termed balsams, and valued for medicinal virtues, car may hold it's place as a most valuable balsam. It's fragrancy fhewech, that it is pofseffed of accive qualicies, and it's oiliness, that it is fitted to retain them. This excellent balsam may be purB 2


chased for a penny a pound, whereas the balsam of Judæa, when most plenty, was sold on the very spot that produced it, for double it's weight in silver, if we may credit Pliny; who also informs us that the best balsam of Judæa fowed only from the bark, and that it was adulterated with resin and oil of turpentine. Now comparing the virtues I have experienced in car, with those I find ascribed to the precioas balm of Judæa, of Gilead, or of Mecha (as it is diversy called) I am of opinion, that the latter is not a medicine of more value or efficacy than the former.

23. Pliny supposed amber to be a resin, and to diftis from some species of pine, which he gathered from it's smell. Nevertheless it's being dug out of the earth shews it to be a foslil, though of a very different kind from other fossils. But thus much is certain, that the medicinal virtues of amber are to be found in the balsamic juices of pines and firs. Particularly the virtues of the most valuable preparation, I mean falt of amber, are in a great degree answered by tar-water, as a detergent, diaphoretic, and diuretic.

24. There is, as hath been already observed, more or less oil and balsam in all evergreen trees, which retains the acid spirit, that principle of life and verdure ; the not retaining whereof in sufficient quantity, causeth other plants to droop and wither. Of these evergreen trees productive of resin, pitch, and tar, Pliny enumerates six kinds in Europe ; Jonstonus reckons up thrice that number of the pine and fir family. And indeed, their number, their variety, and their likeness makes it difficult to be exact.

25. It is remarked both by Theophrastus and Jonstonus, that trees growing in low and shady places do not yield so good tar, as those which


grow in higher and more exposed situations. And. Theophrastus further observes, that the inhabitants of mount Ida in Asia, who distinguish the Idæan pine from the maritime, affirm, that the far fowing from the former is in greater plenty, as well as more fragrant than the other. Hence it should seem, the pines or firs in the mountains of Scotland, might be employed chat way, and rendred valua ble; even where the timber, by it's remoteness from water-carriage, is of small value. What we call the Scotch fir is falny so called, being in truth a wild forest pine, and (as Mr. Ray inforins us) agreeing much with the description of a pine growing on mount Olympus in Phrygia, probably the only place where it is found out of these inands; in which of late years it is so much planted and cultivated with so little advantage, while the cedar of Lebanon mighe perhaps be raised, with little more trouble, and much more profit and ornament.

26. The pines which differ from the firs in the length and disposition of their leaves and hardness of the wood, do not, in Pliny's account, yield so much resin as the fir trees. Several species of both are accurately described and delineated by the naturalists. But they all agree so far as to seem related. Theophrastus gives the preference to that resin which is goc from the silver fir and picch tree (ελάτη and πίτυς) before that yielded by the pine, which yet, he saich, is in greater plenty. Pliny, on the contrary, affirms that the pine producech the smallest quantity. It shou'd seem therefore that the interpreter of Theophraftus might have been mistaken, in rendering worn by pinus, as well as Jonstonus, who likewise takes the pine for the worn of Theophrastus. Hardouin will have the pinus of Pliny to have been by others called wo'xn, but by Theophraftus wítus. Ray thinks the common

fir, or picea of the Latins, to be the male fir of Theophrastus. This was probably the spruce fir; for the picea, according to Pliny, yields much relin; loves a cold and mountainous licuation, and is distinguished, consili facilitate, by it's fitness to be fhorn, which agrees with the spruce fir, whereof I have seen close Thorn hedges.

27. There seems to have been some confusion in the naming of these trees, as well among the ancients as the moderns. The ancient Greek and Latin names are by later authors applied very differently. Pliny himself acknowledgeth, it is not easy even for the skilful to distinguish the trees by their leaves, and know their sexes and kinds: and that difficulty is fince much encreased, by the discovery of many new species of that evergreen tribe, growing in various parts of the globe. But dercriptions are not so easily misapplied as names, Theophrastus tells us, that witus differeth from so'rn, among other things, in that it is neither fo tall nor so streight, nor hach so large a leal. The fir he distinguishech into male and female: the latter is softer timber than the male, it is allo a taller and fairer tree, and this is probably the silver fir.

28. To say no more on this obscure business which I leave to the critics, I shall observe that according to Theophrastus not only the turpentine trees, the pines, and the firs yield resin or car, but also the cedars and palm trees; and the words pix and resina are taken by Pliny in so large a sense as to include the weepings of the lentiscus and cypress, and the balms of Arabia and Judæa; all which perhaps are near of kin, and in their most useful qualities concur with common tar, especially the Norvegian, which is the most liquid and best for medicinal uses of any that I have experienced. Those trees that grow on mountains, exposed to


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