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2658 Cromwell dies, and is succeeded in the protectorship by his son Richard. 1660 King Charles II, is restored by Monk, commander of the army, after an exile of

twelve years in France and Holland. Episcopacy restored in England and Scotland. The people of Denmark, being oppressed by the nobles, furrender their pri.

vileges to Frederic III. who becomes absolute. 1662 The Royal Society established at London by Charles II. 1663 Carolina plant d; 1728, divided into two separate governments. 1664 The New Netherlands, in North America, conquered from the Swedes and Dutch,

by the English. 1665 The plague rages in London, and carries off 68,000 persons. 1666 The great fire of London began Sept. 2. and continued three days, in which

were destroyed 13,000 houtes, and 400 ftreets.

Tea first used in England. 1667 The peace of Breda, which confirms to the English the New Netherlands, now

known by the names of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. 1668

ditto, Aix-la-Chapelle. St. James's Park planted, and made a thoroughfare for public use, by Charles II. 1670 The English Hudson's Bay company incorporated. 1672 Lewis XIV. over-runs great part of Holland, when the Dutch open their Nuices,

being determined to drown their country, and retire to their fettlements in the

East Indies.

African company established, 1678 The peace of Nimeguen.

The habeas corpus act passed. 1680 A great comet appeared, and from its nearness to our earth, alarmed the inhabi

tants. It continued visible from Nov. 3. to March 9.

William Penn, a Quaker, receives a charter for planting Pennsylvania. 1683 India stock fold from 360 to 500 per cent, 1685 Charles II. dies, aged 55, and is fucceeded by his brother Janies II.

The duke of Monmouth, natural son to Charles II. raises a rebellion, but is de

feated at the battle of Sedgmoor, and beheaded. The edict of Nantes infamously revoked by Lewis XIV. and the Protestants

cruelly persecuted. 1687 The palace of Versailles, near Paris, finished by Lewis XIV. 1688 The Revolution in Great Britain begins, Nov. 5. King James abdicates, and

retires to France, December 3. King. William and Queen Mary, daughter and son-in-law to James, are pro

claimed, February 16. Viscount Dundee itands out for James in Scotland, but is killed by general

Mackey, at the battle of Killycrankie; upon which the Highlanders, wearied

with repeated misfortunes, difperse. 1689 The land-tax paffed in England.

The toleration act pafled in ditto.
Several bishops are deprived for not taking the oath to king William.
William Fuller, who pretended to prove the prince of Wales fpurious, was voted

by the commons to be a notorious cheat, impostor, and false accuser. 1690 The battle of the Boyne, gained by William against James in Ireland. 1691 The War in Ireland finished, by the surrender of Limerick to William. 1692 The English and Dutch fleets, commanded by admiral Russel, defeat the French

fleet off La Hogue. 1693 Bayonets at the end of loaded muskets firft used by the Frerch against the Con.

federates in the battle of Turin.
The duchy of Hanover made the ninth electorate.
Bank of England established by king William.
The first public lottery was drawn this year.

Massacre of Highlanders at Glencoe, by king William's troops. 1694 Queen Mary dies at the age of 33, and William reigns alone. Stamp duties instituted in England.

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1696 The 1696 The peace of Ryswick. 1699 The Scots settled a colony at the isthmus of Darien, in America, and called it

Caledonia. 1700 Charles XII. of Sweden begins his reign.

King James II. dies at St. Germain's in the 68th year of his age. 1701 Prullia erected into a kingdom.

Society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts established. 1702 King William dies, aged 50, and is fucceeded by Queen Anne, daughter to

James II. who, with the emperor and States General, renews the war againt

France and Spain. 1704 Gibraltar taken from the Spaniards by admiral Rooke.

The battle of Blenheim won by the duke of Marlborough and Allies, against the


The court of Exchequer instituted in England. 1706 The treaty of Union betwixt England and Scotland, signed July 2z.

The battle of Ramilies won by Marlborough and the Allies. 1707 The first British parliament. 1708 Minorca taken from the Spaniards by general Stanhope.

The battle of Oudenarde won by Marlborough and the Allies.

Sardinia erected into a kingdom, and given to the duke of Savoy. 1709 Peter the Great, czar of Muscovy, defeats Charles XII. at Pultowa, who fies

to Turkey.

The battle of Malplaquet won by Marlborough and the Allies. 1710 Queen Anne changes the Whig Ministry for others more favourable to the inte

rest of her brother, the late Pretender. The cathedral church of St. Paul, London, rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, în

37 years, at one million expence, by a duty on coals..

The English South Sea company began. 1712 Duke of Hamilton and lord Mohun killed in a duel in Hyde-Park. 1713 The peace of Utrecht, whereby Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Britain, and

Hudson's Bay, in North America, were yielded to Great Britain ; Gibraltar and

Minorca, in Europe, were also confirmed to the faid crown by this treaty. 1714 Queen Anne dies, at the age of fifty, and is fucceeded by George I.

Interest reduced to five per cent. 1715 Lewis XIV. dies, and is fucceeded by his great-grandson, Lewis XV.

The rebellion in Scotland begins in September, under the earl of Mar, in favour

of the Pretender. The action of Sheriff-muir, and the surrender of Prefton,

both in November, when the rebels disperse. 1716 The Pretender married to the princess Sobieski, grand-daughter of John Sobieski,

late king of Poland.

An act passed for septennial parliaments. 1719 The Millillipi scheme at its height in France.

Lombe’s filk-throwing machine, containing 26,586 wheels, erected at Derby;

takes up one-eighth of a mile; one water-wheel moves the rest; and in 24 hours it works 318,504,960 yards of organzine filk thread. The South Sea scheme in England begun April 7; was at its height at the end

of June; and quite funk about September 29. 1727 King George I. dies, in the 68th year of his age ; and is succeeded by his only

fon, George II.
Inoculation first tried on criminals with success.

Rufia, formerly a dukedom, is now established as an empire. 1732 Kouli Khan usurps the Persian throne, conquers the Mogul empire, and returns

with two hundred and thirty one millions sterling. Several public-spirited gentlemen begin the settlement of Georgia, in North

America. 1736 Capt. Porteus, having ordered his soldiers to fire upon the populace, at the execution of a smuggler, is himself hanged by the mob at Edinburgh.

1738 Weltminter

1738 Westminster-Bridge, consisting of fifteen arches, begun; finished in 1750 at the

expence of 389,000 l. defrayed by parliament. 1739 Letters of marque issued out in Britain against Spain, July 21, and war declared,

Oktober 23. 1743 The battle of Dettingen won by the Englih and Allies, in favour of the queen of

Hungary. 1744 War declared against France.

Commodore Anfon returns from his voyage round the world. 1745 The allies lose the battle of Fontenoy.

The rebellion breaks out in Scotland, and the Pretender's army defeated by the

duke of Cumberland, at Colloden, April 16, 1746. 1746 British Linen Company erected. 1748 The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, by which a restitution of all places, taken during

the war, was to be made on all fides. 1749

The interest of the British funds reduced to three per cent.

British herring fishery incorporated. 1751 Frederic, prince of Wales, father to his present majesty, died.

Antiquarian society at London incorporated. 1752 The new style introduced into Great Britain, the third of September being count

ed the fourteenth. 1753 The British Museum erected at Montagu-house.

Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, instituted in London, 1755 Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake. 1756 146 Englishmen are confined in the black hole at Calcutta, in the East Indies, by

order of the Nabob, and 123 found dead next morning.

Marine society eltablished at London. 1757 Damien attempted to affallinate the French king. 1759 General Wolfe is killed in the battle of Quebec, which is gained by the Eng

lish. 1760 King George II. dies, October 25, in the 77th year of his age, and is fucceeded

by his present majesty, who, on the 22d of September, 1761, married the

princess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz. Black-Friars bridge, consisting of nine arches, begin; finished 1770, at the ex

pence of 52,840 l, to be discharged by a toll. Toll taken off 1783. 1762 War declared against Spain.

Peter III. emperor of Russia, is deposed, imprisoned, and murdered.
American Philosophical Society established in Philadelphia.

George Augustus Frederic, prince of Wales, born August 12. 1763 The definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portu

gal, concluded at Paris, February 10, which confirms to Great Britain the extensive provinces of Canada, East and Wett Florida, and part of Louisiana, in North America; also the islands of Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica, and

Tobago, in the Welt Indies. 1764 The parliament granted 10,000 1. to Mr. Harrison, for his discovery of the lon

gitude by his time-piece. 1765 His majesty's royal charter passed for incorporating the Society of Artists.

An act passed annexing the sovereignty of the island of Man to the crown of

Great Britain. 1766 April 21, a spot or macula of the sun, more than thrice the bigness of our earth,

passed the sun's centre. 1768 Academy painting established in London.

The Turks imprison the Russian ambasador, and declare war against that em.

pire. 1771 Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks, in his majesty's ship the Endeavour, lieut. Cook,

return from a voyage round the world, having made several important disco

veries in the South Seas. 1772 The king of Sweden changes the constitution of that kingdom.

The Pretender marries a princess of Germany, grand-daughter of Thomas, late earl of Aylesbury.

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1772 The

1772 The emperor of Germany, empress of Ruslia, and the king of Pruffia, ftrip the

king of Poland of great part of his dominions, which they divide among

themselves, in violation of the mos folemn treaties. 1773 Captain Phipps is sent to explore the North Pole, but having made eighty-one

degrees, is in danger of being locked up by the ice, and his attempt to discover a paflage in that quarter proves fruitless. The Jesuits expelled from the Pope's dominions. The English Eaft India Company having, by conquest or treaty, acquired the ex

tensive provinces of Bengal, Orixa, and Bahar, containing fifteen millions of inhabitants, great irregularities are committed by their servants abroad; upon which government interferes, and sends out judges, &c. for the better admi.

nistration of justice. The war between the Russians and Turks proves disgraceful to the latter, who

lose the islands in the Archipelago, and by sea are every where unsuccessful. 1774 Peace is proclaimed between the Russians and Turks.

The British parliament having paffed an act, laying a duty of three-pence per

pound upon all teas imported into America, the Colonists, confidering this as

a grievance, deny the right of the British parliament to tax them. Deputies from the fevral American colonies meet at Philadelphia, as the fri

General Congress, Sept. 5.

First petition of Congress to the King, November. 1775 April 19, The firit action happened in America between the king's troops and

the provincials at L xington. May 20, Articles of confederation and perpetual union between the American

provinces. June 1, A bloody action at Bunker's Hill, between the royal troops and the

Americans. 1776 March 17, The town of Bollon evacuated by the king's troops.

An unsuccessful attempt, in July, made by commodore Sir Peter Parker, and lieu

tenant-general Clinton, upon Charles Town, in South Carolina.
The Congress declare the American colonies free and independent states, July 4
The Americans are driven from Long Iland, New York, in August, with great

loss, and great numbers of them taken prisoners; and the city of New York is

afterwards taken peffefion of by the king's troops. December 25, General Washington takes 900 of the Hessians prisoners at Tren.


Torture abolished in Polard. 1777 General Howe takes poffefiion of Philadelphia.

Lieutenant general Burgoyne is obliged to surrender his army at Saratoga, in

Canada, by convention, to the American army under the command of the ge

nerals Gates and Arnold, O&ober 17. 1778 A treaty of alliance concluded at Paris between the French king and the thirteen

united American colonies, in which their independence is acknowledged by the

court of France, February 6. The remains of the earl of Chatham interred at the public expence in Westmin

fter Abbey, June 9, in confequence of a vote of parliament. The earl of Carlisle, William Eden, Efq; and George Johnstone, Esq; arrive at

Philadelphia the beginning of June, as commissioners for restoring peace be

tween Great Britain and America. Philadelphia evacuated by the king's troops, June 18. The Congress refuse to creat with the Britih commissioners, unless the indepen

dence of the American colonies were firit acknowledged, or the king's feets

and armies withdrawn from America. An engagement fought off Breit between the English feet under the command

of admiral Keppel, and the French fleet under the command of the count d'Or

villiers, July 27.
Dominic takin by the French, Sept. 7.
Pondicherry surrenders to the arms of Great Britain, O&. 17.
St. Lucia taken from the French, Dec. 28.

1779 St. 1779 St. Vincent's taken by the French.

Grenada taken by the French, July 3.
1780 Torture in courts of justice abolished in France.

The Inquisition abolished in the duke of Modena's dominions.
Adiniral Rodney takes twenty-two fail of Spanith thips, Jan. 8.
The same admiral alio enga es a Spanish tleet under the command of Don Juan

de Langara, near Cape St. Vincent, and takes five ships of the line, one more

being driven on thore, and another blown up, Jan. 16.
Three actions between admiral Rodney, and the count de Guichen, in the Weft

Indies, in the months of April and May; but none of them decisive.
Charles Town, South Carolina, surrenders to Sir Henry Clinton, May 4.
Pensacola, and the whole province of West Florida, surrender to the arms of the

king of Spain, May 9.
The Protestant Association, to the number of 50,000 go up to the house of Com-

mons, with their petition for the repeal of an act pasled in favour of the Papiiis,

June 2.
That event followed by the moit daring riots, in the city of London, and in

Southwark, for several successive days, in which some Popish chapels are de-
stroyed, together with the prisons of Newgate, the King's Bench, the Fleet,
several private houses, &c. These alarming riots are at length iuppressed by
the interposition of the military, and many of the rioters tried and executed

for felony.
Five Englith East Indiamen, and fifty English merchant ships bound for the West

Indies, taken by the combined fleets of France and Spain, Aug. 8.
Earl Cornwallis obtains a signal victory over general Gates, near Camden, in

South Carolina, in which above 1000 American prisoners are taken, Aug. 16.
Mr. Laurens, late president of the Congress, taken in an American packet, near

Newfoundland, Sept. 3.
General Arnold deferts the service of the Congress, escapes to New York, and is

made a brigadier-general in the royal service, Sept. 24.
Major André, adjutant-general to the British army, hanged as a spy at Tappan,

in the province of New York, Oct. 2.
Mr. Laurens is committed priioner to the Tower, on a charge of high treason,

October 4.
Dreadful hurricanes in the West Indies, by which great devastation is made in
Jamaica, Barbadoes, St. Lucia, Dominica, and other Illands,

ard 10. A declaration of hoftilities published againit Holland, Dec. 20. 1781 The Dutch island of St. Euitatia taken by admiral Rodney and general Vaughan,

Feb. 3. Retaken by the French, Nov. 27.
Earl Cornwallis obtains a vi&tory, but with consideroble loss, over the Americans

under general Green, at Guildford, in North Carolina, March 15.
The island of Tobago taken by the French, June 2.
A bloody engagement fought between an English squadron under the command of

admiral Parker, and a Dutch squadron under the command of admiral Zout

man, off the Dogger-bank, Aug. 5. Earl Cornwallis, with a considerable British army, surrendered prisoners of war to

the American and French troops, under the command of general Walhington

and count Rochambeau, at York-town, in Virginia, O&t. 19.
1782 Trincomale, on the island of Ceylon, taken by admiral Hughes, Jan. II.

Minorca turrender:d to the arms of the king of Spain, Feb. 5.
The island of St. Christopher taken by the French, Feb. 12.
The island of Nevis, in the West Lidies, taken by the French, Feb. 14.
Montserrat taken by the French, Feb. 22.
The house of commons addreis tue king against any farther prosecution of offen-

five war on the continent of America, Mar. 4; and resolve, That that
house would consider all those as enemies to his mjetty, and this country,
who should advise, or by any means attempt, the iurilor profecutio i of offen-
five war on the continent of North Amcrica, for the purpose of reducing the
revolied colonies to obedience by force.

1782 Admiral

Oct. 3.

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