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such employment in the character I have recommended you to adopt.
I know that very many of you, both fathers and mothers, fully realise the advantages I have recommended; and that you do, both by wise counsel and good example, exert an influence productive to your families of much happiness. Of such exemplary characters there is one of your own class whose beDevolent head, hoary now with increasing years, and whose calm and placid countenance, and many others, as I know-delight to see every Sunday; his entire appearance is expressive of outward respect for himself and for others, and of peaceful, quiet, holy happiness within. No violent passions, no ruinous propensities, no vicious course, have marred bis visage with hard lines; no dissipation has dimmed the brightness of his eye. Content to do his best-to follow out unaffectedly the simple duties he delights in,-he walks among the young, gently rebuking one, benignly advising another, kindly superintending all. He is, so far as I can form an opinion, the pattern of a good and happy man. I will not mention his name: many of you will know probably to whom I allude ; and if those who do not will go and judge for themselves, I am sure they will agree with the character I have described. Such men are gentlemen, in every true and natural sense of that term: and such you may all be-without extra cost of money, without pain, and without any discomfort—if you will earnestly improve the means you possess. I trust many more of you will now believe that, however poor you may be, there is a wise economy within your reach, of time, money, health, and comfort. With a desire to help forward the theory I advocate, I will now describe the two or three plans I think will prove beneficial.
The first is, to establish a penny bank. The title is modest and unpretending, but the results, if encouraged by you, will be productive of benefits at
present incalculable. Such banks have now been in operation for some time, and have fully proved the advantages anticipated; and that, if you will take care of the pennies, the pounds will take care of themselves. The Savings Banks,-as many of you know, greatly to you comfort,- provident means of accumulating sums of money by small deposits of silver. They worked, and continue to work, so well, so beneficially for the depositors, that it was considered a lower system of banking, -one that would receive as little as one penny,—would reach a class who frequently would be able to save pence, but who could not save shillings. To give you an instance: -a gentleman the other day was telling me, that he and two or three others had established about twelve months since, I think, a penny bank in his neighbourhood, in the vicinity of Manchester; that already they held in trust £120, received in pence only, from a very small population as compared with ours. I am not prepared at present to describe in detail every particular which may ultimately be brought into operation; but I will trust that a few gentlemen will charge themselves with the care requisite for the formation and carrying out the principles and practice of a penny bank, Fixed days and places must be appointed for receiving deposits; as small a sum as a penny to be received ; and when the entries to the credit of each depositor shall amount to 5s., that sum shall then be carried to an account with the Savings Bank, where it would have the advantage of the Government interest. Each depositor would have a cheque book, in which would be entered his deposits. I expect that very many, especially among young people, will avail themselves of this simple and safe mode of economy, and so acquire a habit of frugality and prudence which will shield them against the temptation to indulgences beyond their means,—will be a source of comfort in sickness or distress, will strengthen and elevate their characters, and make them ever thankful for the opportunity of a safe deposit of their first penny.
Many who have not sufficient moral courage to withstand the inducements of the alehouse, while they have pence in their pockets,—who from mere habit, more than from any depravity, spend their money as they earn it,—who think only of the enjovinent of the day, leaving to morrow to provide for itself, --will probably occasionally bring a few pence; and when once they find pleasure in doing so (a result which invariably follows), will continue that prudence. And when the hour of need arrives, instead of making application to the ruinous Loan Societies, - which, however well conducted, are, in my opinion, which I have formed upon the numerous cases brought before my brother magistrates and myself, productive of far more loss and misery than gain or comfort;-(sad reason have I for saying so, for in one day only it has been my painful duty to issue more than thirty orders for payment, with the power to distrain;)—instead of having to seek relief as a parish pauper;—or of asking alms from others; —they will then have the independent satisfaction of asking only for their own, out of the store of their olen industry. The advantages and benefits to be derived, are, indeed, so manifest, that I will not occupy your time by expatiating upon them; but will proceed to recommend to you a plan for promoting health and comfort, and that is, the establishment of baths, both warm and cold. My attention was first directed to this subject by an interesting statement made to me by a friend, who is one of the Commissioners of the public baths and wash-houses, in the parish of Marylebone, London. gestion, I visited the institution, and was shewn the working of the system, and had the personal explanations of the manager. He informed me, that from that parish alone, 170,000 bathers yearly used those baths. The major portion were young per
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sons, who derived therefrom so much pleasure as well as benefit, that bathing was considered one of their chief enjoyments.
Hear Abernethy's opinion :“Next to cating and sleeping, the Swimming Bath ranks among the very foremost of the necessaries and supports of life. It is of far higher consequence, and of more general utility than any kind of manual exercise, gymnastic, or sport. It does not supersede, but it ought to come before these other practices. Time should be therefore found for the bath among the regular occupations of life; it ought to be a permanent institution, ranking immediately after the prime necessaries of our being.
There certainly does not exist a greater device in the art of living, or a greater instrument for securing a vigorous and buoyant existence. It is one of the most powerful diversions to the current of business occupation; it can suspend for a time the pressure of our pursuits and anxieties, and return us fresh for the enjoyment of our other delights. To the three varieties
of state which our bodies daily pass through, eating, working, sleeping, it would add a fourth, luxurious in it. self, and increasing the relish for all the rest. It would contribute to realize the perfect definition of a good animal existence, which is, to have the appetite always fresh for whatever may be before it." I have mentioned this subject to a few interested in the same, because they have found so much enjoyment in bathing. They have made many inquiries into the management and success of such establishments about Manchester; and the result is so favourable, that we may with safety and remuneration to the promoters, establish on a moderate scale such an institution as shall be productive to this neighbourhood of the benefits I have described.
I have another plan (for I may as well give you all the contents of my budget now,-you may not have so much patience with me another time,) for the exclusive comfort of the men, You of the softer sex
must not frown, or be angry at such a proposition; for you will find it produce advantages to you. I have often noticed weavers and others, -weary, perhaps, with hours of incessant toil,-go out of their houses to some locality where they meet others who have songht the same relaxation : their exchange is generally by the side of a wall, or a hedge, or such like uncomfortable looking place; and I have wondered where the same individuals would go to in the evening: and having understood that there are frequent morning adjournments to the public-house, I have concluded those places are the resort of many who visit them, because they have out of their own houses, and away from their work, but little social enjoyinent provided for them.
Now "all work and no play makes Jack a dull (sometimes a bad) boy." I am no advocate for labour without refreshment to the mind as well as to the body. The opulent classes have their club houses as places of social resort, where men meet together, and exchange compliments and general opinions, with mutual profit and pleasure,—though abused sometimes as all things are.
I see no reason why you should not have your club-houses. I see D' reason why you should not enjoy as much social confort as you can afford with prudence. You have Literary Institutions for the innocent pleasures of the tuin). Why not, then, have equally suitable for the person? All social meetings, it well-conducted, tend to self-improvement; but mere instructive establishments have not that cheerful, cosy, and comfortable character which you require at times. Man becomes careless of himself, when he leads a solitary or unsocial life: but when he associates with others, recognising the universal rules of propriety am good behaviour, in respecting them he soon learns to respect himself. I would, therefore, recommend you to form by subscription an Operative Club-house,
-or, as that title is scarcely becoming,