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foreman to set out and excavate the trench truly. These sight-rails should be strong, and should also be securely fixed on firm ground; that is, beyond the influence of the excavation to be made, and if the sub-strata is peaty, or such as will shrink under pumping, to lower the subsoil water, care must be taken that the sight-rail or bench-mark to be worked to is in such position as to remain unaffected, or the result will be a crippled sewer, that is, the grade and line will not be true.

21. Sewers having steep gradients should have full means for ventilation at the highest points,

22. Tall chimneys may be used with advantage for sewer and drain ventilators, if the owners will allow a connection to be made.

23. Sewer-outlet works should be simple in form, cheap in construction, and so arranged as tu remove all solids, sediment, and floculent matter from the sewage. Some diagrams of works of this character will be found at the end of these “Suggestions.”

Inspection manholes should always be constructed at the front and back of each house to facilitate the regular inspection and cleansing of the house-drains. By this arrangement the drains are placed under such control as is unattainable by other methods of construction.

Students desiring information as to formation of streets, and town surveyor's duties, should peruse the book “Sanitary Engineering,” by H. Percy Boulnois, Borough Engineer, Portsmouth.

K

CHAPTER XIII.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AND REPORTS.

In all matters where an opinion upon a legal question is required, it will be clearly understood that the clerk to the sanitary authority, who of course is nearly always a solicitor, is the proper person to seek advice from, but it may be as well to explain that my motive in making remarks on this subject is that there are always many little matters in an inspector's practice in which he will be called upon to give opinions without having an opportunity to consult the clerk, and as a rule clerks cannot be troubled with so many matters, unless of great importance.

In making out forms, notices, and other documents under the Acts, great care should be exercised in following as closely as possible the exact wording of the Act.

It will be necessary on an inspector entering upon a new (country) appointment, to direct the attention of the committee to the 259th section of the Public Health Act, 1875, and have a resolution on the books authorizing him to appear in prosecutions on their behalf, presuming that the same method is adopted as is carried out in most large towns, namely, that the inspector conducts his own sanitary prosecutions, which in my opinion is advisable, except in very important defended cases, when the clerk should be called in.

In giving evidence before the magistrates, inspectors will do well not to appear to want to press cases against defendants too severely. It is advisable to leave that to the discretion of the bench.

The words of J. Ashurst are well worth remembering, when he said :

“It is beyond the power of the law to rectify men's minds, and to infuse into them that noble fire which burns in the breasts of good men, and prompts them to doing of praiseworthy actions, and promoting the happiness of their country and the good of their fellow creatures; but it is in the power of the law to take from evil-minded men the ability of doing mischief, and to restrain them of that liberty which they so grossly abuse."

The inspector will be able to do a good deal by persuasion, which in many cases is preferable to the application of the law.

In carrying out the provisions of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1875, the purchaser, who is usually the sanitary inspector, must be cautious in asking very exactly for what he requires, and not to inform the vendor of the purpose for which the sample is required until the purchase is completed and the change received. He must not do as I have known done, that is, send into the shop some other person to make the purchase on his behalf, inasmuch as the purchaser must be some one of the persons specified in the 13th section of the Act.

While on this subject, two defects in the Act may be pointed out.

The first, which affects the consumer mostly, is that the Act requires that a label shall be affixed to articles sold, stating that such article is sold as a mixture, whereas the label ought to contain the nature and quantity of such mixture. And for this reason. We will take cocoa as an example, which has been found to contain over eighty per cent. of foreign matter, such as sugar and starch, very few persons ever expecting to know that they have been purchasing such an article.

The next defect affects the sanitary inspector in a very serious manner, which may be explained thus :Sanitary inspectors are appointed by the sanitary authority; any increase of salary has to be sanctioned by this body; in fact, as we all know, they have thorough control in all respects, which generally speaking is quite right.

It so happens, however, that a few of the dealers in the articles included in this Act are members of such sanitary authorities. Without casting any slight upon members of sanitary authorities, it will be at once seen the very disadvantageous position in which the officials are placed.

It seems quite clear that to expect the carrying out of this Act in a creditable manner, all the inspectors engaged on this work should be under the entire control of the “Local Government Board,” who should appoint such a number as should devote their whole time to the work.

That this would work a great change, I have no hesitation in saying.

The inspector will, of course, be subject to special instructions of his committee as to presenting reports. It is, however, the custom generally for him to write out a weekly, fortnightly, or monthly report according to the times of meeting. It is also advisable for him to be present at all sanitary committee meetings. In the circular issued by the Sanitary Institute, we are informed that each candidate must at their examinations write out a presumed week's work. I have, therefore, introduced the following report, which may be taken as an ordinary specimen of an inspector's weekly report :

TO THE CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE SANITARY COMMITTEE OF THE

DISTRICT.

GENTLEMEN,

I have respectfully to report to you as follows, for the week ending December 8th :

As per resolution No. -, I have made a special inspection of the south end of

Street, and found many of the dwellings in a filthy and overcrowded condition. The requisite notices have in each case been issued.

In accordance with a summons ordered by you to be issued two weeks

ago, Mr. appeared before the city magistrates on Tuesday last, when an order was made upon him to construct a roof to his ashpit in

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