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Here is the sketch of Coleridge as he appeared to a con- Lord Aberdare) and another friend, Coleridge said: temporary :

“There is a trial coming on which will be one of the Fair-haired and tall, slim but of stately mien,

most remarkable causes célèbres that has ever been heard Inheritor of a high poetic name,

of.” This was the Tichborne case, of which so much was Another, in the bright bloom of nineteen,

said ere many weeks had passed over, and which led to Fresh from the pleasant fields of Eton came : Whate'er of beautiful or poet sung

proceedings in the criminal courts rising almost to the Or statesman uttered, round his memory clung;

dignity of a political event. These two trials were the Before him shone resplendent heights of fame.

most conspicuous features of Coleridge's later years at the

Bar, and tasked his powers as an advocate to the utterWith friends around the board, no wit so fine To wing the jest, the sparkling tale to tell ;

most, though he was assisted by the splendid abilities and Yet ofttimes listening in St. Mary's shrine,

industry of Charies (afterwards Lord) Bowen. In Profounder moods upon his spirit fell :

November 1873 Coleridge succeeded Sir W. Bovill as We heard him then, England has heard him since, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and was immediately Uphold the fallen, make the guilty wince, And the hushed Senate have confessed the spell.

afterwards raised to the Peerage as Baron Coleridge of

Ottery St Mary. In 1880 he was made Lord Chief The other Balliol scholars celebrated in the same poem Justice of England on the death of Sir Alexander Cockwere Clough, Pritchard, Archbishop Temple of Canter- burn. bury, Riddell, Matthew Arnold, and Seymour. The last In jury cases his quickness in apprehending facts and his of these, a man of very great promise, died early at lucidity in arranging them were very remarkable indeed. Laibach in Carniola. His sister was Coleridge's first He was not one of the most learned of lawyers, but he wife; they were married when Coleridge was only five was a great deal more learned than many people believed and twenty, and just about the same time he was called him to be, and as an ecclesiastical lawyer had perhaps few to the Bar. Coleridge used to say that the difference or no superiors. His fault-a natural fault in one who between his father and himself was that the former had had been so successful as an advocate- -was that of being started in life with a thousand pounds he had borrowed, too apt to take one side. He allowed, also, certain political while, with better fortune, he had started with a thousand or class prepossessions to interfere somewhat with the pounds of his own. He was called to the Bar on 6th Novem- even course of justice. A game-preserving landlord had ber 1846, and went the Western Circuit, rising steadily, not to thank the gods when his case, however buttressed through more than twenty years of hard work, till in July by undoubted right, came before Coleridge. Towards the 1865 he was returned as member for Exeter in the Liberal end of his life his health failed, and he became somewhat interest. The impression which he made on the heads of indolent. On the whole, he was not so strong a man in his party was so favourable that they determined, early in his judicial capacity as Campbell or Cockburn; but when the session of 1867, to put him forward as the protagonist all has been said that could reasonably be said in his disof their attack on the Conservative Government. But paragement, even Rhadamanthus would have to admit that move seemed to many of their staunchest adherents that his scholarship, his refinement, his power of oratory, unwise, and it was frustrated by the active opposition of a and his character raised the tone of the Bench while he section, including Hastings Russell (later ninth duke of sat upon it, and that if it has been adorned by greater Bedford), his brother Arthur, member for Tavistock, judicial abilities, it has hardly ever been adorned by a Alexander Mitchell of Stow, Kinglake, and Henry Sey- greater combination of varied merits. It is curious to mour. They met to deliberate in the Tea-room of the observe that of all judges the man whom he put highest House, and were afterwards sometimes confounded with was one very unlike himself, the great Master of the Rolls, the Tea-room party which was of subsequent formation Sir William Grant. He died in harness. Early in the and under the guidance of a different group. The pro- ’nineties his friends could see that he began to feel his age. test was sufficient to prevent the contemplated attack He made, indeed, no secret of it; but he might have lasted being made, but the Liberals returned to power in good a little longer if a summer cold had not precipitated the time with a large majority behind them in 1868. Cole- end. He died on 14th June 1891. ridge was made, first, Solicitor-, and then Attorney-General. Coleridge's work, first as a barrister and then as a judge,

As early as 1863 a small body of Oxford men in Parlia- prevented his publishing as much as he otherwise would ment had opened fire against the legislation which kept have done, but his addresses and papers would, if collected, their University bound by ecclesiastical swaddling clothes. fill several volumes and do much honour to his memory. They had made a good deal of progress in converting the One of the best, and one most eminently characteristic of House of Commons to their views before the General the man, was his Inaugural Address to the Philosophical Election of 1865. That election having brought Coleridge Institution at Edinburgh in 1870. He was an exceptionally into Parliament, he was hailed as a most valuable ally, good letter-writer. Of travel he had very little experience. whose great University distinction, brilliant success as an He had hardly entered Paris; once, quite near the end of orator at the Bar, and hereditary connexion with the his career, he spent a few days in Holland, and came High Church party, entitled him to take the lead in a back a willing slave to the genius of Rembrandt; but movement which, although gathering strength, was yet very his longest absence from England was a visit to the far from having achieved complete success. The clerically- United States, which had something of a business minded section of the Conservative party could not but character. It is strange that a man so steeped in listen to the son of Sir John Coleridge, the godson of Greek and Roman poetry, so deeply interested in the Keble, and the representative of the man who had been past, present, and future of Christianity, never saw Rome, the indirect cause of the Anglican revival of 1833,—for or Athens, or the Holy Land. The chief cause, no doubt, John Stuart Mill was right when he said that Coleridge was the fatal custom of neglecting modern languages at and Bentham were, so far as England was concerned, the

English schools. He felt himself at a disadvantage when leaders of the two chief movements of their times : “it was he passed beyond English-speaking lands, and cordially they who taught the teachers, and who were the two great disliked the situation. No notice of Coleridge can omit seminal minds."

to make mention of his extraordinary store of anecdotes, Walking up one evening from the House of Commons which were nearly always connected with Eton, Oxford, to dine at the Athenæum with Henry Bruce (afterwards the Bar, or the Bench. His exquisite voice, considerable


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power of mimicry, and perfect method of narration added College Point, formerly a village of Queens greatly to the charm. He once told, at the table of Dr county, New York, U.S.A., but since January 1, 1898, a Jowett, Master of Balliol, anecdotes through the whole part of the borough of Queens, one of the five boroughs of dinner on Saturday evening, through the whole of constituting the city of New York; on the east shore of

, breakfast, lunch, and dinner the next day, through the Flushing Bay, an arm of Long Island Sound. Population whole journey on Monday morning from Oxford to Pad- (1880), 4192; (1890), 6127. (See New YORK CITY.) dington, without ever once repeating himself. He was frequently to be seen at the Athenæum, was a member Colley, Sir George Pomeroy (1835–1881), both of Grillion's and The Club, as well as of the Literary British general, third son of George Pomeroy Colley of Society, of which he was president, and whose meetings Rathangan, Co. Kildare, Ireland, and grandson of the he very rarely missed. Bishop Copleston is said to have fourth Viscount Harberton, was born on the 1st of divided the human race into three classes,—men, women, November 1835, and entered the 2nd Queen's Regiment and Coleridges. If he did so, he meant, no doubt, to imply from Sandhurst as ensign in 1852. From 1854 to that the men of the family whose chief example was the 1860 he served in South Africa, and was employed poet of “Christabel” had a certain feminine charm com- in surveying and as a magistrate in charge of the Bashi bined with a trace of feminine weakness. In John Duke river district in Kaffraria. Early in 1860 he went Coleridge the charm was certainly present.

with his regiment to China to join the Anglo-French Coleridge's first wife died in 1878. She was an artist Expedition, and took part in the capture of the Taku Forts of real genius, and her portrait of Cardinal Newman was and the entry into Peking (medal and clasp), returning to considered much better than the one by Millais. A short South Africa to complete his work in Kaffraria (brevetnotice of her by Dean Church of St Paul's was published majority). In 1862 he entered the Staff College and in the Guardian on 13th February 1878, and was reprinted passed out in one year with honours. After serving as in her husband's privately printed collection of poems. brigade-major at Devonport for five years he went to the Coleridge remained for many years a widower, but married War Office in 1870 to assist in the preparation of Mr in 1886 Amy Augusta Jackson Lawford, daughter of Cardwell's measures of army reform. He was appointed Henry Baring Lawford, Esq., who survived him. He was professor of military administration at the Staff College in succeeded in the peerage by his eldest son, Bernard John in 1871. Early in 1873 he joined Sir Garnet Wolseley at Seymour.

(M. G. D.) the Gold Coast, where he took charge of the transport,

and the success of the Ashanti Expedition was in no Colfax, Schuyler (1823–1885), vice-president small degree due to his exertions (medal, brevet colonelcy, of the United States, was born in New York City on and C.B.). In 1875 he accompanied Wolseley to Natal the 23rd of March 1823, and died in Mankato, Minn., (C.M.G.). On his return home he was appointed military

, 13th January 1885. After a meagre education he served secretary to Lord Lytton, Governor-General of India, and as a clerk in Indiana, and then turned to journalism. in 1877 private secretary (K.C.S.I.). In 1879 he joined From 1855 to 1869 he was a Republican representative Wolseley as Chief of the Staff and Brigadier-General in in Congress from Indiana. In 1863 he was elected Speaker S.E. Africa, but, on the murder of Cavagnari at Kabul, of the House, and served for three terms. In 1868 he returned to India. In 1880 he succeeded Wolseley in was elected vice-president on the ticket with General S.E. Africa as High Commissioner and General ComGrant. Owing to his alleged connexion with the corrupt manding, and conducted the operations against the rebel distribution of shares of stock in the Crédit Mobilier he Boers. He was defeated at Lang's Nek and at the was not renominated. In later years he was best known Ingogo river, and killed at Majuba Hill on 27th Februas a popular lecturer.

ary 1881. Colley contributed to periodical literature, and

wrote the article “Army” in the ninth edition of the Colima, one of the smallest states of Mexico, Encyclopædia Britannica. He had a very high reputation bounded by the state of Jalisco on the N., N.E., and W., not only for a theoretical knowledge of military affairs, by that of Michoacan on the E., and by the Pacific on but also as a practical soldier; and his disastrous failure the S., with an area of 2273 square miles, including the against the Boers completely upset all the estimates that islands of Revill Gigedo. The population in 1879 was had been made of his abilities. 65,827, and in 1895 it was 55,752. The principal industries are agriculture, stock-raising, and the exploita- Collier, John Payne (1789-1883), English tion of the salt deposits ; the products are coffee, cacao, critic, was born in London, 11th January 1789. His father's tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo, sugar-cane, cereals, and connexion with the press obtained for him a position on leguminous plants. The state is divided into three par- the Morning Chronicle as leader writer, dramatic critic, tidos and seven municipalities. The capital, Colima, 570 and reporter, which continued till 1847; he was also miles from Mexico City, has a population of 18,977, and called to the Bar. All the time he could spare, however, is situated in a beautiful and fertile valley, irrigated by was given to the study of Shakespeare and the early the Colima river. The city has good public buildings, English drama. After some minor publications he proa cathedral, theatre, and a fine market-house. It has duced, in 1831, his llistory of English Dramatic Poetry tramways and an electric light system. Amongst other and Annals of the Stage, a badly arranged but valuable towns are Manzanillo, Coquimatlan, Ixtahuacan, Almo- work. It obtained for him the post of librarian to the loyan, Comala.

duke of Devonshire, and access to the chief collections of

early English literature throughout the kingdom. These Colle di Val d'Elsa, a town and episcopal opportunities were unhappily misused to effect a series of see of the province of Siena, Tuscany, Italy, 21 miles literary fabrications, which may be charitably, and perhaps north-west from Siena, 13 by rail to Poggibonsi. It con- not unjustly, attributed to literary monomania, but of sists of two quarters, the upper old town, with a 13th- which it is difficult to speak with patience, so completely century cathedral, and the lower new town, with busy did they for a long time bewilder the chronology of ironworks, glass, pottery, paper, and brick_factories. Shakespeare's writings, and such suspicion have they There is a technical school (1873). Here the Florentines thrown upon MS. evidence in general. After New Facts, defeated the Sienese in 1269. Population, about 6000. New Particulars, and Further Particulars respecting


Shakespeare had appeared and passed muster, Collier than faint echoes of earlier successes. He died in Wimpole produced (1852) the famous Perkins Folio, claiming to Street, London, 23rd September 1889. Collins's gift was possess numerous MS. emendations of Shakespeare by of the melodramatic order, and while many of his stories “an old corrector.” The authenticity of these was dis- made excellent plays, several of them were actually reconputed in several quarters on internal evidence; and when structed from pieces designed originally for stage production. in 1859 they were submitted to experts at the British But if his colours were occasionally crude, and his methods Museum they were incontestably proved to be forgeries. violent, he was at least a master of situation and effect. "The point whether Collier was deceiver or ceived was His trick of telling a story through the mouths of different left undecided, but it must be feared that the falsifications characters is sometimes irritatingly disconnected; but it of which he was unquestionably guilty among the MSS. at had the merit of giving an air of actual evidence and Dulwich College have left little doubt respecting it. Apart reality to the elucidation of a mystery. He possessed in from these unhappy mystifications, which have thrown so the highest degree the gift of absorbing interest; the turns much suspicion upon his antiquarian work that no state- and complexities of his plots are surprisingly ingenious, ment of his can be accepted without verification, his and many of his characters are not only real, but unliterary career was useful and honourable. He published

Count Fosco in The Woman in White is perhaps excellent editions of Shakespeare and Spenser, reprinted a his masterpiece; the character has been imitated again great number of early English tracts of extreme rarity, and and again, but no imitation has ever attained to the rendered good service to the numerous antiquarian societies subtlety and humour of the original.

(A. W.1.) with which he was connected. His Old Man's Diary is an interesting record, though even here the taint of

Colmar, a town of Germany, in the imperial territory fabrication is not absent. Unfortunately what he did

of Alsace-Lorraine, district of Upper Alsace, 40 miles amiss is more striking to the imagination than what he

south-south-west from Strasburg by the railway to Basel. did aright, and he will be chiefly remembered by it. He

The town still has numerous narrow and picturesque streets, was active with his pen almost to the end of his life ;

with good houses of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is and died at Maidenhead, where he had long resided, on

the seat of several textile industries, and manufactures 17th September 1883.

(R. G.)

sewing thread, starch, sugar, and machinery; there are

also bleachfields, breweries, and cultivation of wine and Collingwood, a town and railway station of

fruit. Population (1885), 26,537; (1900), 36,824. Simcoe county, Ontario, Canada, 71 miles north-north-west of Toronto, on Lake Huron. It is the eastern terminus

Colne, a municipal borough (1895) and market-town of two lines of steamers plying to Lake Huron and Lake in the Clitheroe parliamentary division of Lancashire, Superior ports. It contains a large stone dry-dock and England, 6 miles north-north-east of Burnley by rail. shipyard, pork factory, and saw and planing mills, and Area of borough, 5330 acres. Population (1901), 23,000. has a large lumber, grain, and produce export trade, besides large shipbuilding plant and steel works.

Cologne, in German Köln (officially Cöln, since Ex

1900), a town and archiepiscopal see of Prussia, in the ports for the year 1899–1900 were valued at $2,657,413; imports at $277,770. Population (1881), 4435; (1900),

Rhine province, on the left bank of the Rhine, by rail 44

miles east by north from Aix-la-Chapelle, 24 south by east 5587.

from Düsseldorf, and 57 north-north-west from Coblenz. It Collins, William Wilkie (1824–1889), English is a much improved town, and is no longer distinguished by novelist, the elder son of William Collins, R.A., the well- its smells as it used to be. In 1881–85 the old fortifications known landscape painter, was born in London, 8th January were dismantled and the site (bought by the municipality 1824. He was educated at a private school in Highbury, from the War Office for £600,000) converted into a and when only a small boy of twelve was taken by his fine boulevard, the Ring Street, nearly 4 miles long. parents to Italy, where the family lived for three years. Beyond the Ring Street now extends a new continuous On their return to England Wilkie Collins was articled to line of fortifications, covering an area of 1000 acres, thus a firm in the tea trade, but four years later he abandoned doubling the area of the city of Cologne. Within the that business for the law. He found little pleasure in his outer municipal boundary are further included (1888) the new career, however; though what he learned in it was suburbs of Bayenthal, Lindenthal, Ehrenfeld, Nippes, exceedingly valuable to him later. On his father's death Deutz (on the opposite side of the river), Sülz, Bickendorf, in 1847 young Collins made his first essay in literature, Niel, and Poll, protected by another widely extended circle publishing the Life of William Collins, in two volumes, in of detached forts on both banks of the Rhine. Of the the following year. This gave him an incentive towards former city gates four have been retained, restored, and writing, and in 1850 he put forth his first work of fiction, converted into museums: the Severin gate, on the south, Antonina, or the Fall of Rome, which was clearly inspired contains the geological section of the natural history by his life in Italy. Basil appeared in 1852, and Hide museum ; the Hahnen (cocks) gate, on the west, is fitted and Seek in 1854. About this time he made the acquaint- as the historical and antiquarian museum of the city; and ance of Charles Dickens, and began to contribute to House- the Eigelstein gate, on the north, accommodates the

, hold Words, where After Dark (1856) and The Dead Secret zoological section of the natural history museum. Along (1857) ran serially. His great success was achieved in this same promenade are the technical trades school, the 1860 with the publication of The Woman in White, which Roman Catholic church of the Heart of Jesus (1900), a was first printed in All the Year Round. From that time monumental fountain to the memory of the Emperor he enjoyed as much popularity as any novelist of his day, William I. (1897), and the industrial art museum (1899– and was continually employed in writing, No Name (1862), 1900). The building of the cathedral was finally completed Armadale (1866), and The Moonstone (1868) being among in 1880. It has since been supplied with fine bronze doors. his most successful achievements. The last-named story, The Great Bell (Kaiserglocke), cast in 1874, weighs 543 for many of the details of which Collins was indebted to cwt., and is the largest and heaviest bell that is

Tung :

it the curious history of the Road murder, is certainly the was put up in 1880. The view of the cathedral has been best detective novel ever written in the English language. much improved by a clearance of the old houses in the After The New Magdalen (1873) his ingenuity became Dom Platz, including the Archiepiscopal Palace. The gradually exhausted, and his later stories were little more new Platz is now flanked by fine buildings. Many new

S. III. 18

churches have been built (e.g., St Michael's, churches in completely restored, e.g., the church of the Apostles

( Wiehl and in Riehl, the church of Christ, &c.), and (1875–88 and 1895–97), St Peter (1890–92), St Ursula several of the older churches have been more or less (1890–91), St Gereon, and St Cecilia. A handsome Roman

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Catholic church was completed in Deutz in 1896; and and in 1890–91 provided with a fine staircase. In the in 1896–99 a large synagogue, west of the Ring. The street Burgmauer stands the supreme court for the Rhine church of St Andreas (1220 and 1414) contains the province, and off the street are the post office (1893), a remains of Albertus Magnus in a gilded shrine. Turning fine early Gothic building, and the Imperial Bank (1897),

a to the secular buildings—the ground floor of the also in the early Gothic style. Farther west is the Gürzenich was in 1875 converted into a stock exchange, municipal library and archives (1894–97), also Gothic.



A handsome central railway station (high level) was built the thought and practice of the Navy. His mind was at in 1889–94. The railway now follows the line of the once inquiring, aspiring, logical, reflective, and inventive. ceinture of the new inner fortifications, and there are He was one of the first to perceive the vast and momentous three city stations in addition to the central. Like all changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam important German towns, Cologne has of recent years into the Navy. He foresaw that it must eventually carry been beautified by fine monuments. The most con- all before it, that it would immensely increase the tactical spicuous is the colossal equestrian statue (22} feet high) mobility of ships, and would for that reason entail a comof Frederick William III. in the Heumarkt. There are plete revolution in the methods he und in use for the also monuments to Moltke (1881), to Johann von Werth direction, conduct, and control of their movements—in (1885), the cavalry leader of the Thirty Years' War, and other words, that it required a new system of signals and to Bismarck (1879). Near the cathedral is an archi- a new method of tactics. These he set himself to devise episcopal museum of church antiquities. Cologne has, as far back as 1858. For the purposes of signalling further, a large civic hospital, a conservatory of music, a Colomb adapted to naval use the methods employed by commercial school (1900), a commercial high school (1901), the electric telegraph. It is well known that for purposes a girls' commercial high school (1900), theological and of electric transmission the letters are represented by teachers' seminaries, a girls' college (1900), and lunatic symbols composed of two elements variously combined, asylums. Commercially, Cologne is one of the chief centres according to the Morse system. The idea of varying form on the Rhine, and has a very important trade in corn, wine, is thus replaced by that of varying duration; and by suitable mineral ores, coals, drugs, dyes, manufactured wares, combinations of two intervals of different duration, one groceries, leather and hides, timber, porcelain, and many longer and one shorter, the whole alphabet and all numbers other commodities. A large new harbour, with spacious can be represented. If an electric current is continuous, its quays, has been constructed towards the south of the city. interruption for a longer or a shorter period can be made In 1898 a total of 3461 vessels of 1,323,800 tons entered to represent the two intervals required, and the symbols and cleared the port. Industrially, too, Cologne is a thus transmitted to a distance can by suitable mechanism place of very considerable importance. The manufacture be recorded on paper in the form now universally known of machinery, bricks, cottons and woollens, and india- dots and dashes.” Similarly, a beam of light can be rubber goods, and printing are carried on on a large scale, made to transmit the same symbols to the eye by alternate and there are factories for sugar, chocolate, and many periods, varying in duration, of occultation and display. others. The famous Eau de Cologne is produced in large Colomb invented a lantern for this purpose in 1861, but quantities. Population (1885), 239,437; (1900), 370,685. it was not adopted by the Navy until 1867. In some

form or other it is now in use in every important navy in Colomb, Philip Howard (1831-1899), the world. In daytime a hand flagstaff, with flag attached, British vice-admiral, historian, critic, and inventor, the son is made to transmit the required symbols by giving it a of General T. Colomb, was born in Scotland, on the 29th of greater or less inclination from the perpendicular. In a May 1831. He entered the Navy in 1846, and served first fog, long and short blasts sounded on a fog-horn, steamat sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards he served, in 1848, whistle, or steam-siren are employed for the same purpose. in the Mediterranean, and from 1848–51 as midshipman Before these methods were adapted by Colomb to naval of the Reynard in operations against piracy in Chinese use, the only signals employed were, in daytime, flags of waters; as midshipman and mate of the Serpent during different colours and shapes, and by night, lanterns varithe Burmese War of 1852–53; as mate of the Phoenix in ously disposed. In fog there was nothing, and at night the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the the range of signalling was very restricted and its method Hastings in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking very inefficient. Nowadays, thanks mainly to Colomb, and part in the attack on Sveaborg.

He became what was to others who have developed his methods on the same lines, known at that time as a “Gunner's Lieutenant” in 1857, it is almost as easy to manoeuvre a fleet at night, or even and from 1859 to 1863 he served as flag-lieutenant to in a thick fog, as it is in broad and clear daylight. Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley at Devonport. Between What he had done for signals Colomb next did for 1858 and 1868 he was employed in home waters on a tactics. Having first determined by experiment-for variety of special services, chiefly connected with gunnery, which he was given special facilities by the Admiraltysignalling, and the tactical characteristics and capacities what are the manoeuvring powers of ships propelled by of steam warships. From 1868 to 1870 he commanded steam under varying conditions of speed and helm, he prothe Dryad, and was engaged in the suppression of the ceeded to devise a system of tactics based on these data. slave trade. In 1874, while captain of the Audacious, he In the sequel he prepared a new evolutionary signal-book, served for three years as flag-captain to Vice-Admiral which was adopted by the Royal Navy, and still remains Ryder in China ; and finally he was appointed, in 1880, to in substance the foundation of the existing system of command the Thunderer in the Mediterranean. Next tactical evolutions at sea. The same series of experiyear he was appointed captain of the Steam Reserve at mental studies led him to conclusions concerning the chief Portsmouth; and after serving three years in that capacity, causes of collisions at sea; and these conclusions, though he remained at Portsmouth as flag-captain to the Com- stoutly combated in many quarters at the outset, have mander-in-Chief until 1886, when he was retired by super- since been generally accepted, and were ultimately emannuation before he had attained flag rank. Subsequently bodied in the International Code of Regulations now he became Rear-Admiral, and finally Vice-Admiral on the adopted by the leading mariti'ne nations on the recomretired list.

mendation of a Conference held at Washington in 1889. Few men of his day had seen more active and more After his retirement Colomb devoted himself rather to varied service than Colomb. But the real work for the the history of naval warfare, and to the large principles Navy on which his title to fame and remembrance rests was disclosed by its intelligent study, than to experimental done in another sphere. He was, in his day, essentially inquiries having an immediate practical aim. As in his the thinker of the service. Many of his contemporaries active career he had wrought organic changes in the orderwere his equals, not a few were his superiors, in the prac-ing, direction, and control of fleets, so by his historic tical gifts and aptitude of the naval officer. But perhaps studies, pursued after his retirement, he helped greatly to no officer of his time has left a more indelible mark on effect, if he did not exclusively initiate, an equally moment

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