« EelmineJätka »
zealous and wisely directed investigation would last edition of the 'Synonyms,' but the above is not permit him to perpetuate. In his ‘Burns,' a regrettable oversight.
F. ADAMS. vol. ii. p. 168, Edinburgh, 1851, Chambers states: 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. “Having in the course of his [Burns's] exertions
JOAN CUTTS (8th S. iii. 29).—The Compleat for Johnson's Museum formed the acquaintance
History of Europe,'about which your correspondent of Mr. William Tytler, of Woodhouselee, he sent him one of Miers's portraits."
inquires, is in the British Museum, the press-mark
being P.P. 3405. It consists of eighteen octavo Dr. Charles Rogers (with whom I had a long and very interesting "crack” on this very subject
volumes, published in London between 1705 and
1720. in 1889), in his great work on Burns, vol. ii.
F. ADAMS. p. 353, states that the poet sent William Tytler "METRICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND' (7th S. viii. is a copy of his silhouette portrait by Miers.” 88, 168, 238, 317, 398 ; ix. 218, 358 ; x. 15).
The first Edinburgh edition of Burns's 'Poems,' To the lists of works at the above references should containing the Nasmyth-Beugo portrait, had been be added the following, recently advertised ::"A published several months when the poet sent Rhyming Record of English History, and other Tytler his lyrical address with his portrait. Is it Poems, by Linda B. M. Collings, 1892, 38. 6d., not more than probable that he already possessed London, Digby, Long & Co." the alternative portrait facing the title-page of a
J. CUTHBERT WELÇA, F.C.S. volume of the 1787 edition ? If in error, I am in | The Brewery, Reading. very good company..
EFFIGIES, and many others, will doubtless be! WELSH Songs (8th S. iii. 68).-In a note to interested in hearing that the writer bas, through his poem ‘The Dying Bard,'Sir Walter Scott says, the courteous insertion of his inquiries respecting
“The Welsh tradition bears that a bard on his portraits of Burns in the pages of N. & Q.,' been
| death-bed demanded his barp, and played the air successful in unearthing the Dumfries miniature
['Daffydz Gangwen '] to which those words are of the poet by Alexander Reid, painted shortly adapted, requesting that it might be performed at previous to his crossing the border betwixt two bis funeral.” The air of 'Sweet Richard' is said worlds. It is quite a distinct work from that in the
to have been composed by Richard II.'s minstrel, Watson bequest (N.P.G. Edin.), which is a much Owen Glendower, during, bis, mas
Owen Glendower, during his master's captivity, earlier and sketchy production. Also a beautiful and it was afterwards played at the risings in portrait of Burns in coloured soft chalks, very
favour of the unfortunate king, as the Jacobite spirited and masterly, and withal having a history
airs were played to excite the adherents of the extending to prior ownership by a descendant of
Stuarts. (See Miss Strickland's life of Isabella of the poet's family. It is ascribed to David Martin. Valois, in her 'Queens of England.') The popular
E. B. N.
song, ‘Farwel iti Peggy ban,' was composed by 58, Glebe Place Studios, Chelsea.
the minstrels of North Wales when Margaret of
Anjou left, Harlech Castle, where she had taken SECRETARY JOHNSTONE AND THE JOAN- refuge after the defeat of July 9, 1460, near STONES OF WARRISTON (7th S. x, 364, 453 ; xi. Northampton. (See notes to the Warkworth 329. 450).-Permit me to correct an error into chronicle by J. O. Halliwell.)
A. G. B. which I fell at the last reference. I find, on reinspection of the entry in the Edinburgh Burgess | KIMBOLTON CASTLE (8th S. ii. 209, 291, 377). Rolls which seemed to prove that the father of -Strafford is doubtless derived from the WaponRachel Arnot or Johnstone was dead before take of Strafford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, May 15, 1577, that the word “umquhile," before from which the first earl took his title. Arms are “ Jon Arnot," has been scored through with a recorded in Robson's British Herald,' and the pen, apparently at the time the entry was made. name is extant at Wakefield and Pateley Bridge The ink is so much faded as to render the whole in Yorkshire, Rogate in Sussex, and Belfast in Ireentry almost illegible, and the obliteration, which land. """
GEORGE BOWLES.'}, is barely perceptible, esoaped my observation in 10, Lady Margaret Road, N.W. the first instance. "
R. E. B.
A View of Life (8th S. iii, 7). This inscrips ARCHBISHOP WHATELY: “CONFESSOR” (8th S. tion appears to be much the same in purport as iii. 6).—In his note on “Prisoner" your corre- the well-known Latin epigramspondent J. quotes from the English Synonyms' Balnea, vina, Venus, corrumpunt corpora nostra.. a passage in which “confessor " is adduced as a rare Sed faciunt vitam, balnea, vina, Venus. example of a noun with an agent ending having a These carpe diem gentlemen are all alike, and as passive function. This is a mistake. The priest wise as the philosophic sage who tells us that the is & confessor not because he is confessed by the object of life is happiness-happiness of man and penitent, but because he confesses the penitent. I nations'; secondly, that commerce is to bring gave Miss Whately some help in preparing the luxuries, not necessaries; and thirdly, that luxuries are necessaries. This last follows ; because time longer of the horror attending his irretrievable if you confine man's wants to the mere animal situation.” requirements you brutalize nature and undermine I fail to see any “story” in this, except as applied cultivated society. Next follows the utility wrangle, in a cynical sense to the Rev. Mr. Walter's account and then we get back to pleasure. So the theory of of the swimming. An equally able seaman had life is like that of poetry-to please. Such philo- been just in the same way canted overboard and sophies enable men to talk on for ever, and arrive drowned a few days previously. We have neither nowhere at last.
C. A. WARD. "name" nor "age" mentioned here, and certainly Chingford Hatch, E.
we have them given nowhere else in Anson in con
nexion with any mishap of this kind that occurred WIGGIN (8th S. iii. 28). -Is not this a corrupt in the Atlantic voyage. J. O'BYRNE CROKE. pronunciation of widgeon, the most abundant and hardiest of our winter sea-birds ? I cannot say I GELERT IN INDIA (8th S. iii, 25).-Many variants have ever heard it called 80 ; but I received a gift of the Gelert story, from different climes and times, (with a letter) of two "wigans” a few days ago. are given in Baring-Gould's well-known Curious And sometimes, I think, corrupt spelling produces Myths of the Middle Ages.
C. C. B. corrupt pronunciation. For instance, the word |
| PENINSULAR MEDAL (8th S. iii. 108). — Replying demesne is commonly pronounced “dimmense”.
to MR. RAYNER's question, I can inform him that here, which I presumo arose from that oddly | placed 8. H. CHICHESTER HART.
Ta Peninsular medal with fifteen clasps is catalogued Carrablagh, Portsalon, Letterkenny.
in Col. Eaton's collection, and that auother medal
with a similar number of clasps is exposed at an DR. SMYTHE PALMER will probably find that establishment in Great Newport Street, W. the word wiggin, used to signify & “sea-dog" or
W. O. GODDARD. “salt," is an equivalent or corruption of the North-country word wigger, meaning strong. An
CAURCH BRASSES (8th S. iii. 26, 117). — The example of its use is thus given in Bailey's Eng
best-I think the only-method for protecting, lish Dictionary' (my edition is dated 1733) :
with propriety, the brasses named by J. W. is the “Wigger, strong, as a clean pitched wigger fellow." |
following: Raise the slab and have it carefully
fitted into a shallow box of oak or greenheart, like G. YARROW BALDOCK.
a picture in its frame, with a stout door of the May I suggest that this word was merely the same wood shutting upon its face; slightly exYarmouth boatman's rendering of “ Vik'ing." We cavate the site, and replace the framed slab so that all know “wery vell ” (as Sam Weller would say the protecting trap-door is level with the chancel the habit which persons in a certain class have of floor. For lifting the door fasten down level a bar, substituting w for v, and that “nothin'" is more undercut for grasping. Darken the door to the common than the dropping of a final g. This | tone of the adjoining floor. A precedent for this being granted, the transition from “ Wik'in ” to is the covering by boards of the figures of the sibyls wiggin can be easily imagined. O. M. P.
in the pavement of the Cathedral of Siena.
J. A. B. SIR John MENNES, Knt. (8th S. iii. 86).—Can MR. HIPWELL, from his treasure-house, tell me
GEORGE ISHAM, OF LONDON (8th S. ii, 467; what relation the poetical admiral bore to Francis
iii. 16).—The following may be of general interest. Hamon, Gent., described in & Court Roll of |
It is the rough draft of a letter in the bandwriting March 21 (24 Car. II.) as his next heir ! Or can |
of Sir John Isham, of Lamport, to George Isham, he give me a reference to Sir John's will, for which
1607-8:I have made search in vain ? He acquired a copy
"Good cosin Isham I have bin so many wayes behold. hold of four acres at Loughton, co. Essex, in 1664,
ing unto you that I protest I know no on waye of satis
faction but only by ye acknowledgment of your kindnes possibly as a country house. W. C. W.
& ye assurednes of my love which you shall not faile to COWPER'S CASTAWAY' (8th S. iii. 107).-Since
finde if at any tyme you will be pleased to use my rich
will so far as my poor abilitye will extende. The only my last, on a fresh reading of Anson's 'Voyages,' newse that I can sertefy you is of a greate incounter I find (ed. of 1749, p. 79) the following passage that we bad this Chrismas betwixt M. Maydwell's relating to the commodore's ship the Centurion in
Tobacco & my oulde Hammon the conflyckt was very the storm off the Straits of Le Maire :
longe & dangerus yet notwithstandinge at the last oulde . .
hammon with much adoo got yo victory because his “One of our ableat seamen was canted overboard ; and adversary tobacco was but leafe I did earnestly wish notwithstanding the prodigious agitation of the waves we your companyes here with us to have incouraged your perceived that be swam very strong, and it was with cbampeon. I do intreate you that my [“ brother Ardthe utmost concern that we found ourselves incapable ges" erased, and perhaps “self” omitted] with my of assisting him; and we were the more grieved at his brother Ardges may be remembrod to your selfe my unhappy fate, since we lost sight of him struggling with cosin your wife MWrite M' Maydwell & yo the waves and conceived from the manner in which he good company with many thankes for our greate interswam that he might continuo sensible for a considerable laynement. My wife bath sent my cosin a cupple of
t of your
capons & 2 cheses for a token by this carrier. Thus in
H. Isham LoNGDEN, M.A.
May I suggest that the entries in the Speene registers may be recovered from the Bishop's transcripts? Mr. Rye (“Records and Record Searching," p. 123) says that, “owing to special circumstances, certain records are preserved” at Somerset House “relating to (interalia) Berks.” Has MR. LongDEN consulted these materialso Q. W.
“PHILAzER” (8° S. iii. 28, 97).-Mr. Luttrell spells this word in more ways than one, as is to be expected. On February 21, 1705-6, he spelt it “Philizer,” with a capital P, and this proved too much for the Oxford University Press. In the 1857 edition of the delightful ‘Diary’ (vol. vi. p. 19) is to be read how “Mr. Rider Philizer is dead, and his place worth 1,000l. in the disposal of the Lord chief [sic, for a wonder] Justice Trevor.” That there was no accidental omission of the comma is evidenced by the index, where “Philizer, Rider, dies” quite unsuspected.
W. F. WALLER.
CoLLINGs (8* S. iii. 68).-All I can gather about the Collings family is that they were suped to have come to the Channel Isles from t. Edmunds Bury, Suffolk, as shown by armorial bearings, &c., date 1577. Motto the same. I have since heard that three brothers are said to have
settled in Jersey in 1606 from Ansford, co. SomerSet. F. D.
CHARLEs STEwARD, of BRADFord-on-Avon (2*S. vi. 327, 359).-Thirty-five years ago, at the first of the above references, MR. W.M. HENRY Jones, Vicar of Bradford, inserted a query about Charles Steward, whose marble monument is in the chancel of the parish church there, and to that query no reply seems to have been given. He was son (by Jane, daughter of Sir William Button, Bart.) of Dr. Richard Stewart, Dean of the Chapel Royal and Provost of Eton, who was born 1595, and died 1651. He married Mary, daughter (by Mary Habingdon, his wife) of Walter Compton, of Hartbury, and died July 11, 1698. That his arms on the monument should have been impaled with those of Compton, Marquis of Northampton,
instead of those of Compton of Hartbury is inexplicable, save on the ground of error. _ The insertion in these columns of a copy of the Latin inscription on his monument would be a great boon to those who, like myself, are interested in the history of the family of Stewart. SIGMA.
“HARioLE” (VERB) (8th S. iii. 86).-I should be glad to have C. C. B.'s authority for the assertion that the late Bishop of St. Andrews coined this word. The noun hariolation (of which I take it hariole is the verb) is quoted as an old Scotch saying in Bailey's ‘English Dictionary,’ of which my edition, which is the sixth, was published in 1733. Dr. Wordsworth was not born until 1806.
G. YARRow BALDOCK.
TRUMBULL (8th S. ii. 527; iii. 98).-I am obliged to MR. CULLETon for pointing out the works in which notices of Turnbull are to be found; but unfortunately none of them is within my reach. Would he be so very kind as to give me a short abstract of one of these notices; just stating the date and place of the artist's birth and death, and a list of his chief productions? I suppose he was an American loyalist; for one of the other side would hardly have commemorated the heroic defence of Gibraltar, which shed a last gleam of lustre on the British arms. JAYDEE.
THE CAUSE of DEATH (8th S. ii. 428, 533; iii. 76).-In the church of Abergavenny is a stone effigy attributed to Eva de Braose, who died in 1246, and to which a picturesque story is attached. Churchyard, in his quaint rhyming work, ‘The Worthiness of Wales, first published in 1587, and reprinted in 1776, thus speaks of it:— —another ladie lyes With squirrell on her hand, And at her feete, in stone likewise, A couching hound doth stand: They say her squirrell lept away, And toward it she run: And as from fall she sought to stay The little pretie Bun, Right downe from top of wall she fell And tooke her death thereby. Thus what I heard, I doe you tell, And what is seene with eye. Symonds refers to the incident, adding that the fall took place from the top of the castle wall. The effigy represents the lady in a plain, close-fitting gown, buttoned to the waist, whence it falls in loose folds to the feet. The right hand is laid across the body, and the left formerly held the squirrel, now broken away. From this hand a chain sweeps across the body and ends in a pocket on the right side of the gown, a very unusual feature in effigies of this period. It must have been from the pocket and attached chain here represented that the animal escaped, with such disastrous results, for there seems no reason in this case to doubt the truth of the story that has been
handed down for three hundred years. Many of alone. It is very seldom that we have such evidence the legends associated with monumental figures as in the case of St. Wilfrid's churches, scarcely over, are mere fables, made to fit the crests or cagnons of in fact, and I am not disputing that the church of effigies ; they usually have their origin in the Durham was dedicated to SS. Mary and Cuthbert, lively arcbæology of a parish clerk; but the one in but only asking if there be any evidence to that question has so good a record that I am tempted to effect, such as there is in the cases of Ripon and add it to the limited number which my first note Hexham.
J. T. F. on the subject has elicited.
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
LUCE (86b S. ii. 328, 353, 391, 435, 511; iii. 93). The following is from an old tombstone, in -Burke quotes the Skioners' arms thus: “Ermine, memory of one Thomas Rawlip, in Epworth on a chief gules, three princes' crowD8 composed of Churchyard :
crosses pattee and fleurs-de-lis or; with caps of the A pale consumption gave the fatal blow;
first, tasselled of the third.” This quotation fully The stroke was certain, but th' effect was slow; With wasting Pain death found me long opprest,
authenticates the presence of the lily, but, seeing Pity'd my Sighs and kindly brought me rest,
that royalty in England bas discarded this con
testible emblem, it may well become the Skinnors C. O. B.
to do so likewise. The dates quoted vary very SLAUGHTER FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467 ; iii. 17, 75). considerably. One report says, granted Oct. 5, 1551; -There are two villages in Gloucestershire not får others say granted by William Harvey, varied to from Stow-on-the-Wold, named Upper and Lower Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux, 4 Ed. IV. (should Slaughter, but I am unable to say whether they be Edward VI.); again, entered and approved in gave name to the family or took their name from the Visitation of 1634. Thomas Hawley, Clarenit. Readers of Vanity Fair,' by W. M. Thackeray, cieux 1534, died 1557; his reign would include one of the best of novele, though styled “a novel 4 Ed. VI., 1550-1; bis successor, Wm. Harvey, without a hero," may remember the description Clarencieux 1557, died 1566-7. It would there of Old Slaughter's Coffee-House, where officers at fore appear that Harvey's name is incorrectly inthe time of the Battle of Waterloo “ most did con- troduced ; but he may be responsible for the supgregate," as George Osborne, Capt. Dobbin, and | porters in 1561.
A. HALL. Easign Stubble. Are there any coffee-houses now? I have read tbat in Oxford, about the first half of
MR. MARSHALL asks what is the “actual grant" the eighteenth century, tbey were the great resort
of arms of the Skinners' Company. It is as I of the gownsmen.
stated in my last communication. JOAN PICKFORD, M.A.
Both Guillim Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
and Edmonston were wrong as to charges and
dates. The Skinners' Company was inoorporated St. CUTHBERT (8th S. ii. 386, 449, 498, 535; in 1 Edward III. (1327), and confirmed in 16 üi, 53, 114).-Oswald, O.S.B., does not quite seé Richard II. (1393). If your correspondent will the point of my inquiry. Of course, I know that consult Overall's Dictionary of Chronology,' p. the Cathedral Oburch of Durham was often called 782, and Boutell's exhaustive ‘Historical Heraldry, “ the Church of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert," and third edition, p. 369, he will come to the root of that Symeon calls it " ecclesia S. Cuthberti." See the matter. I gladly endorse MR. MARSHALL’s my communication in 8th S. ii. 498. But what I observations regarding the usual critical accuracy inquired for was any record of any formal de- of PROF. SKEat's writings, some of which I posdication of the church to either saint. Simeon, in sess and use with grateful appreciation. his account of the dedication, does not mention any
S. JAMES A. SALTER. such thing, though we do read of Wilfrid long before Basingfield, Basingstoke. dedicating Ripon, “in honorem S. Petri Apostolorum Principis" (Eddii Vit. Wilf. xvii.). Eddius.
"COMMENCED M.A.” (8th S. iii. 8, 57). This also relates how St. Micbael appeared to Wilfrid
refers, no doubt, to the commencement" at Cam. to say from the B. Virgin that as he had built
| bridge. But there is a common expression in the churches in honour of St. Peter and St. Andrew
literature of the last century, "he commenced (which he did at Ripon and at Hexbam), go be
author, commenced patriot, cheesemonger," or ought to have dedicated one to the Blessed Mother
whatever it might be. of God. He accordingly dedicated to St. Mary
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. another church at Hexham. It is this sort of information which seems wanting in the case of “SPIRITED AWAY" (8th S. ii. 485). - In Phillips's Durham, whicb, so far as I have yet seen, appears New World of Words,' ed. 1720, it is stated that to have been called St. Cuthbert'e, or SS. Mary and “to spirit away children, is to entice or steal them Cathbert's, only by popular usage, as Ripon Min- privily from their parents or relations in order to stor was first the Church of St. Peter, then of SS. convey them beyond sea, especially to the planta. Peter and Wilfrid, and now usually of St. Wilfrid tions in the West Indies.” Cotton, in his ‘Bur
lesque upon Burlesque,' 1675, uses spiriter in the that po references to records have come either sense of abductor :
| from Oakham or Hastings.
A. T. M.
SMART's 'SONG TO DAVID' (8th S. iii. 109).-
As the great-great-grandson of Christopher Smart, With bis Beak holding his Tiara,
may I reply to the queries of the Rev. F. W. To make him sure as swift as Hobby, He bare him into Heaven's Lobby;
JACKSON? I have the 4to. edition of the song to Whilst the poor boy half dead with Fear,
David' (signed by Smart), published in 1763, and Writh'd back to view his Spiriter.
this contains the following notes :1. Judgment of Paris,' p. 257, ed. 1765. Stanza 49. “The genuine word repeat.”—P8, cxix. F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY. 53. “And Ivis with her gorgeous vest.”-Humming
bird, The word spirit, in the sense of kidnapper, occurs 67. “For Adoration on the Strings."-Æolian barp. twice in the English Rogue.' "Kidnapper, 75. “Shoots xiphias to his aim." -$word-fish. vulgárly called a spirit," vol. 1. p. 156, and again,
81. “ The largess from the churl.” -Sam. xxv. 18. vol. i. p. 164. My references are to Pearson's
"And Alba's blest imperial rays." —Rev. xi. 17. reprint. This part of the work dates to 1665. An evident misprint for Rev. ii., the white stone.
H. C. Hart. It is interesting to note that the text of 1. 4
| in st. 33 is corrected by Smart, who, in the margin Tiros OATES (6th S. ix. 445 ; 7th $. xii. 209). lof the 4to. edition, substitutes bass for “base." Titus the perjurer was not married before August, In an 8vo. edition, published in 1819, of the 1693, as may be seen from the marriage licences of Song to David,' the anonymous editor, in a note the office of the Vicar-General for that year, and to st. 57 remarks :from the Diary' of Narcissus Luttrell, who writes,
| “The silverlings and crusions, &c. The word silverunder date August 19, “ On Thursday last Dr. Lling is
Laursday 1886. Dr. ling is synonymous with shekel. Thus, in Isaiah vii. 23, Titus Oates was married to one Mrs. Wells, a A thousand vines, at a thousand silverlings, shall be for young gentlewoman in the city worth 2,0001.” The briers and thorns. Of crusion I am unable to speak name in the licence is written Weld. 'The Eden- with certainty ; but I should imagine that it is derived sor register, quoted at the second reference named
from Kepovols, wbich in general is applied to the pulsaabove, must refer to yet another of the many Oates
|tion of sonorous bodies, and also to the act of ascertainwho were doomed to bear the ill-omenad name of
ing the integrity of money, vessels of metal, or earthen
| ware, by what is sometimes called ringing them.” Titus. At the first reference a conjectural pedigree of Titus Oates was given ; but I believe the follow
In another note the editor says, st. 69, “ Anana
is a species of pineapple." ing to be equally probable :
In the 'Song to David," published in a very Rev, Samuel Oates, Rector of Marsham, 1577 to 1605, I abbreviated form in 'The Treasury of Sacred Song,'
and of North Reppe, 1588 to 1620. . Prof. Palgrave adds the following notes : "Glede Rev. Samuel Oates, born at Marsham=Anne Dix, of lle.
|(hawk). Xiphias (sword-fish). Gier-eagle, probefore 1580; ordained priest by Wm., vingham, Norf., ba
FREDK. COWBLADE. Bp. of Norwich, Dec. 21, 1601; insti- | m. Nov. 3, 1608;
Earley, Reading. tuted to rectory of Marsham, May 8, executrix of ber 1605; died there 1658; will proved in | husband's will; FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR. IN SCOTLAND London, March 9, 1659.
bur. at Marsham, (8th S. ii. 428, 511; iii, 72).-I have to thank Sept. 30, 1666.
MR. COLEMAN and MR. WARREN for their kind
replies to my queries under this heading. With Rev. Samuel Oates, born at. Marsham, Nov. 18, 1610;
regard to the toy coffins found on Salisbury Orags, adm, sizar at C.C.C., Cambridge, July 1, 1627 ; ordained,
Edinburgh, I am disposed to think that they were being then M.A., by Bp. of Norwich, Sept. 24, 1635; made and placed there by French prisoners of Rector of All Saints', Hastings, 1666.
war on parole rather than by those expatriated
refugees who formed the court of Charles X. at Titus Oates, born at Oakham, 1649.
Holyrood. But the existence of these coffins is a Tbe difficulty lies in the identification of Samuel, problem in folk-lore to be solved. I shall try to Rector of Hastings, with Samuel, born at Mar- see if any of them are still in existence in Edinsham, 1610. But the coincidences of dates make burgb. the identity probable. The late ordination seems With regard to the places at which French to suggest the scholastic rather than the pastoral prisoners of war were confined from 1803 to 1814line, an idea favoured by his disappearance thence the period with which I wish to deal, there being so forth from the diocese. The work of an usher | few prisoners of war in Scotland antecedently to the might well take him to Oakham, where Titus was former date—the following would appear to be the born in 1649 or 1650, and to London, where his places of close immurement : Edinburgh Castle, father's will was proved in 1659. From Seddleg. | Greenlaw Depôt, Esk Mills Depôt, Valley Field combe to Hastings is a short flight. One wonders Depôt, Perth Dépôt, and to a slight extent Dum