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View THE SECOND.
The Weald of to-day is rapidly getting prosaic : the iron horse and the jerry builder are penetrating into its depths, the primroses and ferns are fast
“ Three abreast," jocularly remarks the driver ; but he pulls up in time to save it a blow or scratch. All this is commonplace enough ; but the level fields, the winding road, the luxuriant hedgerows, the leisurely movements of everybody give a sense of peace and rest not always easy to find nowadays.
vanishing from its hedgerows, the traction engine is we have crossed the railway
, exchanged inside
replacing the labouring team, hedgerows themselves are giving way to iron fences, barbed as often as not, copses are being “grubbed,” wayside trees cut down, strips of turf quietly absorbed into the nearest field, thrashing and ploughing, and milling done by steam, instead of by homely and slower methods, the smockfrock and the village curtsey are things of the past along the main roads-or at least wherever the rail has crossed them. It is worth while, therefore, to leave the land of transition, and see what remains of the old ways and the old places.
Anyone who visits the county town on a marketday will see drawn up in lines in the broad High Street carriers' vans and omnibuses of all sizes and degrees of gentility. In the course of the afternoon these will be labouring out of the town, laden with marketing folk and their baggage, and with many a parcel to be dropped at wayside inn or cottage.
Suppose we take an outside seat on one of these bound some fifteen miles or more into the heart of the Weald, where Tenterden, Biddenden, Hawkhurst, and all the other dens and hursts remind one of its former forests and bosky dells.
Slowly, slowly the pair of horses—hardly a pairtoil up the long ascent to the top of the limestone ridge. We travel south by east, and the keen northeast wind cuts across the fields, now faintly green with springing wheat, and raises clouds dust, till the hedges are whitened as in July, though they are barely green enough for March.
The broad, flat-topped hill is crossed, the road winds down the steeper side, and we are soon on the level. We have passed one village well placed on the slope and grouped round its pretty church, whose stone spire is a land-mark for many miles. Our conveyance has stopped to refresh “ man and beast" at a low-browed, timber-fronted inn; many a greeting has been exchanged with passers-by, and now we set off with quicker pace to cross the flat valley, through which the railway runs straight as an arrow from Tonbridge to Ashford. Sycamores and horsechestnuts are just budding, meadows are getting “a bite" on them for the numerous lambkins, and here and there starry anemones or celandines grace shaw or bank. In cottage-gardens the “lent lilies”-all out of date—are nodding in the breeze; the characteristic cottages, steep in front and sloping low behind, like the hills, show budding pear and plum-trees; over a wayside.pond are the first swallows skimming; and our onward movement is impeded here and there by those of sheep and cattle from a country-market. One frightened little calf slips between our horses.
passengers and parcels, and off we go again, due south now, leaving the valley behind, and mounting one after another the sandstone slopes which lead gently up to the South Downs.
Corn-fields, hop-gardens, and "oast-houses,” grow fewer, meadows and woods and heather.covered banks more numerous, till at last a tall windmill, a solid, square church-tower, and many brown-tiled roofs betoken our destination-a little old-fashioned town, innocent of railway, and living its life of gentle measured bustle with a grace that is quite charming.
Next morning, as we sally forth from our comfort. able quarters at a real old-fashioned inn there is a choice of many roads. We take one which leads southward, and find with delight that though Primrose Day has come and gone, the primroses in hot, damp, wayside copses and hedgerows are still waiting to be picked, that wood-sorrel and moschatel peep from the shady nooks, and milk. maids, violets, and celandines deck the sunny stretches.
We stop towards noon at a trim farmhouse, all red brick and tile, with ample store of hay still in its rick-yard. The ponderous knocker brings out the farmer himself, in working clothes. He is pleased to tell the way ; but a request for milk brings the goodhumoured explanation that it is all in the creaming. pans. “ If you'd 'a come in the morning or evening milking-time now" But the laws of the dairy are those of the Medes and Persians, and we turn thirsty away. We have noted, however, the bees humming in and out of chinks in the weather-tiles. “Yes,” he says ;
we took out more 'n a hundredweight o' comb last year.” We wonder to ourselves what it must be like to live in such close quarters with the busy little folk.
Up hill, down dale, over field and stile and fivebarred gate we make our way. A labourer taking his nooning under a haystack shows us a cross-cut, and we feel that we have lighted upon a land where nature still has a good deal of her own way.
For our evening stroll there are the wide woods, where thrush and cuckoo and pheasant greet us with their songs and calls, and where the moor-hen splashes in a lonely pond.
When the last red sunset.gleams have glorified the fir-trees a clear moon shines over the gabled houses, fewer and sewer footsteps echo on the rough pavements, soon they cease ; and at old-fashioned hours the old-fashioned folk seek their (doubtless) well. earned slumbers.
Call it dull if you will: to those whose eyes and ears are open, such a life in such surroundings has much of the keenest interest-it is that of our England unadulterated. Let us enjoy it while we may.
M. E. POPE.
roots, where several of the fibrous roots have cohered and formed an elongate ovoid tubercule, the ends only are left free at the extremities of the tubercules. In Enanthe pimpinelloides and Spiræa filipendula we have the nodose adventitious roots ; in the former species we have the swelling about the middle of the fibre, while in the latter it is near its extremity ; in @nanthe lachenalii, the fibres are but slightly swollen,
NOTES ON THE MODIFICATIONS OF
ROOTS. "HE axile roots, such as the conical tap-roots,
which occur in Aconitum napellus, Peucedanum sativum, and Daucus carota, are a direct prolongation of the stem ; as also the fusiform tap-root of Raphanus raphanistrum, and the napiform tap-root of Brassica rapa. The contorted root of Polygonum bistorta, and the premorse root of Scabiosa succisa, seem to be only modifications of the rhizome, but are some. times mistaken for true roots.
The tuberculated roots, as the palmate tubercules of Orchis maculata, are only formed by the enlarging
Fig. 121.-Palmate Tubercules of Orchis maculata
Fig. 120.-Abnormal Tubercules of Orchis maculata.
of several adventitious fibrous roots which have cohered at their bases, and left their extremities free, which forms the divisions of this kind of tubercule ; those adventitious roots which ascend from the junction of the tubercules with the stem have slightly enlarged, but otherwise preserved their primary form; this may be ascertained by a specimen I found in Sussex in 1890, which had no perfect tubercules, but had in their place several adventitious fibrous roots which should have cohered and formed the two tubercules ; all these fibres were a little swollen at their upper ends.
The ovoid tubercules of Herminium, Ophrys, and Aceras, etc., are formed by complete cohesion of several fibres, or by the enlarging of a single one. In the fasciculated roots of Ranunculus ficaria, this same enlarging of some of the adventitious roots is obvious; on a single plant may be found all the modifications from a fibrous adventitious root to a fasciculated, or even ovoid tubercule. The dahlia exhibits, another form of adventitious fasciculated
Fig. 122.- Palmate Tubercules of Orchis maculata.
which must have been the primary of those of E. pimpinelloides.
It seems that the stem was the primary form of roots, since all roots have more or less the structure of stems; those roots so different from the stem modifications, may only have lost their structure with time.
HENRY E. GRISET.
clustered together in the space of a few square miles ; BOTANICAL RAMBLES NEAR ROUND.
houses and cultivation are conspicuous by their STONE, COUNTY GALWAY.
absence. To the westward stretches Slyne Head 'HE district I am about to describe is situated with the two lighthouses on the island at its
near Roundstone, a small town on the south- extremity. To the southward we could see Deer west coast of Connemara, about fifty miles by road Island and numerous others, further out from Galway. Immediately to the west of the town the three islands of Aran ; along the coast of these is Urrisbeg, a hill of nine hundred and eighty-seven latter could be seen the smoke arising from the feet in height, the slopes of which, and the lakes and numerous fires of the kelp-burners. bogs about its base, are all very rich in rare The next day (July 1st) we took a route around the plants.
base of Urrisbeg. The hill is composed of granite, and is rather In some small pools on a peat bog we found remarkable for the number of metallic ores it contains,
Utricularia minor and U. intermedia growing in viz.-gold, silver, copper, lead, and molybdenite. But
abundance. The former was in flower; they are I think some of them are in too small quantities and supported on a very fine stalk, and stand a few too much diffused to pay for extensive mining
inches out of the water ; the bladders and leaves are operations.
on the same stem. In the latter species the bladders I visited this locality last June in company with are very large and on separate stems from the leaves ; my friend, Mr. J. G. Wells. We arrived there on it is very distinct from all the other species of the the 29th, from the Aran Islands.
genus. The next inorning we started botanising, and were Both these plants are insectivorous, and in the much struck with the profusion of Osmunda regalis bladders of intermedia I found numerous minute. growing on the banks of all the streams and ditches. fresh-water crustaceans, etc. It was of all sizes from a few inches to three or four Growing with the above was Chara fragilis in full feet in height; very fine indeed it looks, with the light fruit. green fronds topped with a large brown spike of On the peat of these bogs were found all three of sporangia. This seems to be one of the commonest species of Drosera, viz., rotundifolia, anglica, and ferns in Connemara; I noticed it in most of the intermedia. This is also a most interesting genus, ditches along the roadsides.
from the fact that all the species are insectivorous, Soon after we started to ascend the hill, we found and I found some plants with two or three of the the lovely Dabæocia polifolia in flower. This plant is leaves each making a meal off an insect. Some of confined to the west of Ireland, and is one of the the plants of anglica were very fine, the leaves of this most gorgeous of our Ericaceæ, its crimson flowers species are more erect than those of rotundifolia, and are in some cases nearly three-quarters of an inch are therefore very conspicuous among the bog-moss. long. There is also a white variety to be found After leaving this boggy ground we went over a spur about here, but we were not fortunate enough to of the hill and down into a little valley, on the slopes see it.
of which was growing Erica mediterranea. This Pinguicula lusitanica was found growing on boggy spot and one in County Mayo are its only British ground a short distance up. It is a most delicate little habitats; we were unfortunately too late for the plant, the leaves are very pale with darker veins; the the flower. I only found one small sprig with two or flower is lilac, also with darker veins. The whole three flowers on it; but when in full bloom it must be plant is very fragile, and much smaller than P. a beautiful sight, judging from the large quantity of vulgaris, which we found growing with it. The withered flowers we saw. Growing about this place plants of this genus are very interesting from the fact was Saxifraga umbrosa (London pride); this is only that they are insectivorous.
found truly wild in Ireland. Other plants worth mention are Schænus nigricans, From here we went on to Lake Bollard, one of which is very conspicuous, with angular-looking the larger ones seen from the top of Urrisbeg. There heads of black glumes; Eriophorum angustifolium is a spot near here where the true British maiden-hair (the cotton-grass); Scirpus pauciflorus, and Carex fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) grows, and I should limosa.
think out in this wild part, nearly fifty miles from a We also found a thistle which, I think, is a hybrid railway station, it will be out of the reach of the between Carduus palustris and pratensis ; but Vandal tourist for many years to come.
It does not we did not see either of these species anywhere in grow very large here ; the specimens we saw were the locality.
only a few inches high. All the above were growing on the boggy slopes of At the place we first struck the lake is a little cove the hill.
with a sandy strand; here we started dragging for On reaching the top of Urrisbeg a very striking aquatic plants, and were very well rewarded for our view meets the eye. Looking north we could see trouble, almost the first haul brought to land a specinearly three hundred lakes, both large and small, all men of the rare Eriocaulon septangulare, a most curious
little plant with awl-shaped leaves, of a peculiar cellular structure ; these arise from a crown on a creeping root. stock ; the roots also exbibit an annular structure very distinctly. We were not fortunate enough to find it in flower. Growing with the above was Lobelia dortmanna ; this is a rather curious plant, all the leaves are under water ; the flower-stalks stand up several inches above the surface, bearing a few lilac flowers. At a distance they have the appearance of dead straws standing in the water.
Another plant the drag brought up was Scirpus fluitans. This varies very much with the depth of the water ; in some specimens I found the branches were as thin as horsehair, and others, in shallower water, considerably thicker.
Arctostaphylos ura-ursi, was found trailing along the ground close to the edge of the lake. back to Roundstone across the bogs, we came to a small stream of deep water, which was covered with
Along this we found Dabaocia polifolia very large, and in some spots in great quantity ; also some of the hybrid thistles. So after a hard day, we had done very little botanical work, and were glad to get back to our car, which had been “put up" by the roadside, and drive back to Roundstone.
Next day we drove to Galway by the mail car, in time to catch the night train for Dublin, en route for Burton.
JNO. E. Nowers. Burton-on-Trent,
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF
On our way
Nymphaa alba ; between twenty and thirty of its IN my introductory remarks on existing collections
By E. BRUNETTI,
[Continued from p. 131.] N
in the first portion of this paper, I mentioned the unsatisfactory state of the British Museum Col. lection, but I can now, with much pleasure, retract that statement, as a new and able assistant (Mr. Austen) has been added to the staff, and under his indefatigable efforts the Collection is being rapidly overhauled and properly arranged.
Over 800 species of this immense family are known to be British, and ere long the list will probably exceed a thousand, as over 4000 European species (nearly half the total number inhabiting Europe) belong to it, and there are probably 30,000 species distributed over the world. The venation is very similar throughout the whole group, the genera in which it varies most belonging to the group Acalypterata.
Six sub-families are universally recognised.
beautiful white flowers were floating in the space of a few square yards. It abounds on most of the lakes, &c., in this part of Connemara.
Samolus valerandi, Habenaria chloroleuca, and Carex stricta, were also observed.
July 2nd. We went along the heaths and bogs by the side of the road that runs from Roundstone to Clifden. On a slightly elevated heath about five miles along, we found the rare Erica Mackayi, growing in fair quantity. It is easily distinguished from E. Tetralix, by the reddish tips of the branches and the more ovate leaves. I found some forms of Tetralix that come very near to this species. While speaking of heaths I may say that we found white varieties of Tetralix and cinerea.
Cladium germanicum was found growing by the side of a small lake near this spot.
July 3rd. This day we drove from Roundstone to the picturesque group of mountains known as the Twelve Pins, a distance of about eight miles. On arriving there we at once started to ascend the nearest, which is rather steep all the way up. The only plants worth notice we found on the lower part were Thalictrum minus and Carex pulicaris. The flora of these mountains is most scanty ; we went to the top of three of them, and the only plant we thought worth taking was Saxifraga umbrosa ; this was very various in form and size, some plants only about it inches in height, and others as much as i foot. Our labours were rewarded in another way this time, for on reaching the top (over 2,000 ft.) there was a most splendid view of the whole coast-line from Achil Head on the north to Loop Head on the south.
As the day was perfectly clear and bright we could make out, with the aid of our map the islands of Clare, Inishturk, Inishbofin, Inishark and Aran besides numerous smaller ones.
On the descent we followed the course of a small stream flowing in a deep bed with very steep banks.
Alulæ large (Calypterata).
Fourth longitudinal vein (from just beyond external trans-
Arista bare (in some genera pubescent): Tachinina.
Arista bare from the middle to the tip: Sar.
Abdomen conical, covered with long spines
legs rather long: Dexinar. Abdomen rounded, no spines, legs rather
short: Muscina. Fourth longitudinal vein not bent up towards the third,
and diverging from it towards the tip: Anthomyinæ. Alulæ small or absent (Acalypterata).
The arista is the antennal style-usually long, and seated on the upper side at the base of the third joint.
The antennæ in the calypterate Muscida are. usually pendent, lying close together in the centre of the face-the arista being generally horizontal.
A very slight acquaintance with the Muscida is sufficient for the student to recognise at a glance the sub-family to which any specimen belongs.