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an urban authority shall obtain from their contagious or infectious diseases may be prosurveyor an estimate in writing, as well of vided by any sanitary authority, and it is the probable expense of executing the work lawful for the latter to pay the expense of in a substantial manner as of the annual ex-conveying any such person to an hospital or pense of repairing the same; also a report as place for the reception of the sick or other to the most advantageous mode of contracting, place of destination.—(P. H., s. 123.) that is to say, whether by contracting only for Any one entering a public conveyance sufthe execution of the work, or for executing fering from a contagious disease without preand also maintaining the same in repair dur viously notifying to the owner or driver that ing a term of years or otherwise :

he was so suffering, shall on conviction be “4. Before any contract of the value or liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and amount of one hundred pounds or upwards is shall also be ordered by such justice to pay entered into by an urban authority, ten days' such owner and driver all the losses and es. public notice at the least shall be given, ex- penses they may suffer in carrying out the pressing the nature and purpose thereof and provisions of the Public Health Act, 1875, inviting tenders for the execution of the same; which provides that the owner or driver of a and such authority shall require and take public conveyance must immediately disinfect sufficient security for the due performance of the vehicle after it has conveyed a person 80 the same :

affected. Penalty for neglect, £5 or less.“5. Every contract entered into by an ur- (P. H., s. 126, 127.) ban authority in conformity with the provisions No owner or driver of any public conveyance of this section, and duly executed by the shall be required to convey a person suffering other parties thereto, shall be binding on the from a contagious disease until they shall have authority by whom the same is executed, and been first paid a sum sufficient to cover all their successors, and on all other parties such expenses.—(P. H., s. 127.) thereto, and their executors, administrators, Urban sanitary authorities have the power successors, or assigns, to all intents and pur- of licensing conveyances which ply for hire, poses : Provided that an urban authority may and of regulating such matters by bylaws.compound with any contractor or other person (P. H., s. 171.) See HACKNEY CARRIAGES, in respect of any penalty incurred by reason BYLAWS. of the non-performance of any contract entered into as aforesaid, whether such penalty is men- Cooking-Much depends on the method tioned in any such contract, or in any bond in which our food is prepared, not only as to or otherwise, for such sums of money or other its digestibility, but also as to the amount recompense as to such authority may seem eaten, well and properly cooked meat tempt. proper.”—-(P. H., s. 175.)

ing the appetite, while the stomach turns

against food which is revolting to the sight Convalescents Convalescents from and badly prepared. All nations have disscarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and measles, covered the advantages attendant upon cook&c., are often more liable to spread disease ing, and it is only amongst savages who have than those actually ill. The reason is that no fuel (e.g., the Esquimaux and Samæides) (1.) the skin is desquamating, or other organs that flesh is eaten in a raw state. Besides are throwing off the poison in large ities. improving the flavour of meat, rendering it (2.) Instead of being confined to a sick-cham- more easy of mastication, and pleasing to the ber, they may be walking about, and may even sight, cooking possesses other advantages ; it go into crowded assemblies, and there one kills any parasites which may exist in the case may give a fearful disease, like typhus, to tissues of the meat, and it secures a certain numbers. (3.) Even when the convalescent temperature, and by this means conveys is not contagious himself, he may wear the warmth to the system. clothes that have been infected by him, or Cooking has the effect of solidifying the those from which he originally caught the fibrine, gelatinising the tendinous, fibrous, disease.

and connective tissues, and of coagulating the There is no adequate provision against con- albumen and colouring-matter.

Thus the valescents from infectious diseases exposing whole substance becomes more tender and themselves. They might, perhaps, be proceeded less coh ent, and hence more digestible. against under P. H., s. 126, if they wore Meat cooked before the rigor nortis has set clothing which had been exposed to infection. in is more easy of digestion than if cooked See EXPOSURE, INFECTION, &c.

after that state has passed off. Bruising also

before cooking has the effect of loosening the Conveyances-Conveyances for the pur- texture of the meat and rendering it more pose of transporting persons suffering under tender.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
20
29

31
20
31

35 20 32

33 24 32

34 30

33 36 25 32

34 31

34

Loins of mutton

23

The principal modes of cooking commonly

Boiling. Baking. Roasting. employed in this country are boiling, roasting, broiling, baking, frying, stewing. It is

Beef generally highly essential that meat should not be over- Mutton generally . done, for Dr. Beaumont has satisfactorily Legs of mutton

Shoulders of mutton shown that meat when overdone is rendered more and more indigestible in proportion to Necks of mutton the prolonged action of heat. In boiling Average of all meat, the piece should be large, and it should be plunged suddenly into the water when it In roasting meat, as in boiling, the heat is in a state of brisk ebullition. The boiling should be strongest at first, and may then be should be kept up for some few minutes. much reduced. Liebig recommends that in When the meat is treated in this manner, the all cooking operations of meat the heat should albuminous matter upon the surface is coagu- be limited to 170° F. ; but it is doubtful lated, and leads to the formation of a more whether that heat is strong enough to kill or less unpermeable layer, through which the the parasites which infest meat, and therefore juices of the meat cannot escape. The boil. Letheby advises that the temperature should ing should not be continued, but tempera- be as nearly as possible that of boiling water. ture of between 160° and 170° F. maintained Roasted meats are not generally so digestible until the cooking process is completed will be as meats which have been boiled ; and many quite sufficient. Meat cooked in this way stomachs which can tolerate poultry, meat, presents a far finer appearance than either that fish, and puddings boiled, find that roasted which has been subjected to a greater heat than meat, &c., and baked puddings, cause great 170°, or that which at first has been placed in discomfort. This may be explained by the water below the boiling - point; for in the fact that during the process of roasting much former case the meat will be found to be of the superficial fat, from prolonged exposure shrunken, hard, and indigestible, and in the to heat, undergoes decomposition, attended latter the meat will present a raw and un- with the production of fatty acids, and an acid dressed appearance, consequent upon the volatile product known as acroleine, which albuminous and colouring matters not being may seriously disturb sensitive stomachs. properly coagulated. If the object be to These remarks apply also to broiling, fryextract the nutritive qualities of the meat, an ing, and baking, and more especially to the exactly opposite course should be pursued. latter, for the operation being carried on in a The meat should be chopped in small pieces, confined space, the volatile fatty acids geneand be allowed to remain soaking in cold rated are prevented from escaping, and thus water for some little time, and the tempera- permeate the cooked articles. tare gradually raised. For broths boiling is Stewing and Hashing.-By either of these not necessary, but for soups, when we desire processes the meat is placed in a highly favourto fully extract the gelatine, prolonged boil- able state for digestion. Much of the nutriing is requisite.

tive matter passes into the surrounding liquid, Boiling is the most economical method of which is consumed with the solid material. preparing meat, and it also renders it most The best way to stew meat is to place it in a digestible ; but the flavours developed are not vessel over the top of which a cloth is tied. so savoury as those obtained from roasted The vessel is then immersed in water conmeat.

tained in a saucepan.

The water in this Some descriptions of meat are altogether saucepan is made to gently simmer or slightly unsuited for boiling purposes, such as the boil, and in this manner the meat is stewed flesh of young animals, which contain a large in its own vapour, and forms a most suitable proportion of gelatine and albumen, substances food for the convalescent invalid. Captain which freely dissolve in water, and will there- Warren's cooking-pot depends on this prinfore to a great extent boil away.

ciple. American pork loses 50 per cent. of its A contrivance, called the "Norwegian nest," weight in boiling, whereas the pork of Den- sold by Messrs. Silver & Co., may be worth mark, Holstein, England, and Ireland only describing here. It onsi of a box conloses from 25 to 30 per cent.

structed like a refrigerator, the only differThe average loss in weight sustained by ence being that it keeps the heat in instead mutton and beef during the process is, ac- of out. It is padded inside with a non-concording to Dr. Pereira, only about 174 per ducting material, with a space in the centre cent.

for receiving the vessel in which the process Letheby gives the ordinary loss of weight in of cooking is carried on. If the vessel be cooking in the following table :

filled with water, and this by the aid of heat

ores.

kept at the boiling-point for a few minutes, water, and reddening litmus paper. It acts and then placed in the box and shut in by as an emetic, as a stimulant and astringent, the closure the lid, the process of cooking and externally as an escharotic. The fatal goes on away from the fire, no matter in what dose of this salt is variable ; as much as 5 situation the box may be placed. On the drachms have been taken without proving score of economy this box recommends itself fatal. Smaller doses are often more fatal than to every household.

larger ones, owing to the emetic action in. On account of its economy, the Norwegian duced by the latter. pot was introduced into the French navy in Detection of Copper.- Whether copper be 1869, and the results have been very satisfac- searched for, in cases of poisoning, in the contory.--(Annales d'Hygiène, 1874.)

tents of the stomach or in foods, the same In boiling fish, it is well to remember that process is applicable. If searched for in an fish boiled in hard water is much firmer than organic liquid, it will be better to evaporate if it be prepared in soft water; hence fish to dryness, add nitric acid, and boil to destroy boiled in sea-water, or water to which salt organic matter, dilute and filter. A clean has been added, is finer flavoured and much knife-blade or a needle inserted in the liquid firmer than it would have been had it been will give evidence of copper, if present. cooked in ordinary water. Speaking gener- Another excellent way, applicable to any ally, although there are some very important organic solid, is to burn down to an ash in a exceptions, fish are always better fried. platinum dish, treat the ash with a little

Vegetables boiled in water to which salt has dilute acid, and then insert a slip of zinc; if been added, are not so tender as they would copper be present, it is deposited on the be if no salt were added. The salt is gener- platinum dish. Copper thus obtained may ally put in to preserve the colour.

be confirmed by other tests; thus prussiate

of potash added to a solution of copper gives 2 Copper - Metallic copper is found in chocolate precipitate, ammonia a blue colour, &c. various parts of the globe, but its most Adulterations.--Sulphate of iron and sul. abundant source is that of various copper phate of zinc are sometimes fraudulently

It is principally obtained from the added. The iron is detected by ammonia not pyrites of Cornwall, Devonshire, and Cuba, redissolving the oxide; zinc, by first precipiand from the carbonates of copper imported tating the copper with sulphuretted hydrogen, from Australia,

then, on the addition of ammonia, some of the It has a specific gravity of 8.86 to 8.894. above gas being in solution, a whitish sulphuret It is combustible and readily oxidised. It of zinc is thrown down, communicates a green tinge to flame. Acid, Copper-founders, and others working in this alkaline, saline, and fatty bodies, when placed metal, are very subject to affections of the in contact with it in air, promote its union chest. with oxygen, and by dissolving a portion of When copper vessels are used for culinary the newly - formed oxide acquire poisonous or pharmaceutical purposes, great care should properties.

be exercised in their employment. Copper Characteristics of the Salts of Copper.- vessels should never be employed for any Copper dissolves in dilute nitric acid. The fluids that are the least acidulous, or that may solution possesses the following properties : have to remain long in them. Acid syrups, In colour it is blue or greenish-blue. With vegetable juices, aqueous extracts, soups, potash or soda it yields a blue precipitate stews, &c., prepared in copper sauce-pans or (hydrate of copper); a small quantity of boilers receive a metallic contamination proammonia produces with it a similar bluish- portional to the length of time they are exwhite precipitate, but an excess redissolves posed to the action of the metal; and it is it, forming a deep blue liquid ; ferrocyanide important to remember that when copper of potassium occasions in it a reddish-brown vessels are allowed to get wet or dirty, or precipitate (ferrocyanide of copper); sulphu- more especially greasy, a poisonous green retted hydrogen and the hydrosulphides throw rust forms upon the surface somewhat similar down a black precipitate (sulphide of copper); to verdigris. If articles are prepared in them and lastly, a polished iron plate plunged into in this state, serious consequences may ensue. the liquid becomes coated with metallic Cases of poisoning from this cause are frecopper (Cu2NO3 + Fe=Cu+Fe2NO3).

quently met with, therefore it is necessary to One of the most important salts which be very careful that copper vessels should be copper forms is sulphate of copper. It is met thoroughly cleaned out immediately previous with in the form of oblique rhombic azure- to their being used. blue crystals, with a styptic metallic taste, Such copper vessels are occasionally lined slightly efflorescing in dry air, soluble in | by a thin film of tin; but this necessarily,

Chit Coriander Seeds—The dried ripe fruit

from constant use, becomes imperfect, and tected in annatto, in confectionery, in wine, affords but little protection, therefore great and in the absinthe so much used in France. caution must be used in employing tinned The emanations from copper-works where copper boilers. Mr. W. Thompson in one pyrites are burnt are large quantities of sulcase found no less than 3.575 grains of copper phurous acid, arsenic, and a little copper. in a gallon of water drawn from a kitchenboiler of this description. The copper existed

Copperas–A generic name for the crude in this case in the form of a soluble sul metallic sulphates. When used without a phate. After a careful examination of the qualifying adjective, it generally means sulcause, Mr. Thompson could only suggest, that phate of iron. See Iron. as in the process of galvanising the copper it is first pickled in sulphuric acid, some of the acid must have been retained in the crevices of the Coriandrum sativum, natural order of the rivets and then dialysed out, carrying Umbellifera. Grows wild about Ipswich and with it the copper. -- (See Chemical News, vol.

some parts of Essex, although not really indiXxxi, No. 801, 1875.)

genous, but a native of the south of Europe. Indeed copper in minute quantities is con

The coriander seed is used for mixing with tinually finding its way into the human body curry powders. It is about the size of white through the use of copper vessels, copper pepper, globular, finely ribbed, and of a yel. coins, intentional and accidental contamina- lowish-brown colour. It consists of two hemition of food, &c. This fact is conclusively spherical mericarps, adherent by their concave established by Bergeron and L. L. Hote, who surfaces. Each mericarp is without evident examined specially the kidneys and livers of primary ridges, but the four secondary ridges fourteen human bodies for copper, the result

are more prominent and keeled. The channels being that the metal was found in every case.

are without vitta, but the commissure has In two of the cases, aged seventeen years,

two. It has a peculiar, agreeable, aromatic its presence could only be proved qualita' odour. The mature seed does not contain tively. Ineleven, aged from twenty-six to fifty. starch. See Curry. eight years, the quantities of copper found

Corn-Flour-See FLOUR, &c. ranged from 7 to 1 milligramme. And in one individual, aged seventy-eight years, the cop

Cosmetics—It is convenient to underper found amounted to 1.5 milligrammes.

stand by the term “cosmetics" all substances (Comp. Rend., lxxx. 268.)

applied to the skin, hair, beard, nails, and Water, and hence food, has occasionally teeth to improve their appearance. There become contaminated with copper through are many instances on record of poisoning from strange channels. For example, in France, the use of cosmetics of a deleterious nature; at Roubaix, many of the rain water tanks for example, Horace Walpole relates, “That were found to contain considerable quantities pretty young woman, Lady Fortrose, Lady of sulphate of copper. Most of the stoves Harrington's eldest daughter, is at the point there had been supplied with copper flues, of death, killed, like Coventry and others, by the sulphur compounds from the coal had white-lead, of which nothing could break her.” formed a sulphide of copper, which the action - (HORACE WALPOLE, Letters, vol. iii. p. of the air changed into sulphate; this being 200.) deposited on the roofs, the rains washed down The same substance is to this day used by and dissolved into the cisterns.

the London actresses. Dr. George Johnson The various compounds of copper are largely has recently called attention to several cases, used for the adulteration and colouring of treated at King's College Hospital, of leaddifferent articles used as foods.

poisoning, caused by the use of flake-white, Carbonate and arsenite of copper have been “amongst the ballet dancers and others.” used for the purpose of colouring tea leaves. Cosmetics are generally prepared from the See TEA.

vegetable and mineral kingdom ; some few Sulphate of copper has been employed from the animal world, such as spermaceti, chiefly in Belgium for the purpose of whiten- ciret, and most pomades. ing bread. See BREAD.

Cosmetics, speaking generally, are not adul. Sulphate and acetate of copper are con

terated with dangerous substances, but stantly added to pickles for the purpose of usually mixed with similar articles of an giving them a bright green colour. See inferior quality. PICKLES.

On the other hand, some few consist almost Preserves and jellies are often adulterated entirely of metallic substances. with copper. In sauces, also, this metal has Arsenic is generally present in large quanfrequently been discovered. It has been del tities in depilatory powders.

Subnitrate of bismuth is used as a prepara- Cotton alone is used in cotton shirting and tion for imparting clearness to the complexion calico. In merino and other fabrics, it is used (blanc de perle).

with wool in the proportion of 20 to 50 per Carbonate of lead is often used to adulterate cent. of wool, the threads being twisted to this substance, and enters largely into the gether to form the yarn. See CLOTEING. composition of two substances known as blanc de Kréms and blanc de vinaigre.

Court Leet-See LEET, COURT OF. Lead is also frequently present in prepara- Courts—The hygienic condition of our tions used to stain the hair black; and in one courts of law in past times was defective or two instances poisoning has occurred, for in the extreme, and led to serious results. example-

For example, the Black Assizes at the Old Mr. John C. Hunter relates the case of a Bailey, Taunton, Launceston, Exeter, &c., gentleman in Glasgow who had used a “hair

were directly due to contagion from the pri. restorer” to dye his grey locks, and soon soners, and this contagion would probably not exhibited symptoms of lead-poisoning. The have been so fatal if the courts had been built strength of the wash appears to have been larger and not so crowded. At the present 2:75 grains of lead to the fluid ounce, the lead date many of our courts are the same as those existing in the form of acetate.-—(Pharmaceu- of the Black Assizes. Their great faul is their tical Journal, February 27, 1875.)

small size, which permits overcrowd.ng to a Dr. Taylor also states, that he has met with great and insufferable extent. Besides, it is an instance in which paralysis of the muscles not ordinary overcrowding, but a collection of on one side of the neck arose from the impru- people very frequently from the lowest and dent use of a hair-dye containing litharge. most unhealthy parts of our towns. The sani(TAYLOR'S Principles of Medical Jurispru- tary officials of every place should carefully dence, vol. i. p. 299.)

examine the drains, water-closets, ventilation, Nitrate of silver as a dye is also much used, &c., of every courthouse, and notices shoud and mercury finds its place in various washes be posted warning people recovering from and ointments largely dispensed by chemists any infectious disease from entering into the for the purpose of destroying parasites, &c. court. See BLACK ASSIZES, VENTILATION, Cottages-See HABITATIONS.

DISINFECTION. Cotton—The cotton of which textile fabrics Cream is that portion of the milk which are made consists of hairs covering the seeds rises to the surface on standing. It is really of certain plants belonging to the natural order milk rich in fat. Malvaceae, or the Mallow family. The com- The following table shows the composition mercial cotton is derived from four distinct of six samples of genuine cream analysed by species-Gossypium arboreum, an Indian spe

Mr. Wanklyn :cies ; Gossypium Barbadense, the Barbadoes

Water 72-20 712 66-36 60-17 53 62 50 00 cotton plant; Gossypium herbaceum, the com

19.00 14.1 18.87 33 02 38 17 43 90 mon cotton plant of India ; Gossypium Peru- Milk, sugar, vianum or acuminatum, a species supposed to caseine, 8.80 147 14.77 6.81 8-21 6:10 be indigenous to America. It is a diaphanous substance, which forms fibres about oto of Cream is rich in butter, a quart of good an inch in diameter, ribbon-like, and flattened cream generally yielding from 13 oz. to 15 oz. in shape. The fibres are twisted at intervals, of commercial butter. In good seasons, when and the borders are a little thickened. The the cows are fed on rich pasture-land, a quart interior canal is very frequently obliterated, of cream will often yield about 16 oz. of butter; or if it is not, it may contain some extractive and if they are fed on oilcake, as much as matters.

from 22 oz. to 24 oz. are obtained. The 80Fresh cotton fibre is a cylindrical hair with called clotted cream of Devonshire is thus thin walls, which collapses and twists as it prepared. The milk is allowed to stand for a becomes dry. Iodine stains it brown; iodine day to allow the cream to rise; it is then and sulphuric acid (in very small quantities) strongly heated, but not allowed to boil; the give a blue or violet blue; nitric acid unrolls heat coagulates some of the caseine, and the the twists, but does not destroy them. cream is involved in the coagulum.

Cotton wears well; it is very non-absorbent, The analysis of cream is conducted on exactly does not shrink in washing, and conducts heat the same principle as that of milk; but it less rapidly than linen, but much more rapidly must be weighed, not measured, and smaller than wool. Smoothness, evenness of texture, quantities may be evaporated to dryness in and equality of spinning are the chief points order to estimate the water, if the ratio of to be attended to in choosing cotton fabrics. the water to the solids, not fat, is such that

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