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method of getting rid of it at once and for ever?_I am for the removal of shop sweepings and dry house refuse in glad to state that we have decided to convey the Dublin the main thoroughsares, and it also works well where you unsaleable refuse to sea in a hopper barge.

have a population living in sell-contained houses or The cost of this vessel will be 5,9501. She is specially de. cottages, each provided with a water-closet. But from signed to meet all our requirements, and is now almost ready experience in Glasgow and Dublin, I consider it unsuitable for launching. A suitable and convenient berth has been for the lower class tenement houses, where in many cases obtained on the river near the Swivel Bridge, and is now the people have not yet learned to put the slops into the dredged out to the required depth. A jetiy, 120 feet in sewer and the solid refuse into the ashbins. length, and 16 feet in width, has been there built, and The fixed ashbins now being erected in the tenement upon it a five-ton steam crane with novel and efficient yards of Dublin, at the instigation of the sanitary authority, loading appliances has been erected for the purpose of are calculated to contain the house resuse for one week or transferring mud as well as dry refuse direct from the thereby. The walls are 9-inch brickwork, the roof scavenge carts to the barge, with which we propose to galvanised corrugated iron or slates, the floor is from 3 to commence operations in a few weeks.

6 inches over the level of the yard, and the floor and sides The following are the principal dimensions of the are rendered water-tight with cement. Its advantages are vessel :

(1) a child can throw refuse into it, (2) it is easily cleansed, In.

(3) no filthy water is allowed to escape and permeate the Length .....

116 6

subsoil, and (4) in the event of portable bins being used at Breadth, moulded


a future date, it will form a stand and shed for them. Depth moulded, amidships......... 12

Necessary as the sewering and paving of private yards Length of hopper


undoubtedly is to domestic cleanliness, the proper formaBreadth......


tion and drainage of the public streets in like manner must Sheer, forward..

invariably precede efficient street scavenging. I regard a aft


macadamised street, suitable as it may be for light traffic, Camber of deck


quite out of place in the centre of a large city, where no She will carry about 340 tons of refuse, and the trip to

amount of attention will keep it entirely free from its usual the place of deposit off Howth and back will take less accompaniments of dust and mud. than five hours in average weather. By this means the refuse will be conveyed to its ultimate destination at an

PAVING. estimated cost of fivepence per ton.

A street calculated to sustain heavy traffic should have a TexEMENT HOUSES.

good foundation of concrete carefully laid to the required

levels. If the surface is formed of granite sets these should In nearly all our large cities, Dublin not excepted, the be carefully dressed, so that they can be placed close material change caused by the exodus of the better classes together, and the interstices should be grouted with cement to rural or suburban residences has necessitated alterations

or pitch. Wooden blocks, well laid and grouted, also in the urban houses now occupied by the lower classes,

make a good street surface, less noisy and more pleasant and more especially improvements in the sanitary accom- than granite, for a city that can afford to pay for their fremodation provided for them, but in many instances these quent renewal. The blocks should be carefully selected improvements bave not been effected.

before creosoting, otherwise they wil wear unevenly. The drains, closets, ashbins, water-supply, and paving Provided with a good surface of granite or wood, street in the yards connected with the tenement houses forming scavenging, though requiring constant attention, is comthe dwellings of the working population are frequently paratively an easy matter, and can be efficiently accomdefective or inadequate. In every tenement yard there plished at a moderate cost. ought to be-1. A proper house-drain not less than 9 inches

The vegetable supply of Dublin is a matter which also in diameter, carefully laid with a proper fall to the main affects the cleansing operations. An excellent supply of sewer, and properly jointed. 2. A large gully-trap con- fresh vegetables has created a large demand, and they form nected with the sewer for the reception of slops. 3. Two an important item in the diet of the lower classes. But, closets, one for each sex, with a cistern capable of contain- unfortunately for the cleansing department, the cabbages ing not less than four gallons of water. 4. A covered ash- and other vegetables are brought into the city wholly unbin not less than 5 feet by 4 feet by 2 feet 6 inches. 5. An trimmed and consequently in the height of the vegetable impervious surface of asphalte, or paving sets grouted with season the department is called on to remove per week tar, laid with a proper fall to the gully-grate. And 6. In ad- not less than 200 loads of vegetable refuse. dition to the ordinary water-tap, å tap to which a hose can

Dr. MacCabe, L.G.I., read a paper onbe attached for washing out the yard should be provided. With regard to water-closet accommodation, in the ab.

THE WATER-SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE OF sence of compulsory power, it is a difficult matter to induce landlords to go to the expense necessary to provide good

SMALL TOWNS IN IRELAND, substantial closets, with cisterns sufficiently large, and in which he dealt in detail with the difficulty of making adequate sewers laid as they ought to be ; when all these arrangements for the supply of pure water for the use of have been provided, it is still more difficult to train a popu. the inhabitants of the smaller towns in this country. He lation to use water-closets without abusing them; and it also dealt with the difficulty in arranging the sewerage is discouraging to householders to find closets broken or levels, so as to provide against the pollution of the water choked with rags or straw soon after erection. Yet withal

The great difficulty was the cost and the limited we regard the water-carriage system as the cleanliest and area to which taxation could be applied. He suggested best that can be adopted in a city circumstanced like that the cost should be so divided as to fall in equal proDublin, but at the same time we regard strict supervision portions upon a contributory area.

His remarks were over the erection of the closets with their sewers and water confined 10 small urban populations varying between 500 connections as an absolute necessity.

and 6,000. A large gully trap conveniently situated in every tene- Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, M. Inst.C.E., read a paper ment yard is also requisite, and, unless such is provided, upon --the slops must find their way into the ashbin, as they


(Published at page 144.) I have said that we have both fixed ashbins and portable dustbins in use in Dublin, and the latter system is rapidly

DISCUSSION. extending. The daily removal of house resuse by portable Mr. Dodson said that sewerage ventilation would not be dustbins of a uniform pattern is a system admirably adapted perfect until it was arranged upon the same principle as



coal mines. He did not think that rain-water pipes should who could undertake the work, and find occupation and be used as ventilators.

pleasure in it. Ladies are more easily found as district Mr. Field thought the proposition was a dangerous one. visitors for other purposes, and possibly it is a better and

Mr. Stirling thought that is the exterior ventilation was easier way than for sanitary work; but if it be remembered interfered with, the noxious gases would be sucked into that cleanliness is next to godliness,’and that, in fact, they the houses by the heat of the ranges.

must and do go together, some would be found to work in Mr. D. Emptage (Margate) saw no objection to ventila- the straight and narrow way,' which would lead to tion shafts being laid against the houses.

other and higher work. In conclusion, the writer said Mr. J. Wallis Peggs advocated the thorough ventilation her object had been to bring the subject under public of the sewers from end to end.

notice, and to ask for workers, and not to write a scientific Dr. Carpenter related an instance which had come under paper, which would be open to discussion.


Dr. Charles Cameron said that a larger proportion of the emanations from an opening in a sewer.

population of Dublin, which amounted to 250 000, was in a Sir R. Rawlinson said that he had recommended in his state of more abject poverty than was to be found in any recent directions that sewers should be divided into sections. city in England. You could walk for miles in London Traps should be provided to prevent the gases in the lower without meeting a really bad street or a number of dilapidistricts from coming up to the higher ones.

dated houses. But vou could not pass out of any of the Mr. Boulnois, C.E., spoke of the limited number of fashionable squares of Dublin without going through streets inspectors which were provided by the Local Government in which the people were steeped in wretchedness and Board, and expressed the opinion that they were entirely poverty. That was general throughout this decaying city. too few to do adequately the work required of them. (See The purlieus of Dublin were worse than those of London. SANITARY RECORD for Sept. 15, p. 108.)

It was therefore nonsensical to compare the communities

in the two cities. It was surprising to him that the death. THE OBJECTS AND WORK OF THE DUBLIN

rate in Dublin was only 27 per 1,000, and not about 33 LADIES' SANITARY ASSOCIATION.

per 1,000 ; and he was happy to find that, though it exThe writer, a lady whose name did not transpire, ceeded the death-rate of London, it was lower than the remarked that it was now fully acknowledged how im- death-rates of most great cities on the Continent. He portant was a healthy condition of life for the hap: heartily approved of the objects of the Dublin Ladies' Sanipiness of the people. It was one of woman's special tary Association. Few were better qualified than he to express works to visit the poor, and there was, perhaps, no cause an opinion of their work. He had noticed how frequently in which woman's tact and sympathy would be of more they had called the attention of the sanitary authorities to value than in instructing the poor in the simpler truths of neglected places. He thought the large mortality in this the sanitary science. There were many things which city arose from the insufficient feeding and insufficient could be noticed by a lady visitor, as a woman amongst clothing of the children. This remark applied not merely women, which would be passed over by regular sanitary to the poor, but also to well-to-do people. He had been officials, or, if noticed by them, perhaps be objected to as surprised to find women of the middle class well and coman interference and perfectly unheeded. The sanitary in fortably clothed themselves, while the arms and legs of the spector could not enter into the question of personal clean- children whom they were dragging out for their miserable liness, the proper care, clothing, and feeding of children. walks were purple from cold. The Ladies' Sanitary It must be very difficult for the people to carry out any Association had a great work to perform, and he was cleanliness in the dens in which they live, but they must surprised so few ladies were taking an interest in it. Great have the knowledge given them and the belief in its as had been the work done up to the present, vast was the efficiency instilled into them before they would even make amount which still remained to be accomplished. Thirtythe attempt. The hardest part of the work was to per- three thousand out of the 54,000 families residing in the suade the lower classes to try cleanliness. The ladies city were living, on an average, in one and a half rooms could also act as "go betweens' between the tenants of per family. He thought the best way to improve Dublin those wretched places and the landlords. In fact, the would be to improve two-thirds of the inhabitants off the good that might be done by ladies' sanitary associations if face of the earth. He took some little credit to himself efficiently worked, and worked by those who took a for having by persistent agitation induced the putting in thorough interest in them, was incalculable, but great force of the Artisans' Dwellings Act. They could not tact and discretion were required. Lest any ladies should expect landlords to provide decent dwellings for people so be deterred by fear of any disagreeable opposition from sunk in poverty that perhaps they could only pay one becoming district visitors, it was well it should be known week's rent in every four weeks. What he had always that the people were always glad to see them. There were contended was that it was the duty of the municipal several similar associations founded, and recently one had authorities to provide dwellings for the lowest and most been formed in Australia. They were all doing good wretched stratum of the population. There were 10,005 work. The National Health Society had published a people in the city requiring house accommodation who large number of pamphlets, &c., on sanitary subjects, could not afford to pay a rent higher than one shilling per and answered a mass of inquiries; and many of the week. Plans were now being prepared, he was glad to pamphlets were to be translated into Japanese, Chinese, say, for the erection of houses upon corporate property and modern Greek. The National Health Society has which would suit people who could not afford more than also taken up the questions of seats in shops, early closing, one shilling per week. playgrounds for children, bread reform, Matrons' Aid Sir Robert Rawlinson said it had been one of the tasks Institute, &c. The Dublin Institute had only made a of his life to investigate what were called charitable endowcommencement. It was founded in 1881, and the Coun- ments in different parts of the country. These charities tess Spencer, who had on every possible occasion shown had increased to an enormous extent. His observations her sympathy and given her aid to the society, was now sorced him to say--Show me a largely endowed district its president. Perhaps the most practical and important and I will show you a corrupt population. Where endow, portion of the work of the association was the district ments were relied on, they took away the self-interest of visiting. Unhappily the districts at present worked num- the population to look after themselves. Therefore they bered only two, owing to the want of visitors, which is must be cautious in attempting to do good that they did the more surprising, as happily in this work creed' not make greater evil. Under no circumstances can makes no difference. Protestants and Roman Catholics relief be given in money' was an admirable rule of the work together with the approval of clergy on both sides. Dublin Ladies' Sanitary Society. The question of putting Surely there inust be some women in Dublin who are not the poor into a proper condition was the statesman's work. tied to houses and children of their own to look after, and The laws must be so regulated, and so framed, and so ad

ministered, that ihere should be relief without Communism, desirable method of adding the sulphate to the blood is to for woe be to that nation and to that people who ceased to place in a shallow tin dish of suitable dimensions a small rely on its own endeavours, and looked to the ranks above quantity of the solution, containing about three-quarters to seed, and clothe, and take care of them. Its disruption of a pound of the sulphate of alumina, and allow the blood must soon come.

from the slaughtered animal to flow into it. A full-sized Dr. Byrne Power, Medical Superintendent, Officer of animal gives about forty-five pounds weight, or about four Health, read a paper on

and a half gallons of blood. A collecting.vessel is placed

close at hand, and the contents of the dishes re poured THE PUBLIC HEALTH OF KINGSTOWN.

into it, when it shortly afterwards coagulates, and not He said there was a very low birth-rate and a rela- the least trace of offensive odour occurs. This method tively high death-rate in Kingstown. The death-rate he of treatment is now being carried on upon a working scale considered excessive, taking into account the very favour- by the Dublin and Wicklow Manure Company, who collect able conditions as to health which ought to obtain in all the blood from the animals slaughtered at the public a town so favourably situated. All the phys cal conditions abattoir which the Corporation have recently erected in were favourable, the climate, soil, water supply, and this city. The blood is conveyed to the company's works sewerage being good. The first thing that struck him in at Bailybough Bridge, and there dried in an open pan, investigating the causes of the high death-rate was the without the emission of any offensive odour, or the least number and wretchedness of the slums. These are, for the inconvenience to the workmen, and without any danger most part, hidden from view by dwellings of a more re. whatever to public health. This treatment has also been spectable character, being, in many cases, erected in what carried out upon a large scale at some of the slaughtering were formerly the yards or gardens belonging to the houses establishments (or saladeros, as they are locally called) at which conceal them, so that all seems prosperous enough Monte Video, in the State of Uruguay, where upwards of to the casual observer. The number of such hovels and 500 animals are slaughtered in each saladero per day on of their inhabitants indicates a proletariate out of all pro- the average during the season. portion to the possibility for employment in such a town. Mr. Francis Parker read paper on 'THE INFLUENCE Such a number of persons in Kingstown constantly on the OF FOOD ON HEALTH.' verge of pauperism is, he believes, completely abnormal even Dr. Charles A. Cameron read a paper onin Ireland, and makes the township extremely sensitive to

THE WATER SUPPLY TO IRISH TOWNS, the influence of bad years.' Thus Kingstown presented

in which he stated that in 1881 there were in Ireland some of the worst features of a town of decay, and industry and remedy for want were almost hopeless.

eleven cities and towns governed by corporations or

town councils. Their aggregate population amounted to On October 3, Dr. Charles A. Cameron, City Analyst 683,502, and their valuation to 1,743,3171, The nine and Medical Officer of Health for Dublin, delivered an townships surrounding the city of Dublin had a populaaddress on · MICRO-ORGANISMS AND ALKALOIDS WHICH

tion of 95,400, and a valuation of 395,6671. There were RENDER FOOD POISONOUS.'

ninety-four cities and towns governed by towns' comMr. W. G. Strype, C.E., read a paper on-

missioners; their population amounted to 449.451, and A NEW PROCESS FOR TREATING

their valuation to 286,2151. The population of all these


was, therefore, in 1881, 1,228,35., and th ir valuation WITHOUT CREATING NUISANCE.

for rating 2,583,4357. In such towns the valuation is

about two thirds of the actual letting value. He had The rapid manner, the writer said, in which the blood endeavoured to ascertain the nature of the water supplies of animals decomposes, emitting offensive emanations dan- to these 114 cities, towns, and townships, and had sucgerous to health, has presented considerable difficulty in ceeded in ascertaining facts regarding nearly every town preparing it for use. Blood contains about 75 to 80 per of importance in the country. The eleven towns governed cent. of moisture, which has to be evaporated in order to by town councils were : Belsast - Population, 207,671 ; prepare it in convenient form for agricultural or other pur- valuation, 568,1371. ; water supplied from a reservoir near poses, but the operation of drying, as usually performed, Carrickfergus, twelve miles from Belfast. Clonmel-tends to aggravate the nuisance by the increased emission of Population, 10.519; valuation, 15,4241. ; supplied by noxious vapours. The author's attention had been directed local pumps and wells. Cork - Population, 78,361 ; valuato this subject in connection with the manufacture of sul- tion, 226,0221. ; supplied from River Lee. Droghedaphate of alumina, and some of the many sanitary purposes Population, 12,516 ; valuation, 28, 1211. ; supplied partly to which this material could be advantageously applied. by Waterworks Company, partly by local pumps. Dublin It has been generally known that the ordinary hydrated | Population, 249,486 ; valuation, 657,8201. The gathering sulphate of alumina had the property of abating the ground of the water supplied to Dublin consists of granite nuisance arising from the naturally rapid decomposition of mountains and other high ground, situated about twentyblood when it had been kept for a short time, but the three miles from the city, in the county Wicklow. The quantity necessary to do so was considerable, and it was reservoir is very large, and is capable of supplying thirtyalmost impossible to thoroughly mix the sulphate with the five gallons per diem per unit of me population. At first blood so as to secure deodorisation. The treatment with the water impounded had a saint yellow colour, which sulphate of alumina has, therefore, not hitherto been a gradually became deeper, and after three or four years success, or, indeed, much employed on a large scale. became su deep as to excite alarm. The colour was Hydrated sulphate of alumina, as now manufactured, is caused by the peaty and other organic matter in the reservery soluble itself in water, and especially in hot water ; voir becoming soluble by fermentation. After a time the and he found that if the sulphate were previously dissolved hue became less intense, and now the water is almost in water the solution so obiaired could be added so as to be colourless. It is soft; one imperial gallon contains about intimately incorporated with every part of the blood. He | 45 grains of solid matters, 0.0005 grain of albuminoid found that so small a proportion of the hydrated sulphate of ammonia, 0.0008 grain of saline ammonia, faint traces of alumina as the one-fiftieth, or even the one-sixtieth part of nitrates and nitrities, and 0.96 grain of chlorine. Its the blood to be treated, when added in the form of a solu. hardness is about 1o.8, of which 0.8 is permanent. It is tion, was quite sufficient to entirely destroy the offensive one of the purest waters in the world. With respect to and dangerous odour, and the resulting mixture could be pressure and quantity the citizens have nothing to comafterwards dried to prepare it for use in an open pan plain. There are some well waters still used in Dublin. heated with a fire or other means without nuisance; the They are generally very hard, owing to the presence of slight odour emitted during the process of drying is rather large quantities of earthy salts. Kilkenny- Population, a pleasant one than otherwise, somewhat resembling that 12,182 ; valuation, 33,1551. ; supplied by local wells, and from the roasting of a fresh joint of beef. The most to a limited extent from river." Limerick-Population,



38,600 ; valuation, 65,5471. ; supplied from River Shan- death-rate :-1. By using pipes of 9-inch diameter for the non. Londonderry - Population, 28,947 ; valuation, house-drain, laid across under the streets, conneating the 74,5951. ; no information. Sligo-Population, 10,764 ; | houses with the public sewers. 2. By laying them on the valuation, 18,6191. ; supplied from a lake. Waterford - soil without cement-concrete foundation, and so that Population, 22,401 ; valuation, 39,8661. ; supplied from they are liable to sink. 3. By not imperviously cementhilly region remote from city. Wexford- Population, ing the joints. 4. By leading them into the house 12,055 ; valuation, 16,011). ; supplied from pumps. Sta direct under the scullery instead of invariably leading tistics of a like character were given of towns under Town them across under the open area. 5. By not compelling Commissioners.

the use of approved interceptor traps to exclude the public Mr. G. B. Nicholls, C.E., read a paper on

sewer air. The 9-inch diameter drain pipes used in

Dublin are 50 per cent. too large in diameter and area for HOUSE DRAINAGE IN CONNECTION WITH

their purpose of conveying drainage rapidly from the TOWN SEWAGE.

houses into the public sewer. It is very important that He said he had maintained, and still maintained, that

the proper size of house-drains should be adopted in a all schemes of sewerage should be designed and con

great city. Dullin city, exclusive of suburbs, contains structed to receive the house drainage in the most perfect

more than 25,000 houses in about 130 miles of streets, manner, and that so soon as the sewers are ready to re

with a population over 250, oco. Taking 7 yards, or 21 ceive the sewage the owners of property should be com

feet, of drain under Section I as a fair average for each pelled to carry out a perfect system of house drainage and

house, we have 100 miles of drain laid across under road. connections to the sewer upon one principle---such princi.

ways from houses to sewers under the control of the saniple to be maintained and supported by the authority and

tary authority. The length of private house-drains and under their entire control ; and any deviation therefrom branches, beside, under, and around houses, extends many should be subject to the highest penalties the Legislature hundred miles more, but at present we are only dealing can enforce. The Local Government Board recommended

with the section 'under the sole control of the sanitary the advance of capital to carry on these sanitary works, authority: Now, the internal surface area of this 100 and, in doing so, he was of opinion that they would do

miles of drain is more or less foul, and is constantly giving well to insist that the house drainage and connections

off exhalations to the air in the drain; the proportion of should be made to form part of the whole scheme of

this internal surface area of 9-inch to 6-inch drain is as sewerage, and hold the authority responsible for this 24 to i}, i.e. the 100 miles of 9-inch drain now laid under work, which in every instance should be carried out under

streets and connected with our houses contains the supervision of thoroughly qualified officers. If such

1,188,000 square feet of foul surface area inside, as a state of things could be accomplished under some enact.

compared with 792,000 square feet, the surface area ment, we should have our habitations in a healthy condi

of 6-inch drain, an absolutely unnecessary excess of tion, and be free from the effects of sewer gas, and the

nearly 400,00) square feet of foul surface in our

drains. mortality reduced to a state which would not only gladden

An estimate of items will show that a total the hearts of those for whom the work was performed, but

saving in cost to the citizens, is the more suitable 6-inch the whole community.

diameter drains had been used, would be a capital sum in Mr. W. Kaye Parry, M.A., C.E., engineer to the

round numbers of at least 25,000l., and a very notable Dublin Sanitary Association, read a paper on -

saving in money may be effected in future if 6-inch drains

are adopted, besides the saving to life and health. The DOMESTIC DRAINAGE IN DUBLIN, importance of forming a hard unyielding foundation for the to show that the proper machinery exists in the city authority should require all drains to be brought into the

drain should never be forgotten. The law or the sanitary to enable the residents to ascertain, for a moderate fee, the sanitary condition of their dwellings, and to afford

open areas in front of houses, and should forbid all direct them disinterested advice and assistance in remedying

drain connection under any vaults having direct covered defects; and, secondly, to suggest some of the practical

access to the houses. That interceptor traps are required difficulties which assail the engineer in his endeavour to

on the line of drain at some point before they reach the improve the existing arrangements.

house is held by sanitary engineers, and now generally Mr. W. R. Maguire, F.R.M.E. and C.S.I., read a

admitted. The health of Dublin would be notably im

proved if the sanitary authority undertook a systematic paper on

examination and test of every house-drain, and compelled PRACTICAL SANITARY LESSONS DERIVED their universal reform. There should be a stringent

FROM ONE THOUSAND SANITARY IN. official inspection of the internal fittings of every house. SPECTIONS OF DWELLING HOUSES IN

Turning now to , Section 2: the private house-drains

solely under the control of the householder; there are two IRELAND.

classes, drains inside the house walls and drains outside The paper stated that out of more than one thousand the house walls. If it is possible to place drains outside dwelling-houses inspected in Ireland-from noblemen's the walls, we are all agreed that they should be kept there mansions to six-roomed cottages-only twenty could be even at all considerable trouble and expense. In view of certified free from danger to the healih of the residents. the extreme importance of sound work in drains and fitNo selection of these houses was made, they were ex- tings, does it not seem the most extreme folly to try to get amined in the order in which they were placed on the such work done at low rates ? The health of a household books. About filty of these were tolerably secure though depends on the durability as well as on the initial soundfaulty, while twenty only were found free from defect. This, ness of each joint and piece of drain. The sanitary incontinued the writer, is not a mere statement of opinion, but spection of a dwelling, when undertaken by a sanitary a record of carefully ascertained facts. Allotting ten persons engineer, should be considered by him as a sacred trust, to each house, we have here over 10,000 persons living to be carefully and faithfully carried out for the protection under conditions where their lives were continually in need- of the health and the lives of the future residents. less danger, and where it is known that many from these causes suffered serious illness, in some cases ending fatally.

THE CLOSING MEETING. In the brief time at our disposal we must endeavour to At the closing meeting of the Congress, Sir Robert deal practically and usefully with one point of paramount Rawlinson, the President, expressed the thanks which they importance in house inspection--the house-drain. The all owed to the able secretaries who had arranged matters opinion has long been held, and is growing steadily, that for the sections. They had also to thank the Lord Mayor we are making very serious mistakes in Dublin, decidedly of Dublin for the support and countenance he had coninjurious to ihe health of the citizens and increasing the sistently extended to them.

poor here.

Dr. Sykes, Mr. W. R. E. Coles, and Mr. Boulnois,

Dublin has some great advantages. It C.E., the secretaries of the three sections, then reported is blessed with fine open spaces -given, some of them, to the meeting what had been done in the sections. and dedicated to the public by the munificence of some of

The President announced that the Council had accepted your citizens--large open spaces close to the very centre an invitation to meet next year at Leicester. He then of the densest population. You have the Phenix Park moved a hearty vote of thanks to the Provost and Senior also, which is a splendid place for the recreation and health Fellows of Trinity College, to the Council of the Royal of the people. In these respects you are very fortunate ; Dublin Society, the Royal College of Surgeons, the King and in one most important respect you are probably more and Queen's College of Physicians, and to the local Sani- fortunate than London and many other large places. I lary Association. In no place that they had visited had allude to the admirable water-supply which you have. they received more cordial and hearty assistance than in Now, I believe that no greater blessing has been conferred Dublin.

on the people of Dublin than the establishment of the The motion was passed by acclamation.

Vartry works and the plentiful supply of that beautiful Dr. Carpenter proposed a vote of thanks to the Lord water to all parts of Dublin. These works are always Mayor, to which his lordship replied.

associated with the name of Sir John Gray. Mr. R. O'B. Furlong proposed a similar compliment to I believe that in Dublin the Corporation has done a the President, who briefly acknowledged it, paying at the great deal by providing baths, by removing the densely. same time a tribute to the merits, energy, and ability of crowded parts of the city, by encouraging the building of Mr. Farlong.

better houses for the poor, through the Artisans' DwellVotes of thanks were also passed to the Presidents and ings Act, and in many other ways they have contributed secretaries of sections, and to the Press.

in a very marked way to the improvement of the sanitary LECTURE BY DR. CARPENTER.

condition of the city of Dublin. In other parts of the DR. CARPENTER, Chairman of the Council of the Sanitary which is much poorer than the sister country you cannot

country much has also been done. Of course in a country Institute, delivered a lecture on · EDUCATION BY PROVERB IN SANITARY WORK,' which is published at p. 135.

expect that local bodies will take up large operations which

cost a great deal of money; but since 1874 and 1878 There was a large audience.

nearly 1,200,000l. has been borrowed and expended by

local bodies for the improvement of drainage and waterTHE BANQUET.

supply, and in the rural districts last year 50,000l. has

been expended in various sanitary improvements. I canOn October i the Dublin Committee of the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain entertained his Excellency the

not forget one important Act passed last year, the

Labourers Act. That Act has already been in operation, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and members of the Sanitary but

for long. It has only been in operation for about Congress and others at a banquet in the Shelbourne Hotel. Sir Robert Rawlinson, President of the Sanitary Institute, for by the Local Government Board, and already the

a year, but sixty-nine provisional orders have been applied presided. The Lord-Lieutenant, in responding to the toast of his building of over 3,000 houses has been sanctioned under

When we consider how very had the houses and health, said : I will venture to say that no more useful science has been found for the people of the United King. think we may look forward to a very great change in their

cottages of the poor in various parts of Ireland are, I dom than the hygienic or sanitary science which your moral character as well as in their sanitary condition if association represents so worthily to-night. No one,

this Act continues to operate beneficially throughout the I think, can have visited that very popular place in

country. London-I mean the Health Exhibition-without seeing

The Lord Mayor, in responding, said the Municipal how very wide indeed is the range which the net

Council of Dublin had very many difficulties to contend of your society sweeps within its meshes.

It is against. In reference to the purification of the Liffey, it almost impossible to find any subject omitted if you go

would be in the recollection of Sir Robert Rawlinson that round that interesting and valuable exhibition. You find food and drinks which are good for health, you find

the Corporation were most anxious to accomplish that

work, but they found that the tenders sent in ranged from models of houses, of their drainage, their fitting-up; and

500,000l, up to nearly a million, and as prudent men the if you go farther you may see the highest works of art, for

Council did not feel themselves warranted in incurring mental influences as well as physical influences have to do

so large an expenditure, particularly as there were other with health. You may see also not only such matters as

municipalities which would be equal participators in its those to which I reser, but you may see the extravagances benefits, but would bear no portion of its cost. He thought which the vanities of men and women have devised in dress. You may see the sad results of the endeavour to

the particular circumstances of Dublin would warrant the

Government in taking up this question and passing a Bill get a very slight waist. You may see the extravagant results of the efforts of men to wear extremely narrow

to amalgamate the townships with the city.' So anxious pointed boots. There is nothing in fact which a sanitary

was the Corporation for the carrying out of the purification

of the Liffey they had again taken up the question, and exhibition may not embrace within its doors. But I shall

had instructed their chief engineer and chief officer of not attempt to define your work. I know this, that it has a most useful and beneficial effect on all grades of society,

health to report upon the most satisfactory method for

accomplishing it. from the richest to the poorest. We all know that in every city there are great difficulties to contend with in

THE EXHIBITION. regard to sanitary arrangements. London has its Thames, For the first time in their annals the Sanitary Institute and I think no one will deny that Dublin has its Liffey. appear on Irish soil, and Dublin has very properly been Since I have known Dublin, when I first came to reside in selected for its first appearance in the sister kingdom. this country, nearly fourteen years ago, the question of the In no previous year has the Institute been so well accomLiffey has been a very great one. It is still a great one, and modated as regards the building in which to hold their I am afraid it is a very difficult one ; but if the Corporation display as on the present occasion, for in the premises and those who have the charge of the sanitary measures of of the Royal Dublin Society at Ball's Bridge the exthis city, are enabled -and I hope they may be some day ecutive have at their disposal a hall, the counterpart enabled to carry out this great but difficult work, and of which could scarcely be met with in any town in the that through the exertions which they are making for United Kingdom. The only slight drawback is the disimproving the dwellings of the poor, which are very great tance at which it is situate from the centre of the city. The in this city, you may hope that if the terrible scourge of exhibition, however, is of not so comprehensive a character cholera comes it may not find many victims among the as some of the prior ones have been. There are a certain

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